From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Charru mussel
Mains level : NA
An invasive mussel native to the South and Central American coasts is spreading quickly in the backwaters of Kerala.
Try this PYQ from CSP 2018:
Q. Why is a plant called Prosopis juliflora often mentioned in news?
(a) Its extract is widely used in cosmetics.
(b) It tends to reduce the biodiversity in the area in which it grows
(c) Its extract is used in the pesticides.
(d) None of the above
- The rapid spread of the Charru mussel (Mytella strigata) may have been triggered by Cyclone Ockhi which struck the region in 2017.
- With a population as high as 11,384 per sq metre here, it has replaced the Asian green mussel (Perna Viridis) and the edible oyster Magallana bilineata (known locally as muringa).
- Externally, the Charru mussel resembles the green and brown mussels (kallummekka in Malayalam) but is much smaller in size. Its colour varies from black to brown, purple or dark green.
- Surveys show the presence of the Charru mussel in the Kadinamkulam, Paravur, Edava-Nadayara, Ashtamudi, Kayamkulam, Vembanad, Chettuva and Ponnani estuaries/backwaters.
- Ashtamudi Lake, a Ramsar site in Kollam district, remains the worst-hit.
- Though this smaller mussel is edible, the overall economic loss and impact on biodiversity are much bigger, it is pointed out.
- It is throwing out other mussel and clam species and threatening the livelihoods of fishermen engaged in shrimp fisheries.