The legacy of British Policing still continues in India. However, with the change in time and modes of crime the time is eagerly demanding to infuse reforms in Police. Introduction should talk in general about the changes needed and British legacy.
Further the main body should discuss about why the structural changes/reforms are needed.
Also, the next point should separately mention about the External reforms, Institutional reforms, Internal reforms which are in need to bring. Also mention the way it should be done.
Next, bring conclusion citing government efforts towards bringing police reforms.
Police in India traces its history from the times of British rule as it was used by the British to quell the Indian freedom movement. Hence the legacy of pre independent India still follows the police forces across the states. But the times have changed and we are not facing the typical threats of old times. Modes of crimes have changed and society has evolvedwith education and economic growth. Hence, there is urgent need of the hour is to augment, reform, sensitize and strengthen policing at the local level.
Why structural reforms are needed:
- The police of today are victims of politicization as well as criminalization.
- The police do not have functional responsibility while remaining under the supervision of the political executive.
- Policing efficiencies have decreased in terms of their core functions as they lack external smartness of handling modern day crimes.
- Increasing terrorism from across the borders, which police forces have to deal in the first place to curtail it and enquire into it. Hence we require well trained police force.
- India is facing the threat of Naxalism since last couple of decades, where police force is required in maintaining peace and integrity in the country.
- Police forces are the caretaker of the society which means that police force needs to be well trained in ethics as well as in behavioral.
- Police administrative acts under the political pressure and external influences like these hampers its role as the guardian of the society.
- With increased cyber-crimes and social media penetration, police forces need specialised wing and units to tackle the menace.
- The legislative changes include, enactment of the organized Crimes Act, a single police act for the country, moving Police to the Concurrent List, declaration of Federal Crimes, measures regarding registration of crimes, statutory backing for the CBI.
- Commissionerate system for large areas, revival and strengthening of the beat constable system and some changes in criminal procedure and evidence systems.
- Modernization of equipment, improving mobility, better police station & prison infrastructure.
- New & improved skills with respect to forensics, cyber-crimes & social media monitoring, financial crimes etc.
- Legal backing and framework in tackling mob violence, improving technical & human intelligence, dealing with lone wolf terror attacks.
- Exchanges & cooperation with foreign countries’ & international agencies.
- Creating an efficient criminal database & tracking system.
- Boosting infrastructure and capacity of the police forces includes increase in the number of police personnel in the country, improvement in recruitment, training and service conditions including upgradation on one hand and improving the infrastructure, working hours, housing facilities on the other.
- Creating an effective state security commissions for efficient & just process for appointment, transfer & grievance redressal.
- Empowering the heads of police forces so as to reduce political interference in daily activities & to deny any illegal/unethical order.
- Including more women, more personnel from minorities & North East areas in police force.
- Better training to deal with insurgency, militancy, naxalism by themselves than depending on paramilitary/army.
- Improving methods of investigation to reduce need for torture.
- Implementing SC orders of police reforms mentioned in Prakash Singh case.
- In addition to the external and institutional changes, there is an urgent need for administrative reforms as well. On the administrative side, changes include separation of investigation from law and order, specialized wings for Social and Cyber Crimes, restricting the police to core functions, setting up authorities as directed by the Supreme Court, strengthening state machinery and linking prosecution with police.
- Sensitization with respect to gender, caste, children, removing inbuilt prejudices.
- Training on human rights & media communication.
- Improving the speed, simplicity & ease of services like lodging complaints & tracking, license registration etc.
- Improving coordination & cooperation between states & between departments to deal with issues like overlapping jurisdictions, interstate hot pursuit, joint operations.
- More empowerment, clarity of responsibilities & jurisdiction will lead to better accountability.
Recent govt initiative of Rs 25000 Crores for structural changes in policing shows that government is committed to reform police forces on the line of SMART police, as envisioned by the Prime Minister. The needs for a fast growing economy like India for safe environment particularly in light of the complex security threats in present times are imminent. A review of the police governance framework, the legal setup, the issues ailing the police force –all call for making police reforms one of the greatest priority for the country.