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[Ethics Case Studies] Accountability and ethical governance

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Paper 4 | Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude | Accountability and ethical governance


This initiative is a part of Target Mains programme for Mains 2017.

You can post your answers in the comment section. But mentor review of answers will not be available. Just like various other CD community initiatives, this will also be a peer-to-peer review exercise.

Model answers are available below in PDF format and can be used for personal evaluation.

Question 1:

Limitless economic growth counters sustainability. Striking a balance between unbounded economic growth and sustainability is very crucial in present times.

Can development and sustainability of environment go hand in hand?

Considering the scenarios of the future that include water scarcity, high levels of pollution, extreme weather phenomena and the regular occurrence of natural disasters such as floods and droughts, how can a developing country like India balance both economic development and sustainability? Give your suggestions

Questions, suggestions and comments


    Economic development coupled with political and social development is an important part of ensuring progress of people in terms of improving living standards, economic empowerment, access to resources etc. However,incessant economic growth without due regard to its consequences have lead to a paradox of extremes wherein the rich gets richer and poor gets poorer and more vulnerable(e.g US pulling out of Paris Climate Pact whilst Maldives is battling climate change)
    In this context, a developing country like India with its pool of demographic dividend having their own aspirations for development can follow the following suggestions:
    1. Greater impetus to renewable energy like solar, wind etc. which would reduce dependence on coal and help in mitigating the climate change effects(e.g. National Solar Mission, Wind Energy Policy, National e-Mobility Plan, increasing coal cess etc.)
    2. Implementing sustainable development practices in infrastructure wherein urban heat islands and concrete jungles are a new normal. Thus techniques of Environmental Impact Analysis, research in climate-friendly materials etc. should be used. Missions like Smart City,AMRUT,HRIDAY,Housing For All can be of great help here.
    3. Conserving and improving quality of resources like water, soil,minerals etc. Inspiration from countries like Israel, Meditarrean countries etc. can be taken. Programmes like Organic Farming, Soil Health Card, Irrigation Development Programme,rain water harvesting etc. are welcome steps in this direction.
    4. Proper segregation of waste and their treatment should be undertaken(e.g. Solid Waste Management Rules-2016, E-Waste Management rules etc.)
    5. Private sector should also participate in the same by their CSR initiatives.
    Thus, in my view, these are the model suggestions that India can follow to move towards sustainable and inclusive development(SABKA SAATH SABKA VIKAS).

  2. rashi aggarwal

    Economic growth is a necessity to generate resources which can effectively be used for healthy living of people and pulling people out of poverty. however, paradox is that indiscriminate economic growth has led to the exploitation of natural resources which has made the poor most vulnerable itself.

    Thus, making it necessary to strike a balance between economic growth and sustainability. It can be achieved by following steps-
    1. Adequate planning of cities with proper drainage facilities as was in Indus Valley Civilization which will prevent our rivers and water from getting dirty
    2. Waste segregation and management at source. Swachh Bharat Mission has generated a lot of awareness, though contribution of each individual in the country is needed to tackle the menace
    3. Good practices from israel can be learnt and applied for reducing leakage from pipes
    4. China recently built vertical forest towers which can be applied in India to generate oxygen.
    5. Solar panels should be designed at low cost so that it can be used for energy extraction effectively in every household. It will limit dependence on coal
    6. Organic agriculture should be focussed upon. Sikkim model can be applied.

    Therefore, western model of Economic growth has till date been on lines of exploitation of fossil fuel but given that the climate has changed and it is our responsibility to save the Earth, along with development, sustainable methods for growth should be used instead of depending on fossil fuels excessively and then shifting to renewable resources.
    As it is said, “There is no passengers on spaceship Earth, we are all Crew”, It makes it imperative for planners and consumers to opt for sustainable development.


      Good answer 🙂

      Some keywords that can be used here:
      inclusive development
      Renewable energy(in place of specific solar energy)
      Climate pact follow up can be mentioned(NAPCC,Evergreen revolution etc.)


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