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This blog is part of the series Constitution simplified
There are 4 main types of Majority. The last one being Special Majority that has 3 sub-types.
The most important Majorities will be Simple Majority and Special Majority of the 2nd kind. We will use current strength of the Lok Sabha = 545 in the examples to explain.
1/2 x 545 = 273 or more.
This majority is never used anywhere but has a huge significance. If a political party has an Absolute Majority, it means it gets to form the govt., there is stability in the house.
Lets assume the members present and voting is 300 (out of 545). We have –
1/2 X 300 = 150 or more
Lets assume Number of Vacancies are 6. We have
1/2 X (545-6) = 270 or more
1st kind : Not less than 2/3 of the Members present and voting.
Usage (only in 2 conditions)
2nd kind : Fulfills the following criteria
i) Not less than 2/3 of the Members present and voting.
ii) Majority of the Total Strength of the House.
Eg. Out of 545, 450 Members are present and 300 vote in favor. Both the above conditions are satisfied – 300 is more than 2/3 of 450 and 300 is more than 1/2 of 545.
To make it simpler to remember, it is Special Majority of First kind + Absolute Majority.
3rd kind : This is used only once – during the impeachment of the President of India. Is mentioned in Art. 61 of the Constitution.
2/3rd Majority of the Total Strength of the House.
2/3 X 545 = 364 or more
As a rule of thumb, you should never mention Special Majority in any answer as it could mean any of the 3 Special Majorities.