[Official] Geography Optional | IAS Mains | Daily Initiative 2

Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava
  • Seeing the awesome response in all the other optional threads, I think it would be a good idea to have a kind of daily initiative for geography optional people to supplement the self study/ classes/ test series.
    Please comment here if you want an official thread for geography.

    Click here for seeing the old thread.

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  • Profile photo of tuba alam tuba alam @tubaalam786

    m in

  • Profile photo of Sushmitha Ria Sushmitha Ria @sushmitha2510

    Hello ma’am… This is my 1st time preparation and my attempt will be on 2018. Looking forward for ur kind help toward my success

  • Profile photo of raghavendra rao Tummepalli raghavendra rao Tummepalli @raghutummepalli

    I have noticed that aspirants suggesting some reference books and also class notes of some coaching institutions or rankers.
    Which one should we refer to exactly.
    Iam totally confused regarding sources.
    What is the difference between mazid Hussein and dr khullar Indian geography.
    I have downloaded soft copy of mazid Hussein. Would that suffice?

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      You can refer to either of these books. I personally feel that Majid Hussain is a lighter read than Khullar because its more analytical. Khullar is full of stats and resembles the NCERT format. So it depends on your comfort. If you are comfortable with Majid Hussain then stick to it. Also, along with it, refer to Shabbir Sir’s or Neetu Singh Maam’s class notes for Indian Geography. As far as notes are concerned, Shabbir Sir’s notes are an easier read. Although for some specific topics like Models in Geography, Neetu Singh Maam’s notes are better because they are meant to be reproduced as it is.
      Instead of spending too much time on searching for the best/most exhaustive material, I would suggest that you make the choice quickly and get started. 🙂

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    1. Briefly explain the following terms in not more than 50 words each: (5 x 5 =25 marks)

    Aerial differentiation in geographical study
    Regional synthesis
    Dichotomy in geography
    Dualism in geography
    Environmentalism as a tool to understand the dynamic nature of man-environment relationship

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    Guys lets start Answer writing practice.
    Let us pick up questions from various platforms and practice answer writing and do some peer review.

  • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

    Please somebody please send links of geography notes , notes of Shabbir sir or Majid sir. If you have notes of any institute please share links .

  • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1
    • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

      Link not working

  • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

    Is it necessary to join Shabbir or Majid Hussain classes to cover full syllabus of geography optional

    • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

      It’s not necessary. Just follow the standard books,keep to the syllabus + get geo optional some notes from Rajinder Ngr and you should be fine.
      Use 1st month to tie down the syllabus, ID where you want to study which topic from and then just keep revising that again and again + keep a booklet for just diagrams and practice them.

      If any out of the world question comes in exam, coaching guys wont know that either.
      So joining a coaching or not isn’t necessary at all but if you feel it would help concentrate your efforts, go ahead.

    • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

      Please recommend which notes are good and from rajinder Nagar which notes I have to buy

    • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

      Thanks Pranav for the advice , I guess you are also preparing without any coaching .So if you please send all geography notes to ankitgta05@gmail.com. Actually I wasted last two days finding notes online and the result was confusion

  • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

    Please anyone give notes and please send it to ankitgta05@gmail.com

    • Profile photo of N AJIT KUMAR N AJIT KUMAR @ajit-kumar1

      xaam.com pe jao aap online sare notes available hai… ALOK RANJAN Sir ka thik thak notes hai baki geography me apko khud karna hoga… check kijiye mil jayega… kisi ek ko pakadiye jyada bhag daud me sal nikal jata hai aur NCERT ko base banaye yhi matra hai… tc

  • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

    Hello. I am new student and my optional is geography , how to proceed next , I have read all ncerts

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    Which is the standard book for Applied geomorphology ?

    • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

      I am not sure if there is one. you need to fetch things from multiple sources. Google “applied geomorphology geographynotes” and that should be a good starting point

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    My notes – Geomorphology

    1. Geomorphology.pdf
    • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

      Hello , if anybody is not preparing and their books are lying idle , then I am interested in buying those books . Do contact : 8860514931

    • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

      Please Vijay send your all notes, they are very helpful and please share the link

    • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

      I am still in the process of preparing notes.

    • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

      Please send any material you have , I guess you are preparing for almost 1 year now

  • Profile photo of aarya choudhary aarya choudhary @aarya-choudhary

    How to study ‘Perspectives in Human Geography’?

    Word limit-min 200 words

    A thorough explanation would be appreciated

  • Profile photo of Raushan Kumar Raushan Kumar @raushankumar1287

    Bio geography and environmental geography k liye source? Self prepraing
    Plz help
    Some one suggested about k Siddhartha

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      You can get K. Siddhartha for both the topics. Also, for Biogeography, Rupa Made Simple – Human Geography is good too, especially for topics like soil. For environment geography, you will also have to keep updating the notes by incorporating the topics of contemporary relevance.

    • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

      New student and whether to taking coaching for optional or not? Is Majid Hussain coaching is ok or not?

    • Profile photo of Ankit Gupta Ankit Gupta @ankit-gupta1

      I am new student , aware with ncerts, can you please share the strategy to proceed further and which books to buy and how to proceed further deep into geography optional

  • Profile photo of dummy mail dummy mail @dummy-mail

    @srishti srivastav mam, i have studied a lot in geopgraphy,,i mean not only in geography but also in other subjects…BUT lots of improvement still i needed to memorise it…can you please tell me the way to do it…have u already cleared CS?

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      Hi, this is a student run initiative. Everyone who has posted here including me is a UPSC aspirant and is still in the process of learning. So, dont call me ma’am. 🙂
      I have written this exam only once (in 2016). Based on my (limited) experience, I feel that more than memorisation, its about integration of various aspects and developing deeper insights about the subject. This is something which requires immense conceptual clarity and thinking. You can complete the syllabus in 3 months but it is these deeper insights, which need more time and thought. Here are some pointers regarding what you can do to enhance your preparation:
      1.Keep on revising as much as possible. Try to think more about every topic and integrate the various concepts. This should also aid memorisation to a certain extent.
      2.Do some answer writing practice if possible. If you can join some test series that is good. Prepare a structure for every topic. For instance, topics related on environment can be dealt with a framework that deals with man-environment relationship, impact on Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Cryosphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere. This would make it easier to compose answers in the examination. It will also ensure you dont miss out any important dimension in your answer.
      3.Try to prepare diagrams for every topic. By preparation, I mean looking up and marking out diagrams in notes, books, internet etc.
      4.Note down map locations appearing in the news for GS 2.
      If you have any doubts regarding any topic, do post it here.
      I hope that answers your question. All the best. 🙂

    • Profile photo of dummy mail dummy mail @dummy-mail

      wow,thats a huge answer and logical too. Thnaks for your tips and best of luck for your preparation. i have seen your name in the results declared here in some essay competition. can you please post your essay in which you was ranked in top 10. Again thank you for giving your valuable time…

  • Profile photo of Satish Yadav Satish Yadav @satish-yadav

    Few states are not harnessing the hydroelectricity fully inspite of having huge water resources. What are the difficulties to develop the hydro electricity? Explain with examples.

    Friends, basically this is my doubt which i converted into a question.

    You might have faced it while reading Khullar.

    • Profile photo of bala murali bala murali @balamurali1351993

      Few months back i read one article in hindu that Hydel plants with capacity of more than 25 MW capacity has to undergo EIA. For these reasons India have more number of 24 MW capacity hydel plants. Land aquisition and rehabilitation of people from the surrounding areas is the main concern and change in river regime and degrading marine life from ecological perspective and huge investment required

    • Profile photo of Satish Yadav Satish Yadav @satish-yadav

      Thanks Murali.

  • Profile photo of Ashish Mahajan Ashish Mahajan @ashish-mahajan

    I will post relevant questions on the Topics as per the schedule below. Please participate in full spirit.

    18-Mar: Geography in the Ancient World (Keywords: Chorography), Geography in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Keywords: Cosmography), Varenius, Immanuel Kant. Founders of Modern Geog Thought (Alexander Von Humboldt , Carl Ritter (Keywords: Teleology, Comparative method in Regional Geography )), Institutionalization of geography (Schools of Thought) ; Darwinism.

    19-Mar: Dichotomy between Determinism and Possibilism; Dualism and Dichotomies in Geography.

    20-Mar: Quantitative Revolution, Paradigms, System Analysis and Regional Concept

    21-Mar: Modern Themes in Geographical thoughts and their criticism.

    • Profile photo of Ashish Mahajan Ashish Mahajan @ashish-mahajan

      Question-1:Ancient Greek and Roman ideas had immense influence on the later development of geography. Discuss. (20 Marks).

      Question-2: Summarize the major contributions of medieval Arabs to geography. How was their approach different than their predecessors ? ( 20 Marks)

      Question-3: Discuss the role of Varenius in defining the scope of geography. (10 Marks)

      Question-4:Discuss the philosophical basis of Kant’s claim of ‘Exceptionalism’ for geography as a science. What are the major criticisms of Kant’s view of the nature of geography ?

      Question-5: Give a comparative assessment of the works of Humboldt and Ritter leading to the foundation of modern geographical thought.

      Question-6: The year ‘1859’ has a special significance in the history of Geographical thought. Discuss.

      Question-7: Critically examine contribution of Vidal-La Blache to Geography?

  • Profile photo of bala murali bala murali @balamurali1351993

    Thiessen polygon method of regionalization ?

  • Profile photo of Ashish Mahajan Ashish Mahajan @ashish-mahajan

    Friends there is a topicwise question thread running at forumias. We can do the same here.

    • Profile photo of Satish Yadav Satish Yadav @satish-yadav

      Are you just copying from there?

  • Profile photo of Ashish Mahajan Ashish Mahajan @ashish-mahajan

    Why not go for Topicwise ?

  • Profile photo of bala murali bala murali @balamurali1351993

    Can any one write answer for this question – Ashok Mitra’s rural urban process.

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      You can find it in the book Regional Planning in India Puri and Chand. They have explained in detail. It is a combination of Central Place Theory by Christaller, Growth Pole Theory by Perroux & Spatial Diffusion Theory in Indian context. It has 5 growth nodes:
      1. Central Village at local level
      2. Service Center at mirco regional level
      3. Growth Point at sub regional level
      4. Growth Center at regional level
      5. Growth Pole at national level
      All these nodes follow a certain hierarchy or rank and also share backward (raw material link) and forward linkages (market link) with each other. For instance, central village could be a point for sourcing agricultural raw materials, service centre could be a collection centre, Growth point could carry out primary processing and growth centre could house secondary processing units and finally the growth pole would be the actual industrial complex.
      This would be a very crude way of explaining. There are several more intricacies which can be best understood by reading the book or coaching notes.

    • Profile photo of bala murali bala murali @balamurali1351993

      Thank you and yes it is Mishra’s rural urban process

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      Also, its by RP Mishra and not Ashok Mitra, if I am not mistaken. Ashok Mitra talked about Functional classification of cities.

    • Profile photo of Darknight Darknight @vikas-tomar1

      Srishti, you have explained RP Mishra’s Growth Foci model.

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      It’s the same, I believe. Most online sources also say the same thing. Please feel free to add if we are missing out on something. 🙂

  • Profile photo of Poonam Yadhuvanshi Poonam Yadhuvanshi @poonamyadhuvanshi

    What is the difference between Taal and Duns structure in himalayas??

    • Profile photo of Praveen Rohankar Praveen Rohankar @praveen-rohankar

      DUNS –
      Formed due to the damming of the consequent streams. Due to rising of the Himalayas the rivers were dammed and led to deposition of the runoff material ultimately resulting into formation of landforms called duns. When the rivers were able to cut through the Himalayas, the temporary lakes were emptied and the resultant landform was duns. Mostly seen in western Himalayas in Shivalik. Examples – Jammu dun, Dehradun, Pathankot dun etc

  • Profile photo of Alex Emrick Alex Emrick @alex-emrick

    Hello, everyone.

    You would want to apply for your visa to U.S.A, CANADA, U.K, INDIA or to any other country about 2 months before travel, apply directly, contact Alex customer operation team on:onlinevisaapplication.usa@gmail.com and request for visa information Form that has all the step by step process on how to obtain a visa along with requirements for processing.

  • Profile photo of Root Root @root

    Students who are commenting with “add me” should already know that this is an open thread and you are eligible for participation by default.

    Please participate by putting in specific questions/ queries.

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  • Profile photo of Saranya Ravichandran Saranya Ravichandran @saranya-ravichandran

    Add me too

  • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

    Here you can share your queries. And can share your concept regarding geography ..

  • Profile photo of Ashish Yadav Ashish Yadav @ashishyadav52

    yes..add me too

  • Profile photo of vasu Jorwal vasu Jorwal @vasu8190

    Add me please

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    Pls add me also

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    plese add me in this process

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    Add me…

  • Profile photo of Anirudha Kumar Anirudha Kumar @anirudha-kumar

    Please add me,it would be great to share knowledge among the learned community here.

  • Profile photo of Digvijay Raut Digvijay Raut @digvijay-raut

    Please add me 🙂

  • Profile photo of AKHILESH KUMAR AKHILESH KUMAR @akhil7762

    Hey please add me

  • Profile photo of Devendra Dev Yadav Devendra Dev Yadav @devendrayadav

    Hello there, geography is my optional subject. Plz add me to the thread. I will be highly obliged. Thank you

  • Profile photo of Aldo kingston Aldo kingston @aldokingkingston78

    hey am going to opt geography as optional so can u suggest me how to study and which part to be covered first

    • Profile photo of Satish Yadav Satish Yadav @satish-yadav

      first cover NCERTs

  • Profile photo of Nini G Nini G @ninigng33

    Add me also please. …

  • Profile photo of Avinash Shetty Avinash Shetty @shettyavinash54

    add me into this initiative pls.

  • Profile photo of Pravin Kumar Pravin Kumar @pravin9786264577

    Mam,I’m Pravin Kumar now preparing for civil service exam. My optional subject is Geography. I’m trouble to preparing all ..confused…so please say how to make easy!!!

  • Profile photo of Satish Yadav Satish Yadav @satish-yadav

    Hello friends,
    Do you have soft material/notes for below topics-
    World resources and their dustribution
    Energy crisis
    Env issues in rural settlements
    Functional classification of town
    Satellite towns
    Env issues in regional planning
    Systems analysis in human geography
    Boundaries and frontiers
    Regional devlopment strategies
    Planning for sustainable development

  • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

    Inversion of relief..(geomorphology)
    Can explain process of inversion diagrammatically..

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns


      ->The gradual degradation of folded mountains during the first cycle of erosion results into inversion of relief. It is process in which the anticline ridges and Synclinal valleys are converted into anticlinal valleys and synclinal ridges respectively.

      ->Differential erosion removes the less resistant surrounding material, leaving behind the resistant material which was originally a valley. But after erosion, this resistant valley appear as Ridge over the eroded surrounding area.

      ->The axial lines of the fold are deeply eroded and Synclines form higher ground.The Apex of the anticline being a zone of weakness acclerates erosion. Also,If the rate of folding was slow and erosional rates are effective,Synclines became highest point.

      Eg: Table Mountain, California.

      During Miocene period, multiple lava flows filled fluvial valley with thick materials. On subsequent erosion, these valley materials stood resistant and surrounding areas were eroded. Presently, What was once a valley stands above the surrounding landscape.

      [Please refer the diagram for Inversion of Relief in Drainage Systems and Patterns in Savindra Singh]

    • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

      Thank you ..

  • Profile photo of MITESH Singh MITESH Singh @mitesh-singh

    Plz tell me the books required for geography optional

    • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

      This is based on what I used and is by no means comprehensive but should be enough to answer at the very least 90% of all that is asked

      Basic books:
      1. Physical Geography by Savindra Singh
      2. Majid Hussain’s – Human Geography; Evolution of Geographical thought; Models in Geography
      3. Geography of India by Khullar

      + GET PREVIOUS YEARS PAPERS – see the type of questions usually asked – past 30 year pack was available on Xaam.net but you could look elsewhere too.

      + you would need additional books for isolated topics (Rupa’s series, Mcknight Geography) + magazines(eg Yojana, Kurukshetra) + notes {try Neetu Singh’s for Economic and human geography for topics missing in books – link shared by @srishtisrivastava in the older thread} for few isolated topics like soil, Regional planning, transportation geography, geopolitical geography
      Atlas for maps practice
      + some wikipedia/google/Quora for topics like urban heat island effect, etc

      Most importantly have the syllabus handy, make sure you don’t miss out a large chunk of the syllabus and at the same time don’t study something out of syllabus.
      All the best

    • Profile photo of MITESH Singh MITESH Singh @mitesh-singh

      Thanku sir.

  • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

    Climate related topics like WCRP asked this year in CSM. We need to learn about Climate related issues,Institutions, Programs which can be useful for both Prelims and Mains. Please contribute.

    -layer of air pollution -giant brown stain over South Asia and Indian Ocean
    -term coined in reports from UNEP INDOEX ( Indian Ocean experiment) in 1999

    -airborne particles and combustion
    -Winter Monsoon – no rain to drive away pollutants

    -observed in 2004,2007 by NASA
    -They have influence on warming of Himalayas

    2.Regional weather
    -Change in rainfall pattern and delay of Asian Monsoon.Weakening Indian Monsoon ,China- Northern drought and Southern floods is influenced by the clouds
    -Increase in rainfall over Australia by displacing thermal equator southwards
    -Black Carbon in cloud and melting of Himalayan glaciers
    3. Cyclone intensity in Arabian sea in influenced by these clouds.
    – Clouds weakens wind shear patterns which normally prevents cyclone from becoming Storms
    -2007 and 2010 – storms first to enter into Gulf of Oman
    4.Global Warming – Brown clouds three times effective than CO2

  • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns


    Marion Newbigin was a Scottish geographer.She classified different floristic regions of the world.
    Floristic region is one of the biogeographic units in biogeographic regionalisation
    Floristic region is a geographic area with a some set of Plants. Floristic region have higher degree of generic endemism.

    The Floristic regions by Newbigin were
    1. Northern lands( Holarctic)
    2. Mediterranean
    3. Northern Paleotropical desert,
    4. Intertropical( tropics of America, Africa and eastern Asia)
    5. Austral( Southern parts of Southern continents)

    She didn’t include smaller Cape kingdom of South Africa which was later included by another person named Takhtajan in his Classification.

    Phytogeographically, the Mediterranean basin together with the nearby Atlantic coast, the Mediterranean woodlands and forests and Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe of North Africa, the Black Sea coast of northeastern Anatolia, the southern coast of Crimea between Sevastopol and Feodosiya and the Black Sea coast between Anapa and Tuapse in Russia forms the Mediterranean Floristic Region.

    – It belongs to the Tethyan Subkingdom of the Boreal Kingdom and is enclosed between the Circumboreal, Irano-Turanian, Saharo-Arabian and Macaronesian floristic regions.
    – It is further classified into 7 to 9 Floristic Provinces like Southwestern Mediterranean (or Southern Moroccan and Southwestern Mediterranean), Ibero-Balearian (or Iberian and Balearian), Liguro- Tyrrhenian, Adriatic, East Mediterranean, South Mediterranean and Crimeo-Novorossiysk.
    -It has 22500 endemic vascular plants.
    -Characteristic tree crop- Olive and predominantly – Oak and Pine.
    – Figs , Citrus fruits grown here. Grapes is a vine crop.

    – Conservation International lists this region as a biodiversity hotspot.

    • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

      Thank you bro..
      It’s desirable topic for me…

  • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

    Mt CHIMBORAZO- HIGHEST point on Earth to OUTER SPACE despite having lesser height than Mt EVEREST :-

    – Mt Chimborazo part of Andean Range, South America in Ecuador.
    -It is the highest point on Earth to Outer Space because

    # Earth is not a perfect Sphere, rather, Earth is a geoid and it is flatter at the poles and bulgier at the Equator.
    #The Combined effects of Gravity and rotational centrifugal force made Earth bulgier near Equator.

    -Chimborazo lies 1º 28′ S, while Everest is further from the equator at 29º 59′ N.
    # Mt Everest is higher than Mt Chimborazo when compared at Sea Level
    # However, when the elevation measurement is taken from the center of Earth, the summit of Mount Chimborazo is 3.966,8 miles away from Earths center point, while that of Mount Everest lies 3.965,5 miles away. Radius at the Equator is 13 miles greater than at the Poles.
    For the same elevation,Any mountain located near the equator will always be higher than one located north or south of the 0 degree latitude mark.

    These factors make Mt Chimborazo closest point on earth to Outer Space.

  • Profile photo of N AJIT KUMAR N AJIT KUMAR @ajit-kumar1

    Please share zoology optional paper mains2016

  • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns


    1. the same physical processes and laws that operate today operated throughout geologic time, although not necessarily always with the
    same intensity as now.
    2. Geologic structure is a dominant control factor in the evolution of land forms and is reflected in them- ( CSM 2016 )
    3. To a large degree the earth’s surface prossesses relief because the geomorphic processes operate at differential rates.
    4. Geomorphic processes leave their distinctive imprint upon land forms and each
    geomorphic process develops its own characteristic assemblage of land forms
    5. As the differential erosional agents act upon the earth’s surface there is produced
    an orderly sequence of land forms
    6. Complexity of geomorphic evolution is more common than simplicity
    7. Little of the earth’s topography is older than Tertiary and most of it is no older than Pleistocene
    8. Proper interpretation of present-day landscapes is impossible without a full
    appreciation of the manifold influences of the geologic and climatic changes during
    the Pleistocene
    9. An appreciation of world climates is necessary to a proper understanding of the
    varying importance of the different geomorphic processes
    10. Geomorphology, although concerned primarily with present day landscapes attains
    its maximum usefulness by historic extension

  • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns


    – established in 1980 under joint sponsorship of International Council for Science and World Meteorological Organization( WMO) . Later, also by Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO since 1993.
    – component of World Climate Programme

    – determine the predictability of Climate
    -determine the effect of human activities on climate

    Main areas of WCRP research are:
    – Observing changes in components of Earth system ( Atmospher, oceans,land and cryosphere) and interfaces between these components
    -Understanding Climate change and causes
    -Developing numerical models and Simulations for assessing Climate Change
    – Investigating sensitivity of climate system to natural and human-induced forcing and estimating the changes.

    # WCRP utilizes a multidisciplinary approach , organizing large-scale observational and modelling projects
    # providing an international forum for Scientists to provide best possible climate information.

    1. Climate and Cryosphere(CliC)-
    promotes research in cryosphere and its interactions of global Climate system.
    2. Climate and Ocean Variability, Predictability and Change( CLIVAR) –
    understand the dynamics and interaction and predictability of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system.
    3. Global energy and Water exchanges( GEWEX) – is and integrated program of research, observations and Science activities that focuses on atmospheric, terrestrial, radiative, hydrological,coupled processes and their involvement in Climate Change
    4. Stratosphere-troposhpere Processes and their role in Climate( SPARC) –
    coordinates international efforts to bear on relevant issues in Climate variability and Prediction.
    # Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment( CORDEX)- is to advance and coordinate the science and application of regional climate downscaling through regional partnerships

    With these projects and Models, WCRP also organizing and endorsing initiatives like Young Earth System Scientists(YESS), TOPC(Terrestrial Observational Panel for Climate), Polar Challenge etc and continuously studying the Climate Change.

  • Profile photo of Baidhya Nath Nayak Baidhya Nath Nayak @baidhya-nath-nayak

    Please start it

  • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

    MAP LOCATIONS-28/12/2016
    -Artificial lake in Chandigarh created by Le Corbusier and PL Verma
    -source of water for Chandigarh
    -Mango festival during Monsoon

    2. KOVVADA
    -India’s biggest Nuclear Plant-6600 MW in AP
    -US based Westing house supplying reactors

    -town in Madurai district , Tamil Nadu
    -Famous for Jallikattu Festival during Pongal Festival

    -Waterfalls in Simplipal NP,Odisha
    -Deforestation issue

    -city in Vidharbha region, Maharashtra
    -Purna , Vaan rivers
    -Nahanur fort , Narnala wildlife sanctuary
    -Oil hydrogenation Plant

    -waterfall on river Cauvery in Karnataka
    -Kodantarama temple

    -hill station in Chamba district, Himachal Pradesh
    -part of kalatop Khajjiar sanctuary
    -called as Mini Switzerland

    -Hill near Vijayawada,AP- Kanaka Durga temple
    -on the banks of Krishna river

    – Goddess Kamakhya temple in Guwahati on nilachal hills
    -Nilachal Architecture -with bulbous polygonal dome over cruciform ratha
    – India’s second and North east’s first HUMSAFAR express started from Kamakhya to Bengaluru

    -town in Tamil Nadu and other name: KaveriPattanam
    -Ancient port and Capital of Early Cholas in Ancient Tamilakam
    -Silapathikaram and Manimegalai- ancient Tamil epics mentions Poompuhar
    -believed to be destroyed by Tsunami around 300 BC

  • Profile photo of Satish Yadav Satish Yadav @satish-yadav

    can anyone share the link for Alok Ranjan english medium notes???

    • Profile photo of N AJIT KUMAR N AJIT KUMAR @ajit-kumar1

      xaam.com pe dekh lo… shayad waha mil jaye

  • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

    MAP LOCATIONS-26/12/16
    – Business capital of AP on river krishna
    -Kondapalli toys (kondapalli-suburb of Vijayawada)
    -Prakasham barrage , Gandhi hill-first Gandhi memorial in India
    -Hazrat Bal Mosque- Holy relic of Prophet Muhammad
    – Recent News: Mahabrindha Natyam – show of Kuchipidi by 6117 performers – Guiness record performed at Vijayawada

    -Town and District in Kerala- Sabarimala nearby
    -on river Achenkovil
    -Maramon convention-one of Asia’s largest Christian convention
    – Recent News :Sabarimalai Stampede

    3. SURAJ TAL
    -2nd highest lake in India – lies below Bara Lacha la pass
    -in Lahaul and Spiti Valley-
    -means “Lake of Sun God”
    -source of river Bhaga which later join with Chandra to form Chandrabhaga

    4. LAITKOR
    -Peak in Meghalaya
    -Laitkor Air force station

    -village part of notified urban area of Capital Amravati
    -News: 200 acre Botanical Garden

    -city in Maharashtra, part of Mumbai Metropolitan
    -Old Shiva temple -built in 1060 AD
    -Ordnance Factory

    -in Sivaganga district, Tamil Nadu
    -CSIR- Central Electro Chemical Research Institute( CECRI) is located here.
    – First Temple for Mother Tamil
    -Chettinad Cuisine- famous
    -Chettinad Kottan -traditional Palm leaf baskets- GI tag

    -on river Krishna at Vijayawada
    -Kanaka Durga devi temple
    – Shilparamam, arts and craft village project – to develop Island into tourist spot.

    -tributary of Krishna , Joins with Krishna at Sangli, Maharashtra
    – Kadvi hydroelectric project on river Kadvi which is tributary of Varna

    – Mountain range in Manipur
    -Keibul Lamjao located within
    -Chapki river originate.

    • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

      Expanding Map locations to locations in news(domestic + International) which are important from Prelims PoV

      1. Lake Biwa – Largest freshwater lake in Japan
      2. Senkaku (JP)/ Diaoyu (CHN) Islands – Malabar exercise in this disputed area in Western Pacific
      3. Dunhuang, Gansu, Kashgar, Xinjiang in NW China
      4. Sita Eliya in Nuwara Eliya, SL
      5. Guam – USAF base in West Pacific in Micronesia, midway between line joining Japan and Australia
      6. Rabat – Moroccan capital
      7. Hatiya Island – an island in the northern Bay of Bengal
      8. Aleppo
      9. Mosul
      10. Dardanelles strait

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      MAP LOCATIONS -16/01/2017
      – 5 World locations/ 5 Indian locations

      1. RIO GRANDE
      -River in north America -rise from Colorado and drains into Gulf of Mexico
      -part of US-Mexico border
      News : Donald Trump’s border wall. But,Much of land privately owned and treaties in both countries restrict building along parts of Rio Grande

      2. Pristina,KOSOVO
      – Capital of Kosovo- land locked
      -Recently, Majlinja Kelmendi- first Kosovo woman to win Gold in Rio2016.
      -Sar Mountains NP- Only National park in Kosovo
      -India not yet recognize Kosovo-bcoz of unilateral Independence

      -world’s largest salt flats in Bolivia near Andes.
      -transformed from Prehistoric lakes and rich in Lithium-50 to 70% world reserve
      – Rajnikanth’s 2.0 movie crew -had plans to shoot here

      -separates South American mainland and Tierra del fuego
      -natural passage b/w Pacific and Atlantic
      -closer to Falkland Islands
      News: UK and Argentina agree to identify Falkland war unknown victims

      5. KIGALI
      – Capital of Rwanda in Africa- Lake Kivu- part of riftvalley
      -Recently,Kigali agreement to phaseout HFCs by 2040s
      -Hutu- Tutsi – Rwandan Civil war

      -sacred river flows through Gaya, Bihar
      -confluence of streams – Lilajan and Mohana

      -Proposed Major port- Enayam, Colachel
      – Kanyakumari district

      -village near Tso Moriri
      -Indian Astronomical Observatory – telescope
      – World’s second highest optical telescope
      -HiGRO( Himalayan Gamma ray observatory)-being setup

      -between Little Nicobar and Great Nicobar Island

      10.Thane Creek
      -inlet separates Mumbai from Mainland
      -Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary.
      -Thane creek have Mangrove cover
      News: Maharashtra ties up with Isro to protect Mangroves

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      Good Initiative.Thank you

      1.Lake Biwa
      -largest fresh water lake in Japan- tectonic origin
      -UNESCO RAMSAR wetland

      2. Senkaku/ Diaoyu Islands
      -East China sea disputed between Japan and China
      -Island included in Japan-US Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security
      -included in PRC’s East China Air defence Identification Zone(ADIZ)

      3.Dunhuang,Gansu – Kashgar,Xinxiang
      -Silk road route
      -Dunhuang – oasis town , Mogao caves-start of silk route
      -Kashgar- converging of northern and Southern silk route

      4.Sita Eliya
      -near Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka
      -Legend- in this place Sita is held captive by Ravana
      -part of Ramayana Circuit- Indian aid

      -unincorporated and organised territory of US in Western Pacific
      -created of collision between Pacific and Phillipine-closest landmass to Mariana Trench
      -Chamorros- indigenous people- Micronesia
      -part of Pearl harbour episode
      -US Naval base,Andersen Air force base

      -capital of Morocco
      -Morocco ban production,sale of burqas- News

      -island on mouth of river Meghna, Bay of Bengal
      -Bangladesh govt decide to relocate sone rohingyas to Hatiya Island

      -largest city in Syria
      -Battle of Aleppo- Syrian Civil war
      -on right bank of Queig river

      -in Iraq, stronghold of ISIS
      -Battle of Mosul
      -city on west bank of Tigris river

      10.Dardanelles Strait
      -connects Sea of Marmara and Mediterranean sea
      -part of Turkish Straits along with Bospurus strait

  • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns


    -city and district in Karnataka on river Tunga
    -Shivappa nayaka palace
    -Gajanur dam, Mandagadde bird sanctuary nearby

    -peak in Eastern Ghats
    -highest peak in Andhra Pradesh
    -Godavari river basin

    -another name: Gulbarga, city in Karnataka
    -famous for Pigeon pea and limestone deposits
    – Sufi saints dargahs like Khwaja Banda Nawaz dargah, Gulbarga fort, Buddha vihar
    -Sharana basaveshwara temple

    -tributary of Mahanadhi river, originate near Pandrapet in Chattisgarh
    – Ib river valley famous for Ib valley coalfield with 22.3 bn tonnes(third highest)

    -village near Panaji.
    -Goa International Airport located in Dabolim
    -INS Hansa- Indian naval air station -nearby

    -lake in Eastern Sikkim district
    -source of river Rangpo chu, tributary of Teesta
    -lies on the way to Jelep la pass

    -district in Telangana and Godavari river flows
    -Ramagundam biggest city in district
    -Ramagundam NTPC- Super Thermal power station

    -pass north of Nanda devi connecting Uttarakhand and Manasarovar lake in Tibet.
    -Pilgrimage to Manasarovar and Kailash via this pass

    -city in Uttar pradesh- City of Bangles
    -famous for Glass industry
    -Totaram Sanadhya -person who fought for rights of Fiji Indians born here.

    -Waterfalls in Serchhip district in Mizoram
    -13th highest of India
    -Vanva river
    -Chhingpui Thlang rock memorial – site

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      Wow. Great job. I didn’t know 4/10 locations.
      Do these locations have a contemporary significance? or are these from your memory?

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      Thank you..No,Just some Random places and Physical features.

  • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

    MAP LOCATIONS- 20/12/2016

    – Chamba distrcit, Himachal Pradesh
    -Famous for Apple orchards, Vegetables.
    -Bhandal valley
    -Gamgul Siahbehi wildlife Sanctuary-nearby
    -Bhalei Mata Temple

    2. BIDAR
    -city and district in Karnataka
    -Capital of Bahmani kingdom
    -Bidar port ,Bahmani tombs, IAF Station
    -Bidriware art form with GI status.

    -City in Andhrapradesh
    -Adi Kavi of Telugu- Nannayya from here and so birthplace of Telugu language.
    -Dutch fort
    -Godavari river flow and Dowleswaram dam

    -in Manipur inhabited by Kukis, Nepalis, Nagas
    -one of the 6 autonomous district councils in Manipur
    -United Naga council oppose district status

    5. CHORAO
    -Island on rover Mandovi near Panaji,Goa
    -Dr Salim Ali bird Sanctuary

    -Waterfall in Meghalaya on river Kynshi
    -3rd highest in India
    -West Khasi hills district

    -hydro project on river GodavariMaharshtra
    -irrigation purpose in Marathwada region
    -Nath Sagar Jalashay reservoir
    -Jayakwadi bird santuary

    -city in Gandhinagar district, Gujarat
    -ONGC oil field
    -Thol bird sanctuary nearby
    – Adalaj Stepwell by Queen Rudabai-nearby

    -part of Kochi, Kerala
    -accessible only by Boat from Vypeen Island

    -National park in Nagaland
    -Tiger, Hoolock Gibbon,slothbear- species

  • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

    Map location thread

    Guys, please keep contributing. It will add to your own preparation in addition to helping out several confused aspirants. I can totally vouch for this. Just because I had to post map locations every alternate day, I ended up putting in extra efforts in map locations and mapping in general, which helped me immensely in Paper 2, not only in the map questions but also in drawing maps for the other questions.
    So do try to inculcate a habit of noting down locations in the newspaper that you may not have heard of before and reading up on them. That way it never gets boring and you also tend to recall better.

    I am making a new thread for the sake of visibility. Please keep posting on this thread only for map locations.

    Today’s Map locations

    1. Pushkar
    2. Garhjat
    3. Chikamagalur
    4. Almora
    5. Saramati Peak
    6. Dwarka bet
    7. Chitrakoot waterfall
    8. Malwa region of Punjab
    9. Midnapur
    10. Shencottah Gap

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      MAP LOCATIONS -08/01/2017

      1. SPIKE Island
      -Island in Andaman and Nicobar Islands
      -between Middle Andaman and South Andaman
      -Spike Island wildlife sanctuary

      2. NH 52
      – connecting Guwahati and Pasighat( Arunachal Pradesh)

      – town and minor port in Tamil nadu
      -Chudamani vihara- built by Javanese King Sri Vijaya under patronage from Cholas
      -well affected during 2004 Tsunami

      – south tributary of Brahmaputra
      -Meghalaya and Assam
      issue: Open cause mining and acidification of river

      – Madhya Pradesh near Kaimur hills
      -Rivers Gopad and Son

      6. ANGUL
      – town and district in Odisha
      -National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO), Mahanadi Coal Fields Limited (MCL),
      – National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and Talcher Thermal Power Station (TTPS)

      7. USRI
      -waterfall in Giridh district, Jharkhand
      -Usri river, Tributary of Barakar river
      -near Maithon reservoir

      -in Kathiawar Peninsula, Gujarat
      -Rajkot district
      -Bhadar river -originate here

      9. SANDAKPHU
      – Peak in Singalila range, Darjeeling district
      -West Bengal, Nepal Border
      -Singalila National park
      -Everest, Makalu,Lhotse, Kanchenjunga can be seen from Summit

      -tributary of Godavari
      -Telangana and AP
      -Kinnarasani Wildlife sanctuary

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      MAP LOCATIONS-02/01/2017

      1. KEEZHADI
      -village in Sivaganga district, Tamil Nadu near Madurai
      -ASI excavation – ancient settlement dated 4th century BC-5300 artefacts
      -Sangam period – River Vaigai Civilization
      – TN wants to build Museum and against moving artefacts.

      -waterfall in Nawada district, Bihar
      -visited by Pandavas
      -natural water reservoir below falls

      -group of Islands near Paiyannur, Kannur district Kerala
      -biggest wetland eco system in north Kerala
      -Valiyaparamba Island- biggest

      -Private Planned city near Pune, Mahrashtra
      -based on Italian town Portofino
      -By Hindustan construction company

      -town in Jammu and Kashmir – river Jhelum
      -famous for Saffron, Saffron town of Kashmir
      -2016 Pampore Terrorist attack by LeT

      -Island part of Lakshadweep

      7.NH 47
      -New name: NH 966B
      -8 km connecting Kundanoor and Willingdon Island ,Kochi
      -second shortest NH in India

      -Seperates outer himalayas(shiwaliks) and Lesser Himalayas
      -Thrust fault still active – present movement 0.92 cm/year

      9.NAG PAHAR
      -means Snake mountain in Pushkar, Ajmer district, Rajasthan
      -has Nag kund where Vatu, Lord Brahma’s son lived.

      -India based Neutrino Observatory
      – near Bodi West Hills, Theni district, Tamil Nadu

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      Today’s Map locations – 29th December
      1. Dhanushkodhi
      2. Kalighat
      3. Auroville
      4. Malampuzha Dam
      5. Sonai Rupai
      6. Naharkatiya
      7. Ratnagiri
      8. Masulipatnam
      9. Chamba Valley
      10. Bathinda

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      -destroyed Town at southern tip of Pamban Island due to Rameshwaram Cyclone in 1964
      -remains uninhabited

      -locality in South Kolkata
      -Kalighat Kali temple -one of 51 shakti peedas
      -temple now on canal Adi Ganga connected to Hooghly river

      3. AUROVILLE
      -experimenal universal city in making in Tamil nadu and part in Puduchery for Humanity
      – for people from different countries
      -UNESCO passed resolution – as project of importance

      -largest reservoir in Kerala near Palakad
      -Malampuzha river, tributary of Bharatappuzha

      -wildlife sanctuary in Assam
      -Indian bison and Elephant- main attractions
      -Recent: Patanjali food park site -30kms from sanctuary where female elephant fell into pit and died.
      -Highest encroachment- 80 out of 220 sq km under encroachment- issue

      -town in dibrugarh district, Assam
      -oil reserves
      Burhi Dihing, tributary of brahmaputra flows
      -Bihu festival

      -port city in Maharashtra
      -Sahaydri mountains -east
      -Fisheries and Marine Biological Research Station( MBRS)

      -city , Krishna district, AP on mouth of Krishna river
      -first dutch factory in coromandel coast
      -Machilipatnam Kalamkari- handcrafted dyed block painting of fabric- GI tag

      -valley in HP – Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges
      -on south bank of river Ravi
      -Lakshmi Narayaan Temple , Chamera lake, Lama dal lake

      -city and district in Punjab-city of lakes
      -first empress of India- Razia Sultana imprisoned in Qila Mubarak fort here
      -cotton belt
      -Cancer and fluorosis issues

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      6. BET DWARKA
      – Island at mouth of Gulf of Kutch
      -South end of bet is Dunny Point
      -Shri Keshavraiji temple,Abhyay Mata temple -south side of Island
      – harappan seals found

      -Widest Waterfall in India in Chattisgarh on Indravati river
      – part of Kanger valley National Park

      -Region in Punjab between Satluj river and Yamuna
      -Malwa Cotton belts
      – Cancer belt of Punjab

      9. MIDNAPUR
      -in Pachim medinipur district in West Bengal
      -on Kangsabati river
      -Revolutionary activities during Freedom struggle
      -Chapaleshwar temple , Gopegarh heritage park

      -second largest gap in Western Ghats
      -in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      -town in Ajmer district, Rajasthan
      -Famous for Brahma temple
      -Pushkar Camel fair
      -holy Pushkar lake

      -mountain range across Jharkhand,Chhattisgarh,Odisha
      -Rivers Mahanadhi, Baitrani, Brahmani, Subarnarekha drain
      -highest point: Malayagiri

      -town in foothills of Mullayanagiri range,Karnataka- Trekking
      – Bhadra Wildlife sanctuary, Kudremukh national park- nearby
      -Hebbe falls,Kalhatti falls
      -famous for Coffee estates

      -Cantonment town in Uttarakhand
      -Kumaon hills of Himalaya range
      -Kasar devi temple, Dunagiri(birthplace of kriya yoga)
      -GB Pant National institute of Himalayan environment and sustainable development.

      -Peak in border of nagaland and Myanmar
      -in Kiphire district
      -Trekking activity

  • Profile photo of Vinod Mudavath Vinod Mudavath @vinodmudavath

    these are major and minor plate.it is imp for our prelims and optional

  • Profile photo of Vinod Mudavath Vinod Mudavath @vinodmudavath


  • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

    Guys pls share your thoughts regarding papers

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    @pranavce15 What is your opinion about GS 1, 2, 3 & 4 ?

    • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

      @spvijayakumar48, I don’t know think that I performed well enough or am experienced enough to analyse the papers. I think there’s a really great analysis by Mrunal on his site so do refer to that.

      All of the papers weretrue to the name <GENERAL STUDIES>, hardly anything apart from Krishna Deva Raya <because Vijaynagar empire was in news>, African leaders and CAG’s powers, McBride would entail mugging up specific stuff. So a good touch with current affairs here @CD would have been sufficient to give you fodder for about 18 odd questions in each of them. <I came to know later that even CAG thing was there in news>
      GS4 needs a bit of a preparation <Gandhi’s sins, John Rawls> which is normally ignored for case studies and the “Raja Harishchandra” type answers

      Ultimately its not so much a test of how much you KNOW but how well you can PRESENT in the limited time.

      But here are a few points of learning <derived from where I failed>
      1. DEFINITELY JOIN A MAINS GS TEST SERIES <I don’t think that Geography test series is absolutely needed>. The writing practice here or anywhere will help open your mind and help in notes making but it doesn’t give you a taste of what a real exam is like which is unnerving and one tends to panic which can make or break an exam.
      2. Make Short Notes on everything you’d want to revise a day before (or the morning of) the exam (the volatile stuff), like say important facts from Economic Survey.
      3. If you don’t remember something while writing an answer, move on! don’t waste time over it <again importance of test series>
      4. If you somehow are not able to join a test series, make sure you do timed test of THREE FULL HOURS, at least 4-5 of them <my hand is still sore> with a standard UPSC size QCA sheets <just to give you a sense of the amount of words that you’ve written>.
      The sheets I had were narrower and smaller so I ended up writing more in GS 1 and GS 2 papers and thus not able to finish them. Jab tak akal ayi tab tak 2 exams nikal gye the!!

    • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

      Thanks a lot

    • Profile photo of Kavi Gautam Kavi Gautam @kavigautam

      Thnks to share. Quite important to know all these factors for us. But i dont get ur point which u mentioned at the last about narrow sheets..
      And Gud luck…🖒

    • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

      I got a sample sheet from an online source so that I could practice answer writing on a sheet which would have the exact same dimensions as those of a UPSC QCA booklet and got it printed on simple A4 sheets. Either the person printing or the template itself was bad which made the answer writing space smaller. My estimate of words per line and per page rested on that. In the exam, the sheet was much wider and lengthier and my reflex made me write more because experience told me to write 2.5 pages while simply 1.5 – 1.75 pages <with writing size> would have been sufficient. Result: Not able to attempt all questions I knew in the 1st two GS papers.

      Thank you.

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48
  • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

    Pls upload ppr..

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    Hello guys , for those who wrote mains i hope it went well.

    Could you please explain your observations about optional paper ?
    Trend of the paper ?
    Ratio of static to dynamic questions ?
    Approach to be adopted ?
    And basic resources to be followed ? pls reiterate even if its the same.

    • Profile photo of Bruce Wayne Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Paper 1 was doable.(I ,being still amateur with optionals although have not performed well,but a thorough reading of standard books with NCERTs as the main fundamental block would help you sail through)Except the floristic region pattern.
      However,for me Paper 2 for me was the weak link.Was expecting a Paper on lines of 2015,which was dominated by contemporary issues,but this time static portion won the race.(Moral-No anticipation,arm yourself completely before jumping on the battlefield)

      Overall,no formal guidance is required,your academic background doesn’t matter.(Common queries by the beginners)All you got to do is get NCERTs,Standard books done..and participate in the thread created by Srishti,to be more exam oriented.

    • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

      paper 1 was good – mostly application based. It wasn’t too hard but wasn’t too easy either but ample scope to score.
      Paper 2 was very generic just like a mix of GS1 and GS3 so you have to make the extra effort to put in terminology (eg, growth pole etc) and figures.
      Both papers concentrated on economic geography and environmental geography.
      Will upload the papers soon.
      The map was easy, anyone who worked here on the maps would do good. We covered all except 1.
      and do read economic and human geography from Neetu Singh’s notes shared by Srishti.. It had some important topics which i guess are not found in standard books and were asked. will upload the papers soon.

    • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

      thanks for the review

    • Profile photo of Nagesh Mallappa Nagesh Mallappa @mallappanagesh

      Yes, Those who wrote mains please provide your valuable feedback, what strategy worked and what did’t work, etc.

  • Profile photo of Digvijay Raut Digvijay Raut @digvijay-raut

    HI Guys , Could you please do a writeup on Geography optional Strategy and references .

  • Profile photo of hsb07 hsb07 @hiteshbasera-2

    What are the factors that influence erosion?
    Name different land-forms built by river, glaciers and winds?

  • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

    Is Decay distance model relevance for India?

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      More relevant in rural India – as mobility is relatively limited due to lack of development of transport infrastructure, cultural and social factors like attachment to land, son of soil doctrine. In rural-rural migration, Intra-district migrations and intra-state migrations dominate in comparison to inter-state migrations. However, in some cases migration is seasonal as in case of sugar industry and therefore the distance decay concept doesnt hold true in this case.
      Also, holds true for tribal population engaged in sedentary activities like agriculture, services. Not true for transhumant population of the hilly areas.
      In cities, metros especially, it does not hold true especially after globalisation and advent of aviation industry, MRTS – development of interlinkages with nearby towns and cities more than the intermediate rural areas Eg: Greater interlinkage between Mumbai and Pune in comparison to the rural areas between Mumbai and Pune.

  • Profile photo of Manojkumar Tummala Manojkumar Tummala @manojkumartummala

    Why during El-Nino years cyclones over the Bay of Bengal are more prevalent compared to Arabian sea and during El-Nino Modoki the opposite ?

    • Profile photo of Bruce Wayne Bruce Wayne @bruce-wayne

      Assuming that you are clear with your basics.
      It is,during the El Nino years,the descending limb of the walker cell shift to the Arabian Sea,which imparts stablity in the region,countering cyclone.

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    8. Local winds.

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    7. Types of clouds

  • Profile photo of g@ur@v g@ur@v @gaurav47000

    explain the difference b/w tropical and temperate cyclone, how they form pls explain step by step

    • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

      Discussion on Tropical cyclones
      cyclone – low pressure area, Pressure increases as we move outwards around the eye.
      Winds movement high pressure to low pressure.
      In Cyclone we have tropical as well as Temperate Cyclones.
      tropical cyclone develops between tropics of cancer and capricorn.
      6 main requirements
      sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures
      atmospheric instability,
      high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere
      enough Coriolis force to develop a low-pressure center
      a preexisting low-level focus or disturbance
      low vertical wind shear.
      Tropical regions favour these conditions
      how is tropical cyclone diff from that of temperate?
      1. tropical – only sea
      temperate – land and sea
      2. Temperate cyclcone also called frontol cyclones is prevalent in temperate regions and a frontal surface separates warm and cold air.
      3. Precipitation in tropical cyclone is of convection type, in temperate its because of frontal activity.
      Temperate cyclones are far more devastating than Tropical Cyclones coz active both on land and sea.
      what is the relation between tropical cyclone and Coriolis force ?
      1. Coriolis force which is caused due to rotaion of the earth, helps the tropical cyclones to rotate faster.
      2. cyclone is not observed very near to equator – abscence of coriolis force.
      3. Hence tropical cyclones are commonly observed within 10-30 degree latitudes.
      why ITCZ is important for Tropical cyclones ?
      1. ITCZ which is the point of convergence of the northeast and southeast trade winds.
      2. ITCZ forms near the warmest surface waters.
      3. ITCZ is a low pressure zone too, which inherently helps formation of cyclones.
      Why there are fewer cyclones over the Arabian Sea as compared to the Bay of Bengal?
      Bay of Bengal has a lot of fresh water due to the major rivers in the region.
      less saline, less dense , more capacity to hold moisture – more evaporation.
      Since freshwater is lighter than the salty waters in the Bay, it forms a thin layer on the surface. This thin layer of fresh water is heated more easily than the extremely salty waters in the Arabian Sea.
      why cyclones rotate clockwise in Northern Hemisphere? what is the correlation between direction of rotation of coriolis force and cyclone ?
      The reason is that the earth’s rotation sets up the Coriolis force that pulls the winds to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. So when a low pressure starts to form north of the equator, the surface winds will flow inward trying to fill in the low and will be deflected to the right and a counter-clockwise rotation will be initiated. The opposite (a deflection to the left and a clockwise rotation) will occur south of the equator.
      1. north hemisphere – coriolis deflected to right hence rotate clockwise , so cyclone counter clockwise.
      how are tropical cyclones predicted ?
      1. If a depression with maximum surface wind (MSW) of 17-27 knots forms over the northern Indian Ocean (NIO), a cyclogenesis is said to have occurred.
      2. Prevailing environmental conditions such as sea surface temperature (SST), ocean thermal energy, vertical wind shear, low level vorticity, middle level relative humidity, upper level divergence, moist static stability, and low to upper level winds are considered for predicting cyclogenesis.
      3. A genesis potential parameter (GPP), for NIO is
      developed as the product of four variables—vorticity at lower levels, middle tropospheric relative humidity, middle tropospheric instability, and vertical wind shear.
      4. high resolution images from satellites are used.
      5. The storm surge is predicted by IMD using nomograms and dynemic model developed by IIT, Delhi. Both these models taken into consideration different characteristics, the cyclones and the coastal bathymetry to predict the storm surge.
      6. Subjective techniques like Climatology, Synoptic and Satellite (Dvorak) techniques and radar techniques are used.
      7. Also recently launched scatscat satellite is used for weather forecasting, predicting cyclones
      cyclone is called super cyclone
      1. min speed 62 kmph -then cyclone
      2. min speed 220 kmph – then super cyclone
      3. rapid intensification, small radius of
      eyewall confining the large surge close to the point of
      landfall and relatively long life after landfall.
      refer classifcation image
      Disaster mitigation
      1. Monitoring cycloneprone coastal areas
      2. Dissemination of early warnings, data, and information
      3. Organising the immediate response
      4. Identification of safe buildings and sites to serve as temporary shelters for people and livestock evacuated from localities at risk
      5. Construction of multi-purpose shelters in coastal villages/habitations prone to frequent cyclones
      6. Proper maintenance of drainage systems and flood embankments
      7. Ensure that cyclone-resistant features are incorporated in planning and execution of social housing schemes
      8. Promote private participation
      9. Training and orientation programs for state govt. staff, and other direct stakeholders such as: civil society, media-persons, elected representatives, professionals for veterinary care and support to disaster-affected animals
      10. wind attenuation, land use strategy, resistant housing,
      A range of technological advances has now made cyclone forecasting a lot more accurate, thus reducing risks. Along with cyclones, problems associated with cyclones such as rainfall , storm surge and coastal inundation can also be accurately forecast in terms of magnitude, time and place of occurrence. This has resulted in reduction in loss of lives, and brought down the costs involved in evacuation of population.

    • Profile photo of g@ur@v g@ur@v @gaurav47000

      thank you @spvijayakumar48

  • Profile photo of Kartik kashyap Kartik kashyap @honest-kunal

    Someone tell me about mechanical engineering opti. Bcoz i m doing m confused

    • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

      If you are strong in it pls go ahead .

    • Profile photo of Kartik kashyap Kartik kashyap @honest-kunal

      Yeah , but there are not available any thread for mechanical engineering

  • Profile photo of Shiva Raju Shiva Raju @shivaraju

    defenetly,we should have an official thred

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    6. Coral reefs

    1. Coral-reef.ppt
  • Profile photo of Abhishek Kumar Abhishek Kumar @abhishekkumar7

    ya should have some daily initiative

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    5. Global and local winds

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    4. Heat Budget and Albedo of Earth

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    3. Koeppen system of Climate classification

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    2. Pressure belts of the world

    1. pressurewind.ppt
  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    1. Theory of Plate tectonics – simple explanation

  • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

    Posting syllabus from Old thread

  • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

    Heyy all guys pls unite and contribute your strongy..

  • Profile photo of Discuss Discuss @discuss

    @sidharthmahant92 and everyone else, this was actually started by Srishti Srivastava and not by us. While creating the new threads I forgot to change the author settings.

  • Profile photo of Sidharth Mahant Sidharth Mahant @sidharthmahant92

    Waiting for kind initiative
    Highly appreciable efforts Team Civilsdaily
    Your efforts are helping personally in each aspects
    Newcomers are being benefited
    Thanks a ton

  • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

    Any body can provide descriptive image of Indian rock pattern ..

    • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

      Indian rock system

  • Profile photo of Khal Drogo Khal Drogo @abhishek-rathi

    It will be of great help pls start

  • Profile photo of g@ur@v g@ur@v @gaurav47000

    which is-
    largest port of India-
    deepest port-
    oldest port-

  • Profile photo of Polugumati Gogaraju Polugumati Gogaraju @polugumati-gogaraju

    good initiative

  • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

    Today’s map
    Aghil pass
    Wellingdon hill
    Dudhwa national park

    • Profile photo of g@ur@v g@ur@v @gaurav47000

      kanha- largest nationak park in MP located in gondwana region district mandala, and 1st NP of MP listed under project tiger.
      Ooty- queen of hill station on nilgiri hills tamilnadu, famous for scenic beauty and connected with nilgiri mountain rail.
      tirupati- a city of AP famous for hindu temple shri venkateshwara temple.
      dudhwa national park- located in lakhimpur dist. of UP on the border with nepal listed as state’s only tiger reserve.
      bharatpur- a city of rajsthan famous for keoladev national park [world heritage site] and the royal house of bharatpur, a part of NCR.
      vizag- nick name of port city visakhapatnam, oldest shipyard and only natural harbor of east coast famous for it beauty and industrialisation, famous indira gandhi naional zoological park is here

  • Profile photo of Raminder Savra Raminder Savra @raminder-savra

    yes this would b better

  • Profile photo of munna kumar munna kumar @munnaraj94

    Can explain someone Rostov model

    • Profile photo of Praveen Rohankar Praveen Rohankar @praveen-rohankar

      ROSTOV’s model in short :
      What is it ?- Rostov in his non-spatial economic growth model has defined 5 temporal stages in the growth of an economy and it’s political characteristics.
      The 5 stages –
      1. Traditional Society – economic setup highly primitive; no productive investment; nation building
      2. Pre-conditions for takeoff – Education and awareness + middle class; selective productive investment; Centralised state
      3. Take-off stage – enlarged and diversified productive investment by the centralised state; industrial development; self-sustaining economy;Political modernisation -> growing democratisation
      4. Drive to maturity – Specialised global interlinks; diversification of industrial base; Mfg. shifts from capital goods to White goods;
      5. Stage of Mass consumption – Market oriented investment ; Shift towards Service provisions; Shift from centralised state -> Welfare state


      Significance –
      Help countries identify their current stage and take necessary policy for the next stage.

      Criticism –
      Variable economic enviroment for developing countries vis-a-vis developed
      Globalisation changed the dynamics of the rapid and multi-staged development

  • Profile photo of IAS 2017 IAS 2017 @shivv-sharma

    golkonda – capital of medival sultanate Qutubshahi dynasty near hyderabad produced world famous diamonds like koh-i-noor

  • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

    Guys please contribute, simply stating that the thread is good doesnt help. You can start off by describing & mapping these entries put down by Sristi the other day

    1. Lansdowne
    2. Manamadhurai
    3. Kudremukh
    4. Banderpoonch
    5. Chirimiri
    6. Chakrata
    7. Golkonda
    8. Trimbak
    9. Kapurthala
    10. Doodhpathri
    Please contribute however you deem fit. It helps everyone

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      1. Nabadwip
      2. Gurudongmar Lake
      3. Warangal
      4. Rudrasagar
      5. Solapur
      6. Barmer
      7. Indira Gandhi Canal
      8. Savitri River
      9. Ritchie’s Archipelago
      10. Mahabaleshwar

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      6. BARMER
      -district in Rajasthan-5th largest district in India
      – Luni river
      -Tilwara cattle fair
      -Oil exploration by Cairns energy(UK) with ONGC
      -Uttarlai- India’s first underground airbase

      – Water canal from Harike Barrage to Thar desert
      -Water from Sutlej

      -one of 5 rivers originate from Mahableshwar hill , Maharashtra
      Kal river- tributary
      – Aug,2016 – British era bridge collapsed

      9.RITCHIE’s archipelago
      – group of islands of Andaman & Nicobar- part of Port blair’s taluk
      -Havelock Island, Lawrence ISland, Neill Island
      -indigenous Andamenese live and coral reefs

      -hill station in Maharshtra and served as summer capital for British
      -source of river Krishna
      -Mahabaleshwar Strawberry-85% of India’s production and GI tag
      -3 monkey point,Arthur seat point,venna lake – places of interest

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      1. NABADWIP

      – City on river Bhagirathi in WB
      -Capital of Sena Dynasty of Bengal
      -Vaishnava saint Chaitanya born here and his birthday celebrated as Gaura-Purnima
      – Nicknames: Spiritual Capital of World and Oxford of the east

      – 2nd highest lake in Sikkim at altitude of 5430m
      -sacred for Buddhists and lake named after Guru Padmasambhave( founder of Tibetan Buddhism)
      -provides one of source streams of river Teesta

      3. WARANGAL
      -City and Distrit in Telangana
      -chosen for scheme HRIDAY and smart cities project
      -Kakatiya dynasty ruled and famous woman ruler – Rudhramadevi
      -Bhadrakali, waddepally lakes
      – Warangal fort, Thousand pillar temple, Ramappa temples – UNESCO heritage sites

      -lake in Tripura
      – Ramsar Wetland site- streams: Noacherra, Durlavnaraya cherra and Kemtali cherra.
      – Neermahal Place on north-east bank

      – city in Maharashtra- Siddheswar temple
      -Solapuri Chadars (cotton bedsheet) – world famous and GI tag
      -Asia’s biggest and World’s 2nd biggest spinning mill
      -National research centre on Pomegranate- India’s first Municipal Council to hoist National Flag in 1930

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      1. Suheli Par Islands
      2. Edakkal Cave
      3. Feni river
      4. Pochampally
      5. Konkan Railways
      6. Jorhat
      7. Malayagiri
      8. Neemuch
      9. Siju Cave
      10. Lonar Lake

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      6. JORHAT
      -city and cultural capital of Assam
      -last capital of Ahom KIngdom
      – Majuli Island- north of Jorhat district
      -Central Eri & Muga Research Inst ,Rain forest research inst, Tocklai tea research Inst located here
      – Lachit Borphukan Maidam(kind of Tomb)- Ahom General who defeated Mughals
      -home town to former CM Tarun gogoi

      – mountain peak in Odisha
      -Garhjat Range and 1187m

      -town in Malwa region , MP –Gwalior princely state’s British Cantonment and birthplace of CRPF
      -India’s eye donation capital
      -Asia’s biggest Opium alkaloid processing plant
      -Welspun Solar MP( Asia’s largest solar plant) at Neemuch
      – Sita Mata wild sanctuary,Gandhi sagar sanctuary – nearby

      9.SIJU CAVE
      -limestone cave in Meghalaya
      -near Naphak lake and Simsang river game reserve
      -also called Bat cave bcoz os some bat species

      10.LONAR LAKE
      – Saline soda lake in Maharashtra
      – formed due to meteor impact
      -Purna. Pen Ganga drains into lake

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      – Coral atoll in Lakshadweep
      – Three Islands – Valiyakara , Cheriyakara and Indira-shastri dweep
      – Grey heron and Black capped Kingfisher -seen
      – Proposal to declare Suheli par as a marine national park
      – Turtle nesting

      -Two natural caves on Ambukutty Mala (Hills) with paintings date back to 6000BC
      -a sign “a Man with jar cup” is present which is distinct motif of Indus Valley. So, This is linked with alternate theory linking possible Dravidian and Harappan Civilization.

      3. FENI RIVER
      -River originate in Tripura and flows into Bangladesh
      – Muthuri river(Little Feni) joins near its mouth
      -Foundation stone laid to construct 150m bridge on river Feni to connect Sabroom(India) with Port Chittagong.

      – Town in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Telangana
      – Bhoodan Movement under Vinobha bhave born at Pochampally.
      – Pochampally saree with Ikat style of dyeing is famous and Air India air hostesses wear such sarees and also got GI status in 2005
      – Weaving site – tentative UNESCO heritage site

      -one of 17 Railway zones. connects Maharastra , Karnataka and Goa.
      -famous for RORO( Roll ON- Roll OFF)-road rail synergy system.

    • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

      Today’s Map locations
      1. Mannar Island
      2 Rajmahal – Garo gap
      3 Lhotse
      4 Bongaigaon
      5 R. Shetrunji
      6 Hemis NP
      7 Burzil Pass
      8 Namdapha
      9 Bhitarkarnika
      10 Koyna

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      7. BURZIL PASS
      -Pass connecting Gilgit with Sri Nagar and lies close to LOC
      Astore river originate from western slopes of Pass

      8. NAMDAPHA
      -third National park of India –
      Eastern Himalayas Biodiversity hotspot
      -Critically endangered Namdapha Flying Squirrel
      -Snow leopard, Clouded leopard ,White bellied heron

      -National Park and wild life sactuary in Odisha- Brahmani , Baitrani rivers
      – Gahirmatha beach – nesting by OLive ridley turtles
      -Salt water crocodiles
      – Bhitrakanika Mangroves

      – Koyna dam on Koyna river in Maharashtra
      -Koyna Hrdroelectric project
      -1967 Koyna earthquake due to reservoir triggered seismic activity.

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      – part of Sri Lanka.
      – Ram setu connects Pamban Island (India) and Mannar Island(Sri Lanka)

      -Physiographic and Structural depression
      – Subsidence along a north-south axis between Garo and Rajmahal hills due to block faulting or regional warping of Peninsular block, as part of Himalayan uplift.
      – Rajmahal-Garo gap separates Meghalaya plateau from Main block of Peninsular plateau
      – Filled by deposits of Ganga and Brahmaputra

      3. LHOTSE
      – fourth highest peak in the world
      -Western flank of Lhotse is “Lhotse face”.

      -2nd largest city of Assam
      – has Oil refinery which is eighth largest refinery of IOCL
      – Manas National park within the district
      -NTPC Bongaigoan -3*250MW proposed
      – Koya Kujia eco park, Bagheswari temple, Roumari dam- places of interest.

      5.River SHETRUNJI
      -north flowing river in Gujarat and drains into Gulf of Cambay.
      -Palitana dam across the river
      – Khodiyar mata waterfall

      -Largest National park of India in Ladakh, J&K-Indus River
      -High density of Snow Leopards
      -Asiatic Ibex, Shapu, Argali(Great Tibetan Sheep)- other animals
      -400 year old Hemis Tibetan Monastery

    • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

      Map -20/nov

    • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

      Rajmahal garo gap – This gap was formed by down-faulting (normal fault: a block of earth slides downwards). It was later filled by sediments deposited by the Ganga and Brahmaputa )

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      Today’s Map locations

      1. Jawahar Tunnel
      2. Chopta
      3. Naharkatiya
      4. Bhimashankar
      5. Balasinor
      6. Kshipra River
      7. Courtallam
      8. Dahod
      9. Rangpo
      10. Cross Islands

    • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

      map – 19/Nov

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns


      -river in MP
      -Ujjain situated on its east bank.
      -Every 12 years Sinhastha fair(Kumbhmela)
      – Water Pollution- a issue


      – Town in Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu
      – Famous for Waterfalls like Peraruvi( Main falls), Five Falls ( Aintharuvi)
      -Thiru Courtrallanathar temple

      – small town on Dudhimati river in Gujarat
      – Aurangazeb born in fort of Dahod and Tantia tope believed to be lived his last days here
      – included in Smart city project

      -town in sikkim on NH10
      – Teesta flows
      – SC gave nod to Sevoke( WB) to Rangpo rail line

      10.CROSS Island
      -uninhabited island in Mumbai harbour
      -Oil refinery
      -ruins of a fort and locally known as Chinal Tekdi

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      -Road tunnel in J&K constructed by Germans Alfred Kunz and C Barsel
      – Situated b/w Banihal and Qazigund on NH1A. Under Border Roads Orgn
      -Now has ventilation system, Pollution, Temp sensors, Emegency phone system.

      – Uttarakhand
      – Mountainous region- part of Kedarnath Wildlife sanctuary
      -Chandrasila peak, Atrimuni falls ,Deoria Tal lake- places of interest


      -Town and Oil field in Dibrugarh district, Assam
      – Burhi Dinhing, tributary of brahmaputra flows.
      -Bihu Festival and Mongoloid tribe Tai Phakes live here

      – Jyotirlinga temple near Pune.
      -Source of river Bhima
      -Situated on Sahyadri Range
      – Mokshakund Thirtha behind the temple

      5. BALASINOR
      – Town in Mahisagar district, formerly a princely state of BABI dynasty
      -Dinosaur Fossil park with atleast 13 species lived here in past
      -In 2003, a new species belonging to T REX family discovered and named “Rajasaurus narmandensis” ( Princely reptile from Narmada)

    • Profile photo of Pranav Pranav @pranavce15

      Today’s locations
      1. Hambantota
      2. Lumding
      3. Naxalbari
      4. Somnath
      5. Viradi
      6. Tumalapalle
      7. Anjadiva Island
      8. Murshidabad
      9. Dagsai
      10. Mendhar

      Awesome stuff @saravanan-ns, @shiv-sharma

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns


      -City in West Bengal located on Bhagirathi , tributary of Ganga
      – Hazarduari place -attraction
      – Murshidabad silk famous for making sarees

      9. DAGSAI
      – Cantonment twon in solan district, Himachal Pradesh
      – Dagshai Central Jail where Irish freedom fighters executed and 4 revolutionaries of Komagata Maru incident were also executed
      – Jail now used as Godown for Military Engg service.

      – in Poonch district in J&K
      -located in foothills of Pir Panjal
      -King Menander and Nagasena met nearby and constructed Menandra Vihar which later became Mendhar.
      – Ram kund temple , Ziyarat architecture believed to be of Pandavas located nearby

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns


      – Port in Sri lanka developed with assistance from China.
      – linked with String of Pearls Policy
      -International Cricket Stadium – Mahinda Rajapaksa Stadium
      – India has consulate here.

      4. SOMNATH

      – Somnath Mahadev Temple in Gujarat , First among the 12 jyotirlingas
      – Bhalka Tirth located nearby where it is believed Lord Krishna avatar ended and went to heaven.

      5. VIRADI
      – near Alang in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat
      – Mithi Virdi (Viradi) – Nuclear power plant proposed with Six reactors – Capacity -6000 MW
      – Local Protest as the area is known for growing Kesar Mango trees

      -Tumalapalle Uranium mine in Kadappa district
      -Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad found anout 2lakh tonnes Uranium reserves – one of World’s largest
      – First mine in country to adopt alkali based leaching in place of acid based leachig
      – water from Chitravati river basin

      -island in Goa
      Portuguese settlement and Angediva fortress located here.
      Part of large naval INS Kadamba base
      -1961 – Indian Passenger ship, Sabarmati was attacked by Portuguese forces and this contributed to Operation Vijay

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava

      2. Lumding – Assam, railway junction, agrarisn set up, close to Haflong, Assam’s only hill station
      3. Naxalbari – North WB, bordering Nepal, known for being the starting point of the Naxalite movement
      4. Somnath – Saurashtra Region of Gujarat, 1 of 12 jyotirlingas of Lord Shiva, place of pilgrimage
      6. Tumalapalle – uranium mining in Kadappa district of AP
      7. Anjadiva Island – part of project seabird, goa govt handed over to MoD, close to Karwar port of Karnataka
      8. Murshidabad – WB, HAZARduari palace, silk, heavy industries agriculture

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns

      8. TRIMBAK

      -city in Nashik district, Maharashtra

      >Simhastha Kumbh mela was originally held at Trimbhak, but a clash between Vaishnavites and Shaivites forced Peshwa to shift to Ramkund in Nashik.
      > Trimbakeshwar temple (one of 12 Jyotirlingas) with linga in the form of three faced representing Trimurti.
      > located at foothills of Brahmagiri hills where Godavari originate and hill believed to be birthplace of Lord Ganesha


      – city in Punjab and was once a princely state of Kapurthala.
      >Elysee palace, Shalimar Gardens – attractions
      >Kanjli Wetland, a Ramsar Convention site located on periphery of city on western bein rivulet.

      10. DOODHPATRI

      – Hill station in Budgam district of J&K
      >lies in the valley of Pir Panjal range.
      >Palmaidan- Grazing ground for Cattle, Mujpathri on river Shaliganga – attractions

    • Profile photo of Saravanan N S Saravanan N S @saravanan-ns


      1. LANSDOWNE :
      Cantonment town in Uttarakhand named after Lord Lansdowne.
      >Presently, Garhwals rifles have command office here.
      > Kaleshwar Mahadev temple , Bhullatal lake are major attractions.
      > Garhwal rifles museum (Darwan singh Sanghralaya ) with artefacts, photos, weapons about Garhwal rifles participation in WW II


      -a group of mountains in Uttarakhand
      > Bandarpoonch means “Tail of the Monkey” where Lord Hanuman extinguished his tail which was set fire in Sri Lanka.
      >Lies within Govind Pashu Vihar National park and sanctuary where Flora- Rhododendron and Fauna- Snow leopard, bearded vulture.

      5. CHIRIMIRI

      -hill station in Koriya district, Chattisgarh

      >Lord Jagannath temple resembles Puri Temple located here
      >Chirimiri coal field located here.
      > Hasdeo river flows

      6. CHAKRATA

      – cantonment town in Uttarakhand with Special frontier force called Establishment 22 (ony ethnic Tibetan unit of Indian Army)
      >Tiger falls, Kimona fall, is located nearby Chakrata

      -historical place – Capital of Qutb Shahi Dynasty
      – Famous for mines which produced koh-i-noor, hope diamond, Daria-i-noor( crown jewel of Iran)
      -Tombs of Sultans , Naya Qila -attractions

    • Profile photo of Vijay Kumar Vijay Kumar @spvijayakumar48

      3. Kudremukh – mountain range in Chikkamagaluru district, in Karnataka. The town of Kudremukh is primarily an iron ore mining town where the government run Public Sector Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL) operates.
      > It is noted for its scenic beauty.
      > Owing to the dense forests, sighting wildlife can be challenging, though the area is rich in wildlife.
      > Three important rivers, the Tunga, the Bhadra and the Nethravathi are said to have their origin here.

    • Profile photo of Vijay Karthik Vijay Karthik @vijay-karthik

      what is the importance of manamadhurai u mentioned here ?

    • Profile photo of Srishti Srivastava Srishti Srivastava @srishtisrivastava
    • Profile photo of Vijay Karthik Vijay Karthik @vijay-karthik

      yes., thanks. despite living in the same state, i did not know this. thanks again.

  • Profile photo of AKHILESH KUMAR AKHILESH KUMAR @akhil7762

    yes definitely please carry on….

  • Profile photo of hsb07 hsb07 @hiteshbasera-2

    Yes plz it will help a lot.

  • Profile photo of Neal Mukherjee Neal Mukherjee @indranilmukherjee0

    yes it will be of great help…

  • Profile photo of g@ur@v g@ur@v @gaurav47000

    ya sure @discuss sir this would be a better option than scrolling mouse too much

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