Deforestation affects the monsoonal winds and temporal and spatial distributions by:
1. Lesser transpiration from stomata of trees.
2. The microclimate surrounding a tree is has high humidity which means less density and thus vertical movement of air parcel, formatin of clouds.
3. Cutting of trees means, vast barren land which results in lesset condensational nuclei.
Apart from these, the undisturbed air and rising temperatures due to deforestation also affect monsoonal rains. Deforestation also affects in following manner:
1. Loss of sustainable source of timber if deforestation is done without simultaneous plantation.
2. Loss in fertility of soil due to increased leaching,water and wind erosion. Loss of water retaining capacity.
3. Amplification of effects of floods and droughts – it has been documented that forests lessen the intensity of such disasters.
4. Rise in GHG, global temperatures and ascetic loss.
5. Many livelihoods are dependent on such forests like thosr of tribals.
6. Destruction of habitats of several animal species. Like Rhino,Squirrels,etc.
7. It forces animals like tiger,etc out of their habitat -> danger for humans.
Measures needed to prevent deforestation:
1. Integrating conservation efforts with people – Joint Forest Management, FRA 2006 implementation, etc.
2. Checking illegal mining, poaching activities and smuggling of.timber.
3. Promoting sustainable land use amongst tribals and.preventing sytems like Jhum.
4. Operatiobalisatiob of CAMPA fund.
5. Using remote sensing technologies for timely monitoring.
6. Encouraging eco tourism in non core regions of protected areas to generate awareness amongst the people and meaningful livelihoods -> reduction in dependency on forests.
Further schemes like Ujjawala, implementation of PESA and inter sectoral coordination among forest officials and people at large should be encouraged.