[Official Review] 2 Aug 2017 | Target Mains: GS Questions With Official Answers

GS Paper 1 (World History)


Q.1) Many of the problems confronted by Europe in 19th century had their germs in the works of congress of Vienna. Comment.

Source: NCERT

Answer structure:

Problems confronted by Europe in 19th Century

– Nationalism i.e. demand for territorial rearrangement

– Fight between reactionary and progressive forces

– Fight between legitimacy and popular sovereignty

-Class privilege & natural rights of men.


1.  The Vienna Congress of 1815 was organized by the victor powers of Leipzig and Waterloo with the objective of restoring of pre 1789 Europe.

2.  The Vienna Congress was inspired by reactionary ideas ,the leaders of Vienna were the protectors of class privileges & social discrimination based on birth because of this Vienna Congress of 1815 was against the popular aspirations of common masses through the Europe.

3.  The Congress of Vienna made determined efforts to restore the pre-1789 condition in Europe.The reactionary forces of Europe were  troubled by the revolution of 1789 and rise of Napoleon because of this they tried to eliminate the ideals of revolution and the transformation carried out by them in Europe.

4.  Because of their reactionary outlook the Congress of Vienna undermined the ideals of nationalism, liberalism and the natural  rights of men because  of this the 19th century witnessed a number of fights between these reactionary forces and the liberal progressive ideas.

5.  In 1820 a popular reaction emerged in Spain against the despotic rule ,In 1830,the revolution erupted in France & succeeded in over-throwing the absolute monarchy of Bourbon dynasty. The revolution also erupted in Italy, Prussia, German states, Portugal and Spain also. In 1848 a number of revolutions erupted again in European countries. These revolutions were manifestation of the fights of the common masses against the old reactionary order of Europe and because of this it has been commented that many of the problems faced by Europe in 19th century had their germs in Vienna Congress.

GS Paper 2 (Polity & Governance)


Q.2) Recently Supreme court Supreme Court of India has issued new set of directions to prevent the misuse of Section 498A of Indian Penal Code. In the light of the above statement critically discuss whether section 498A should be amended?

Source: http://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/victim-in-the-dock-law-of-cruelty-against-women-supreme-court-judgment-rajesh-sharma-and-ors-v-state-of-up-and-anr-4777931/


  1. Section 498 of Indian Penal Code prevents the perceived misuse of the criminal law of cruelty against women within family (mostly in-laws) by prescribing imprisonment upto 3 years. The offence under this section is cognizable, non-compoundable and non-bailable.
  2. However, the recent past has witnessed its rampant misuse by women out of ego, self gain and to harass their in-laws family members (especially the elderly members). In this light Supreme Court has recently expressed its views by prescribing the complaint process (in order to balance it) and has sought its amendment by the government.
  3. The provisions like immediate arrest without any investigation assuming that the complainant is innocent, Low conviction rate, limited power with police in matters of finding evidences etc which were proving biased against in-laws families compelled the Supreme Court to view the matter and prescribe provision.
  4. The Supreme Court has directed to constitute District Family Welfare Committee consisting of paralegals, volunteers, social workers, retired persons, wives of working officers and other citizens, who are found suitable and willing, to scrutinise a complaint by a woman (within one month) before the police take cognisance of it in every districts of States. This has been done in order to bring balance in the law.
  5. The court’s view was based on the findings of NCRB data and NFHS-3 data which were highly irrelative and confusing. The one month of window period for investigation prescribed by the court will provide accused persons chances to abscond or NRI person to flee from India. Such provision is undermining the security of women and their rights at risk.
  6. The low conviction rate shown by NCRB data is false and misuse of section 498 has also been acknowledged by the WCD ministry. The question also rises on the integrity of investigating committee members.


  • All above provisions and biasness shown by the section 498 necessitates its amendment in order to devolve balance in its implementation. The Parliament should take a detailed discussion on the matter and amend the section in such as way that it may not affect the interest of both sections (man and woman) and also to punish the real culprit whether complainant or accused.

GS Paper 3 (Science & Technology)


Q.3) The 2015 draft DNA Fingerprinting Bill is back in a new version, and includes some important additions and deletions. What are they? What is the need for such a law in the first place, and what are the problems with having one? Critically analyse.

Source: https://www.civilsdaily.com/op-ed-snap-understanding-the-new-dna-tech-bill-all-your-questions-answered/

DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling is method of isolating and identifying variable elements within the base-pair sequence of DNA. Law Commission of India has released a revised draft of the Bill that is now called The DNA Based Technology (Use and Regulation) Bill, 2017 with some very important changes. It seeks to establish regulatory institutions and standards for DNA testing, and supervise the activities of all laboratories authorized to carry out such tests.

The additions and deletions to the provisions of the Bill are:

  1. It prohibits the collection of any “bodily substance” from an arrested individual (for the purposes of a DNA test) without his/her consent, except if the individual is arrested for certain specific offences.
  2. However, if the consent “is refused without good cause” and a magistrate is satisfied of the need for a DNA test, he/she can order the arrested person to give a sample.
  3. The new Bill has also removed a provision that allowed DNA profiles in the databank to be used for “creation and maintenance of population statistics databank”.
  4. While the penalty for misuse of data remains a prison term of up to three years and a fine up to Rs 1lakh, a reference to a minimum prison term of one month has been removed.
  5. The Bill seeks to set up two new institutions — a DNA Profiling Board and a DNA Data Bank.

Why was the bill created at first place?

  1. It is extremely useful and accurate technology in ascertaining the identity of a person from his/her DNA sample, or establishing biological relationships between individuals.
  2. As a result, DNA technology is being increasingly relied upon in investigations of crime, identification of unidentified bodies, or in determining parentage.
  3. But information from DNA samples can reveal intrusive information like their allergies, or susceptibility to diseases. As a result, there is a greater risk of information from DNA analysis getting misused

Criticisms/Apprehensions around the Bill:

  1. There are chances that a wrong match is generated.
  2. If the DNA result is taken as the ultimate evidence, no recourse will be available to an individual who has been wrongly matched.
  3. Privacy-related objections-main concerns are who’s DNA can be collected and under what circumstances, who can access the database etc.
  4. Information like ancestry or susceptibility to a disease, or other genetic traits, is liable to be misused.
  5. DNA tests have not led to an improvement in conviction rates in countries where it is already being followed.


While technological interventions are inevitable and welcome, proper regulatory and legislative measures coupled with stringent protection of privacy and public awareness is the way forward. All the stakeholders must come forward to plug the missing links so that the larger picture is not compromised.

GS Paper 4 (Ethics and integrity)

Q.4)- The government has been taking steps to promote rights of patients suffering from AIDS. Suppose you are a headmaster of a government higher secondary school where there is a student of class X who is diagnosed with AIDS. The children in the class discriminate him on various grounds and you have also been getting calls from the parents of other students in the class that they are against the continuance of his studies with their children. You call the parents of the AIDS affected student and tell his parents about the same and that you are under pressure from other parents to expel their child from school.
What will be the right course for you on ethical and professional grounds? Select from the following options and give reasons.

(1) Rusticate the student.
(2) Keep the student continuing his studies and making a separate sitting arrangement for him.
(3) Keep the student as usual in the class room and make efforts to convince the students and their parents that AIDS in not contagious. If some of them are not convinced, he should give option to them to seek admission elsewhere rather than expelling the AIDS affected student. (250 words) (20 marks)

Model Answer:

The headmaster of the school is not only a civil servant but a role model in the vicinity. Teaching and grooming the impressionable young boys is his service and a mission. He should leave a mark in the minds of young boys about moral values such as helping the disabled and diseased and standing for truth and practicing neutrality in decisions, despite alls pulls and pressures.  He should also act as a friend, philosopher and guide for the neighbourhood, and, hence for the parents of students.

The first option of rusticating the diseased student from school is unbecoming of a headmaster and does not serve any purpose rather it is against all moral and ethics. The parents and the students must be made aware about the truth   that AIDS is not contagious disease.

Through the second option, the headmaster can uphold the right to equality of opportunity and dignity of the student and his fundamental right to education. It will not only help the diseased student, but serve a larger cause of promoting truth and sympathy in society.

He should not ideally yield to the pressure to isolate the diseased student, because it will not only affect his confidence but set a wrong president.

The headmaster is also responsible for the confidence of remaining students and trust of their parents. If practical consideration warrants, for the sake of confidence of other students and parents, he should make an arrangement of sitting for the diseased student in the same class at a little distance as long as he convinces the parents and students.

If there are parents who still do not agree or put pressure, he can firmly say no and advice them humbly to seek admission elsewhere. This would be a balanced approach which he should follow.

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