UPSC Mains 2023 GS 3 paper (PDF inside)- Analysis & Discussion (Link inside) | 90% Questions from Civilsdaily’s Smash Mains Test Series

The UPSC Mains 2023 has concluded, and it’s time to connect the dots! Every year, the pattern offers a fascinating insight into the dynamic trajectory of UPSC’s questioning. How often do we find the traces of previous questions leaving a subtle hint for the next year’s paper? What are the emerging trends, and how do we align our preparation to be one step ahead?

We are thrilled to present the PDF and questions for UPSC Mains 2023 GS 3 Paper, curated meticulously to offer you an insightful analysis.

This paper, often considered a game-changer, covers a broad range of topics including Economic Development, Science and Technology, Environment, Internal Security, and Disaster Management.

What’s Inside the UPSC Mains 2023 GS 3 Paper?

We’ve got you covered! You can download the full UPSC Mains 2023 GS 3 PDF here to see what UPSC had in store this year. Examine the questions, analyze their complexities, and think about how you would have approached them.

1. जी० डी० पी० में विनिर्माण क्षेत्र विशेषकर एम० एस० एम० ई० की बढ़ी हुई हिस्सेदारी तेज आर्थिक संवृद्धि के लिए आवश्यक है। इस संबंध में सरकार की वर्तमान नीतियों पर टिप्पणी कीजिए। (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)

Faster economic growth requires increased share of the manufacturing sector in GDP, particularly of MSMEs. Comment on the present policies of the Government in this regard. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Linkage with Syllabus: 

Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.

Linkage with PYQ :  

Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports rather than capital-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports. (2017)

Linkage with CD Mains test series: Smash Mains Sectional Test 4” 

Q.18) “MSMEs sector is the growth engine of the Indian economy”. In light of this statement, discuss the challenges faced by the MSME sector along with the steps taken by Government to address those challenges. (15 marks)

Prediction for 2024 Mains: 

  • Question can be asked on Feasibility of Service Sector led growth or Feasibility of Export led growth for India
  • Predict question on FDI
  • Start up India

2. भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था में डिजिटिकरण की स्थिति क्या है? इस संबंध में आने वाली समस्याओं का परीक्षण कीजिए और सुधार के लिए सुझाव दीजिए। ( उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)

What is the status of digitalization in the Indian economy? Examine the problems faced in this regard and suggest improvements. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Linkage with Syllabus: 

Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.

Linkage with CD Mains test series: FLT 7 Smash Mains Question 15

Linkage with PYQ : 

  • Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poorer section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion. (2016)
  • Is inclusive growth possible under market economy? State the significance of financial inclusion in achieving economic growth in India (2022)

Predictions for 2024: 

Question can be asked Peer 2 Peer lending. They can directly ask question on Inclusive growth and its impediments

3. कृषि उत्पादों के उत्पादन एवं विपणन में ई-तकनीक किसानों की किस प्रकार मदद करती है? इसे समझाइए । (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)

How does e-technology help farmers in production and marketing of agricultural produce? Explain it. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Linkage with Syllabus: 

E-technology in the aid of farmers.

Linkage with PYQ : 

How can the ‘Digital India’ programme help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What steps has the Government taken in this regards? (2015)

Linkage with CD Mains TS:

Prediction for 2024: 

Precision farming, SRI, SSI and Zero budget Natural Farming

4. भारत में भूमि सुधार के उद्देश्यों एवं उपायों को बताइए। आर्थिक मापदंडों के अंतर्गत, भूमि जोत पर भूमि सीमा नीति को कैसे एक प्रभावी सुधार माना जा सकता है, विवेचना कीजिए। (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)

State the objectives and measures of land reforms in India. Discuss how land ceiling policy on landholding can be considered as an effective reform under economic criteria. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Linkage with Syllabus: 

Land Reforms in India.

Linkage with Smash Mains test:

Linkage with PYQ: 

  • How did land reforms in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers? (2021)
  • Discuss the role of land reforms in agricultural development. Identify the factors that were responsible for the success of land reforms in India. (2016)

Prediction for 2024: 

There is very little chance UPSC will ask a similar question in 2024.

5. कृत्रिम बुद्धि (ए० आइ० ) की अवधारणा का परिचय दीजिए। ए० आइ० क्लिनिकल निदान में कैसे मदद करता है? क्या आप स्वास्थ्य सेवा में ए० आइ० के उपयोग में व्यक्ति की निजता को कोई खतरा महसूस करते हैं? (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)

Introduce the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI). How does Al help clinical diagnosis? Do you perceive any threat to the privacy of the individual in the use of Al in healthcare? (Answer in 150 words) 10

Linkage with Syllabus:

Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers

Linkage with PYQ: 

What do you understand by nanotechnology and how is it helping in the health sector? (2020)

CD Mains TS Linkage: Q5. Artificial Intelligence (AI) generative models are unlocking the boundless imagination of machines, forging new frontiers in human-AI collaboration. Comment.

Predictions for 2024: IOT, Big data, Nanotechnology, 3D printing

6. उन विभिन्न तरीकों पर चर्चा कीजिए जिनसे सूक्ष्मजीवी इस समय हो रही ईंधन की कमी से पार पाने में मदद कर सकते हैं। (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)

Discuss several ways in which microorganisms can help in meeting the current fuel shortage. (Answer in 150 words ) 10

Linkage with Syllabus: Bio-technology 

Linkage with PYQ: Why is there so much activity in the field of biotechnology in our country? How has this activity benefitted the field of biopharma? (2018)

CD mains TS: FLT 7

Q13. India’s ethanol production program has witnessed significant strides in the last five years. In this light, discuss how India’s ethanol production program can help to achieve doubling farmers’ income? 

Predictions for 2024: Green Hydrogen, Effects of biotechnology on Health and Agriculture

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7. बाँधों की विफलता हमेशा प्रलयकारी होती हैं, विशेष रूप से नीचे की ओर, जिसके परिणामस्वरूप जीवन और संपत्ति का भारी नुकसान होता है। बाँधों की विफलता के विभिन्न कारणों का विश्लेषण कीजिए। बड़े बाँधों की विफलताओं के दो उदाहरण दीजिए। (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)

Dam failures are always catastrophic, especially on the downstream side, resulting in a colossal loss of life and property. Analyze the various causes of dam failures. Give two examples of large dam failures. (Answer in 150 words) 10

Linkage with Syllabus: 

Disaster and Disaster Management.



Prediction for 2024:Crowd Disaster, Land subsidence, Cloud burst, Cyclone issue, Non-Natural diasters

Linkage with CD mains TS: 

SM 46: Q8) What are the issues concerning the major dams all over the country? Discuss the steps taken by the government to promote dam safety in the country. (10 marks)

8. तेल प्रदूषण क्या है? समुद्री पारिस्थितिकी तंत्र पर इसके प्रभाव क्या हैं? भारत जैसे देश के लिए किस तरह से तेल प्रदूषण विशेष रूप से हानिकारक है? (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)

What is oil pollution? What are its impacts on the marine ecosystem? In what way is oil pollution particularly harmful for a country like India? (Answer in 150 words ) 10

Link with syllabus: Environmental Pollution and Degradation

Link with PYQ : 

Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions for management and handling of hazardous wastes in India?

Linkage with CD Mains TS: Week 43 Samachar Manthan Test 43

9. आतंकवाद प्रभावित क्षेत्रों में जनसमुदाय का विश्वास बहाल करने में ‘दिल और दिमाग’ जीतना एक आवश्यक कदम है। इस संबंध में जम्मू और कश्मीर में संघर्ष समाधान के भाग के रूप में सरकार द्वारा अपनाए गए उपायों पर चर्चा कीजिए। (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)

Winning of ‘Hearts and Minds’ in terrorism-affected areas is an essential step in restoring the trust of the population. Discuss the measures adopted by the Government in this respect as part of the conflict resolution in Jammu and Kashmir (Answer in 150 words ) 10

Linkage with syllabus: 

Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.

Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.

Link with PYQ: 

Naxalism is a social, economic and developmental issue manifesting as a violent internal security threat. In this context, discuss the emerging issues and suggest a multilayered strategy to tackle the menace of Naxalism. 2022

What are the sound determinants of left-wing extremism in Eastern part of India? What strategy should Government of India, civil administration and security forces adopt to counter the threat in the affected areas?

Linkage with CD mains TS:

Prediction for UPSC 2024: 

Focus on LWE, Naga issue and Manipur issue

10. सीमा पार से शत्रुओं द्वारा हथियार/गोला-बारूद, ड्रग्स आदि मानवरहित हवाई वाहनों (यू० ए० वी०) की मदद से पहुँचाया जाना हमारी सुरक्षा के लिए गंभीर खतरा है। इस खतरे से निपटने के लिए किए जा रहे उपायों पर टिप्पणी कीजिए। (उत्तर 150 शब्दों में दीजिए)

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by our adversaries across the borders to ferry arms / ammunitions, drugs, etc., is a serious threat to the internal security. Comment on the measures being taken to tackle this threat. (Answer in 150 words ) 10

Linkage with Syllabus: 

  • Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges
  • Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas

Linkage with PYQ:

For effective border area management, discuss the steps required to be taken to deny local support to militants and also suggest ways to manage favourable perception among locals (2020)

Linkage with CD Mains TS:

Predictions for 2024: 

Prepare Cross-border illegal immigration (Rohingyas),,India Srilanka Border,India Nepal Border

11. भारत में सबसे ज्यादा बेरोजगारी प्रकृति में संरचनात्मक है। भारत में बेरोजगारी की गणना के लिए अपनाई गई पद्धति का परीक्षण कीजिए और सुधार के सुझाव दीजिए। (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए)

Most of the unemployment in India is structural in nature. Examine the methodology adopted to compute unemployment in the country and suggest improvements.(Answer in 250 words ) 15

Linkage with Syllabus: 

Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.

Linkage with PYQ: 

  • Define potential GDP and explain its determinants. What are the factors that have been inhibiting India from realizing its potential GDP
  • Explain the difference between computing methodology of India’s gross domestic product (GDP) before the year 2015 and after the year 2015

Linkage with CD: Samachar Manthan (4th-11th September)

Prediction for 2024: 

Questions can be asked about Jobless growth

12. ‘देखभाल अर्थव्यवस्था’ और ‘मुद्रीकृत अर्थव्यवस्था’ के बीच अंतर कीजिए। अर्थव्यवस्था को मुद्रीकृत अर्थव्यवस्था में कैसे लाया जा सकता है? महिला सशक्तिकरण के द्वारा देखभाल (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए)

Distinguish between ‘care economy’ and ‘monetized economy. How can care economy be brought into the monetized economy through women empowerment? (Answer in 250 words ) 15

Linkage with Syllabus

Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.

Linkage with PYQ: 

Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context?

Linkage with CD Mains TS:

Predictions for 2024: 

Question can be asked Silver Economy, Gig Economy

13. खपत पैटर्न एवं विपणन दशाओं में परिवर्तन के संदर्भ में, भारत में फसल प्रारूप (क्रॉपिंग पैटर्न) में हुए परिवर्तनों की व्याख्या कीजिए। (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए)

Explain the changes in cropping pattern in India in the context of changes in consumption pattern and marketing conditions. (Answer in 250 words) 15

Linkage with syllabus:  

Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country

Linkage with PYQ: 

  • What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful to stabilize the yield of the crop in the system? (2017)
  • What are the major factors responsible for making rice-wheat system a success? In spite of this success how has this system become bane in India? (2020)

Linkage with CD mains TS: 

Q3. Analyse Critically whether the existing cropping patterns in different parts of India would need any change for better agriculture performance in the future. (10) ( FLT 11)

Prediction for 2024: 

Questions will be asked on Food processing, PDS or MSP.

14. भारत में कृषि क्षेत्र को प्रदान की जाने वाली प्रत्यक्ष एवं अप्रत्यक्ष सब्सिडी क्या हैं? विश्व व्यापार संगठन (डब्ल्यू० टी० ओ०) द्वारा उठाए गए कृषि सब्सिडी संबंधित मुद्दों की विवेचना कीजिए। (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए)

What are the direct and indirect subsidies provided to farm sector in India? Discuss the issues raised by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in relation to agricultural subsidies. (Answer in 250 words) 15

Linkage with Syllabus: 

Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices; Public Distribution System 

Linkage with PYQ:

  • What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and state levels? Critically analyze the agriculture subsidy regime with the reference to the distortions created by it. (2013)
  • Food security bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss various apprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO (2013)

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15. इलेक्ट्रिक वाहनों को अपनाना दुनिया भर में तेजी से बढ़ रहा है। कार्बन उत्सर्जन को कम करने में इलेक्ट्रिक वाहन कैसे योगदान करते हैं और पारंपरिक दहन इंजन वाहनों की तुलना में वे क्या प्रमुख लाभ प्रदान करते हैं? (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए)

The adoption of electric vehicles is rapidly growing worldwide. How do electric vehicles contribute to reducing carbon emissions and what are the key benefits they offer compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles? (Answer in 250 words ) 15

Link with Syllabus: Conservation, Environmental Pollution 

Link with PYQ: 

Describe the benefits of deriving electric energy from sunlight in contrast to the conventional energy generation. What are the initiatives offered by our Government for this purpose? (2020)

Link with CD Mains TS:

Expediting the migration to electric mobility (E-vehicles) will not just benefit India environmentally but also economically and socially? Discuss (15 Marks) (MEP 05)

Prediction for 2024

Forest Conservation 2023, Biodiversity amendment act 2023

16. भारत के तीसरे चंद्रमा मिशन का मुख्य कार्य क्या है जिसे इसके पहले के मिशन में हासिल नहीं किया जा सका? जिन देशों ने इस कार्य को हासिल कर लिया है उनकी सूची दीजिए। प्रक्षेपित अंतरिक्षयान की उपप्रणालियों को प्रस्तुत कीजिए और विक्रम साराभाई अंतरिक्ष केन्द्र के ‘आभासी प्रक्षेपण नियंत्रण केन्द्र’ की उस भूमिका का वर्णन कीजिए जिसने श्रीहरिकोटा से सफल प्रक्षेपण में योगदान दिया है। (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए)

What is the main task of India’s third moon mission that could not be achieved in its earlier mission? List the countries that have achieved this task. Introduce the subsystems in the spacecraft launched and explain the role of the Virtual Launch Control Centre’ at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre which contributed to the successful launch from Sriharikota. (Answer in 250 words) 15.

Linkage with Syllabus: Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology.

Linkage with PYQ:

India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbitter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics? Explain critically. (2017)

Linkage with CD mains TS:

Q17. From Chandrayaan 2 to Artemis 1 mission, many lunar missions are being undertaken. While discussing their objectives, highlight how they can improve our understanding of the universe? (FLT 3)

Predictions for 2024: Aditya Solar mission, India Stack, India and Quantum,Generic medicine

17. भारत सरकार द्वारा शुरू किए गए राष्ट्रीय आर्द्रभूमि संरक्षण कार्यक्रम पर टिप्पणी कीजिए और रामसर स्थलों में शामिल अंतर्राष्ट्रीय महत्त्व की भारत की कुछ आर्द्रभूमियों के नाम लिखिए। (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए

Comment on the National Wetland Conservation Programme initiated by the Government of India and name a few India’s wetlands of international importance included in the Ramsar Sites. (Answer in 250 words) 15

Link with Syllabus: 


Link with PYQ: 

What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India.(2018)

Link with CD mains TS: Smash mains 04

Q19. What are wetlands? Name some important wetlands in India. Discuss their role in ecological conservation in India and steps taken in their revival.

Prediction for 2024: 

Mangrove encroachment, Coral reef degradation,Floodplain encroachment

18. जलवायु परिवर्तन पर अंतर-सरकारी पैनल (आइ० पी० सी० सी०) ने वैश्विक समुद्र स्तर में 2100 ईस्वी तक लगभग एक मीटर की वृद्धि का पूर्वानुमान लगाया है। हिन्द महासागर क्षेत्र में भारत और दूसरे देशों में इसका क्या प्रभाव होगा ? (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted a global sea level rise of about one metre by AD 2100. What would be its impact in India and the other countries in the Indian Ocean region? (Answer in 250 words) 15

Linkage with syllabus: 

Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.

Linkage with PYQ: 

Discuss global warming and mention its effects on the global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gases which cause global warming, in the light of the Kyoto Protocol, 1997. (2022)

Linkage with CD mains TS: FLT 7

As per the IPCC report,Despite all efforts the global sea level rise will not see its nadir point and will remain a continuous process.Analyse the reasons behind the phenomenon.Suggest measures to be taken to make the coastal region of India safer in the coming times?

Prediction for 2024: 

Renewable energy, Air pollution and its impact. Climate change and its impact on Agriculture and food security

19. भारत द्वारा सामना की जाने वाली आंतरिक सुरक्षा चुनौतियाँ क्या हैं? ऐसे खतरों का मुकाबला करने के लिए नियुक्त केन्द्रीय खुफिया और जाँच एजेंसियों की भूमिका बताइए। (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए)

What are the internal security challenges being faced by India? Give out the role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies tasked to counter such threats. (Answer in 250 words ) 15

Linkage with Syllabus: 

Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.

Linkage with PYQ: 

  • Analyze internal security threats and transborder crimes along Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan borders including Line of Control (LoC). Also discuss the role played by various security forces in this regard . (2020)
  • How far are India’s internal security challenges linked with border management, particularly in view of the long porous borders with most countries of South Asia and Myanmar?

Linkage with CD mains TS: 

Q.9 In ensuring the security of India, the paramilitary forces have played a vital role in almost all the critical matters of internal and border security. Analyze. (FLT 11)

Q.20) Analyse the multidimensional challenges posed by various non- state actors to the internal security of India . Discuss the measures required to be taken to combat these threats.(FLT 11)

Predictions for 2024: 

Question will be asked on Cyber Security next year for sure

20. भारत में आतंकवाद के वित्तपोषण के प्रमुख स्रोत और इन स्रोतों की कटौती के लिए किए गए प्रयासों को बताइए। इस आलोक में, हाल ही में नयी दिल्ली में नवंबर 2022 में हुई ‘आतंकवाद के लिए धन नहीं (एन० एम० एफ० टी०) ‘ संगोष्ठी के लक्ष्य एवं उद्देश्य की भी विवेचना कीजिए। (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए)

Give out the major sources of terror funding in India and the efforts being made to curtail these sources. In the light of this, also discuss the aim and objective of the No Money for Terror (NMFT)’ Conference recently held at New Delhi in November 2022. (Answer in 250 words) 15

Linkage with Syllabus: 

Money-Laundering and its prevention, Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.

Linkage with PYQ:

 Discuss how emerging technologies and globalisation contribute to money laundering. Elaborate measures to tackle the problem of money laundering both at national and international levels. 

Linkage with CD mains TS: MEP Test 11

Q. With technological advancement terrorists, criminals, weapons and funds are also able to move across national boundaries easily. Discuss what steps can be taken at national and international level to curb the menace of terror financing?

Predictions for 2024: 

Question can be asked on organized crime, Money laundering and new sources of terror funding like the Dark web, Crpto, Hawala

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Usual Elements

Questions were asked on

  • Inclusive growth
  • Agriculture Subsidy
  • Economic growth
  • Terrorism
  • Border management
  • India and Science and Technology
  • Environmental degradation
  • Emerging technology
  • Government environmental program


No questions were asked from the following topics:

  • Budget, PPP, Food processing and FDI, LWE and North East
  • Sustainable Agriculture
  • Cyber security
  • DM theory part
  • PPP
  • Food processing

Analysis at 4 level:

Level 1: Themes asked

Level 2: Linkage with Syllabus vs Unexpected

Level 3: Linkage with PYQ

Level 4: Probable themes for 2024

UPSC Main 2023 GS 3 paper PDF

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