– Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
– Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
– Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights
Above is the syllabus of the science and technology for UPSC mains. If you see previous years UPSC prelim papers, you will see questions on these lines. Science and technology questions can be divided into two categories –
- Current affairs related questions – this involves latest developments, such as satellites launched by ISRO, or the latest advancements like LiFi in this years paper. These questions come in the current affairs test.
- Basic knowledge questions – for these NCERT’s are the best source. The specific NCERT’s are listed below –
- Science NCERT’s – Class VI and VII, VIII, IX and X
- Chemistry NCERT XI Class – Unit 14 (Environmental Chemistry)
- Chemistry NCERT XII Class – Unit 16 (Chemistry in Everyday Life) – No need to memorise the detailed chemical formulas
- Biology NCERT XI Class – Unit 4 (Plant Physiology – Chapters 11-15), 5 (Human Physiology – Chapters 16-22)
- Biology NCERT XII Class – Unit 8 (Biology in Human Welfare – Chapters 8, 9 and 10), 9 (Biotechnology – Chapters 11 and 12), 10 (Ecology – Chapters 13, 14, 15 and 16)
Read these thoroughly. Questions from these books can also come as environment questions.
A few sample questions with explanation from the upcoming test
Q.12) The mode of nutrition in which organisms take in nutrients in solution form from dead and decaying matter is called:
a) autotrophic nutrition
b) heterotrophic nutrition
c) saprotrophic nutrition
Explanation: The mode of nutrition in which organisms take in nutrients in solution form from dead and decaying matter is called saprotrophic nutrition. Plants which use saprotrophic mode of nutrition are called saprotrophs.
Source : NCERT 7th : Science, Chapter 1, Page 6
Tikdam – Try deciphering meaning of words. Autotrophs, auto means making themselves. Eliminated. Heterotrophs depend on plants but not the dead ones. Eliminated. Parasites need a living host in order to survive. You get the answer now.
Q.70) The water pollution in a water body is measured by dissolved amount of:
Explanation: Amount of oxygen required by bacteria to breakdown organic matter i.e. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) level decides water pollution level of a water body. Clean water would have BOD value of less than 5 ppm whereas highly polluted water could have a BOD value of 17 ppm or more.
Source : NCERT 11th : Chemistry, Unit 14, Page 407, UPSC Previous year question