01st June 2021
Geographical Indications in India
- A Geographical Indication is used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.
- Such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness which is essentially attributable to its origin in that defined geographical locality.
- This tag is valid for a period of 10 years following which it can be renewed.
- Recently the Union Minister of Commerce and Industry has launched the logo and tagline for the Geographical Indications (GI) of India.
- The first product to get a GI tag in India was the Darjeeling tea in 2004.
- The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 (GI Act) is a sui generis Act for the protection of GI in India.
- India, as a member of the WTO, enacted the Act to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.
- Geographical Indications protection is granted through the TRIPS Agreement.
Two well-known products from Tamil Nadu — Dindigul lock and Kandangi Saree — have been given the Geographical Indication (GI) tag by The Geographical Indications Registry in Chennai.
- The Dindigul locks are known throughout the world for their superior quality and durability, so much so that even the city is called Lock City.
- Government institutions such as prisons, godowns, hospitals, and even temples use these locks instead of other machine-made ones.
- The application for the lock was made by the Dindigul Lock, Hardware and Steel Furniture Workers Industrial Co-operative Society Limited.
- More than 3,125 lock manufacturing units are limited to an area of 5 km in and around Dindigul.
- The abundance of iron in this region is the reason for the growth of the industry.
- There are over 50 varieties of locks made by the artisans using raw materials such as MS flat plates and brass plates procured from the nearby towns, including Madurai and Salem.
The Kandangi sarees
- The Kandangi sarees are manufactured in the entire Karaikudi taluk in Sivaganga district.
- They are characterised by large contrast borders and some are known to have borders covering as far as two-thirds of the saree which is usually around 5.10 m-5.60 m in length.
- Worn in summer, these cotton sarees are usually bought by customers in bulk.
- The Amarar Rajeev Gandhi Handloom Weavers Co-operative Production and Sales Society Limited filed the application for the Kandangi saree.
- PalaniPanchamirtham, an abishegaPrasadam, from Palani Town is one of the main offerings in the Abisegam of Lord Dhandayuthapani Swamy, the presiding deity of the Temple.
- It is a combination of five natural substances, namely, banana, jaggery sugar, cow ghee, honey and cardamom in a definite proportion.
- It is prepared in a natural method without addition of any preservatives or artificial ingredients and is well known for its religious fervour and gaiety.
- This is the first time a temple ‘prasadam’ from Tamil Nadu has been bestowed with the GI tag.
- Tawlhlohpuan, a medium to heavy, compactly woven, good quality fabric from Mizoram is known for warp yarns, warping, weaving & intricate designs that are made by hand.
- Tawlhloh, in Mizo language, means ‘to stand firm or not to move backward’. Tawlhlohpuan, which holds high significance in the Mizo society, is produced throughout the state of Mizoram, Aizawl and Thenzawl town being the main centre of production.
- Mizo Puanchei, a colourful Mizo shawl/textile, from Mizoram, is considered as the most colourful among the Mizo textiles.
- It is an essential possession for every Mizo lady and an important marriage outfit in the state.
- It is also the most commonly used costume in Mizo festive dances and official ceremonies.
- The weavers insert the designs and motifs by using supplementary yarns while weaving to create this beautiful and alluring textile.
Tirur betel vine
- Tirur betel vine from Kerala is mainly cultivated in Tirur, Tanur, Tirurangadi, Kuttippuram, Malappuram and Vengara block panchayaths of Malappuram District.
- It is valued both for its mild stimulant action and medicinal properties.
- Even though it is commonly used for making pan masala for chewing, it has many medicinal, industrial and cultural usages and is considered as a remedy for bad breath and digestive disorders.
Panchamirtham’ of Palani temple gets GI tag
- The famous Palani panchamirtham, given as ‘prasadam’ at the Murugan temple at Palani has been granted the Geographical Indication (GI) tag.
- This is the first time a temple ‘prasadam’ from Tamil Nadu has been given the GI tag.
About the Panchamirtham
- It is sweet in taste and one of the main offerings for Lord Dhandayuthapani Swamy, the presiding deity of Arulmigu Dhandayuthapani Swamy Temple, situated on Palani Hills.
- The panchamirtham is a combination of five natural substances — banana, jaggery, cow ghee, honey and cardamom.
- Dates and diamond sugar candies are added for flavour.
- The panchamirtham is an ‘abhishega prasadam’ (food that is a religious offering), which is served in a semi-solid state.
- Not even a single drop of water is added during the preparation of the panchamirtham.
- This gives it its classic semi-solid consistency and taste. No preservatives or artificial ingredients are used.
- Pashmina is a fine type of cashmere wool. The textiles made from it were first woven in Kashmir.
- The wool comes from a number of different breeds of the cashmere goat; such as the changthangi or Kashmir pashmina goat from the Changthang Plateau in Tibet and part of the Ladakh region and few parts of Himachal Pradesh.
- Often shawls called shahmina are made from this material in Kashmir and Nepal; these shawls are hand spun and woven from the very fine cashmere fibre.
- Traditional producers of pashmina wool are people known as the Changpa.
About Kodaikanal’s malai poondu Garlic
- Also known by its scientific name Allium Sativum, this particular garlic is known for its medicinal and preservative properties. It is grown in the Kodaikanal Hills, Dindugul district.
- It has anti-oxidant and anti-microbial potential, which is attributed to the presence of higher amount of organosulfur compounds, phenols and flavonoids compared to other garlic varieties.
- Its usually white or pale yellow and each bulb weighs 20-30g on an average.
- According to the GI application, Kodaikanal Hill Garlic cultivation is done twice in a year, once around May and for second time in November depending upon the suitability of the climate.
- The hill altitude, the misty condition and the soil prevailing in the Kodaikanal region are responsible for its medicinal property and the long storage shelf life of the garlic.
- According to the GI application made by the two states, Kolhapuris can be traced back to the 12th century King Bijjal who ruled Bidar in Karnataka.
- His prime minister Vishwaguru Basavanna wanted to create a casteless society and remove the stigma associated with the cobbler community.
- The community embraced Lingayat faith and used its creative skills to start producing footwear known equally for its ruggedness and regal bearing.
- Brand Kolhapuri came into being only in the beginning of 20th century when the footwear began to be traded in Kolhapur.
- Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj (1874-1922) of Kolhapur encouraged its production and 29 tanning centres were opened during his rule in Kolhapur.
- Kandhamal in Odisha’s southern hinterland is famed for its turmeric, a spice that enjoys its pride of place in an array of cuisines.
- The agricultural product also stands out for its healing properties and arresting aroma.
- The GI tag was primarily developed with the purpose of recognising the unique identity connecting different products and places.
- For a product to get GI tag it has to have a unique quality, reputation or characteristic which is attributable to its geographic origin. ‘Kandhamal Haldi’ has been placed under Class-30 type.
GI Tag for 5 Indian Coffee varieties
Coorg Arabica coffee
- It is grown specifically in the region of Kodagu district in Karnataka.
Wayanaad Robusta coffee
- It is grown specifically in the region of Wayanad district which is situated on the eastern portion of Kerala.
Chikmagalur Arabica coffee
- It is grown specifically in the region of Chikmagalur district and it is situated in the Deccan plateau, belongs to the Malnad region of Karnataka.
Araku Valley Arabica coffee
- It is coffee from the hilly tracks of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha region at an elevation of 900-1100 Mt MSL.
- The coffee produce of Araku, by the tribals, follows an organic approach in which they emphasise management practices involving substantial use of organic manures, green manuring and organic pest management practices.
Bababudangiris Arabica coffee
- It is grown specifically in the birthplace of coffee in India and the region is situated in the central portion of Chikmagalur district.
- Selectively hand-picked and processed by natural fermentation, the cup exhibits full body, acidity, mild flavour and striking aroma with a note of chocolate.
- This coffee is also called high grown coffee which slowly ripens in the mild climate and thereby the bean acquires a special taste and aroma.
- It is cultivated in Yellapura, Siddapura and Sirsi taluks.
- Totgars’ Cooperative Sale Society Ltd., Sirsi, is the registered proprietor of the GI.
- The arecanut grown in these taluks have unique features like a round and flattened coin shape, particular texture, size, cross-sectional views, taste, etc.
- These features are not seen in arecanut grown in any other regions.
- The lychee crop, which is available from May to June, is mainly cultivated in the districts of Muzaffarpur and surrounding districts.
- Cultivation of litchi covers approximately an area of about 25,800 hectares producing about 300,000 tonnes every year.
- India’s share in the world litchi market amounts to less than 1%.
- The names of the litchi produced in Muzaffarpur are Shahi and China.
- The fruits are known for excellent aroma and quality.
King of Mangoes gets GI tag
- Alphonso from Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Palghar, Thane and Raigad districts of Maharashtra, is registered as Geographical Indication (GI).
- The king of mangoes, Alphonso, better known as ‘Hapus’ in Maharashtra, is in demand in domestic and international markets not only for its taste but also for pleasant fragrance and vibrant colour.
- It has long been one of the world’s most popular fruit and is exported to various countries including Japan, Korea and Europe.
- New markets such as USA and Australia have recently opened up.
GI Tag for Telangana
- The Chennai-based GI Registry gave Geographical Indication certificate for Warangal dhurries
- The shatranji carpets and jainamaaz prayer mats are made in Warangal
Specialty of carpets
- Bright colors, geometrically repetitive patterns and interlocking zigzag motifs in cotton and jute are the signature styles of the carpets
- One of the newest innovations by the weavers here is an adaptation of tie-dyed ikat techniques and hand-painted or block-printed kalamkari designs for the dhurries to save time and energy.
- Kalamkari or qalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile, produced in Iran and
- Its name originates in the Persian, which is derived from the words qalam (pen) and kari (craftsmanship),
meaning drawing with a pen
- There are two distinctive styles of kalamkari art in India – the Srikalahasti style and the Machilipatnam
- The Srikalahasti style of kalamkari, wherein the "kalam" or pen is used for freehand drawing of the
subject and filling in the colors is entirely hand worked
- The Pedana Kalamkari craft made at Pedana nearby Machilipatnam in Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh,
evolved with the patronage of the Mughals and the Golconda sultanate
MP gets GI tag for a chicken breed
- Madhya Pradesh has received the Geographical Indications (GI) tag for Kadaknath, a chicken breed whose black meat is in demand in some quarters
- The protein-rich meat of Kadaknath, chicks, and eggs are sold at a much higher rate than other varieties of chicken.
- GI certification of Ghovad Sapota is held by Maharashtra Rajya Chikoo Utpadak Sangh and the fruit is known for its sweet and unique taste.
- It is believed that the unique taste is derived from the calcium-rich soil of Gholvad village.
- Currently, in the Palgahr district, around 5000 hectares of land is under sapota or plantation.
- Sapota is grown in many states- Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.
- Karnataka is known to be the highest grower of the fruit, followed by Maharashtra.
- India is the second-largest producer of litchi (Litchi chin) in the world, after China.
- The translucent, flavored aril or edible flesh of the litchi is popular as a table fruit in India, while in China and Japan it is preferred in dried or canned form.
- Shahi litchi was the fourth agricultural product to get GI certification from Bihar in 2018, after Jardalu mango, Katarni rice, and Magahi paan.
- GI registration for Shahi Litchi is held with the Muzaffarpur-based Litchi Growers Association of Bihar.
- Muzzafarpur, Vaishali, Samastipur, Champaran, Begusarai districts and adjoining areas of Bihar have favorable climate for growing Shahi Litchi.
- Channapatna toys are a particular form of wooden toys (and dolls) that are manufactured in the town of Channapatna in the Ramanagara district of Karnataka.
- This traditional craft is protected as a geographical indication (GI) under the World Trade Organization, administered by the state govt.
- As a result of the popularity of these toys, Channapatna is known as Gombegala Ooru (toy-town) of Karnataka.
- Traditionally, the work involved lacquering the wood of the Wrightia tinctoria tree, colloquially called Aale mara (ivory-wood).
- Their manufacture goes back at least 200 years according to most accounts and it has been traced to the era of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan in the 18th century.
- The toys are laced with vegetable dyes and colours devoid of chemicals and hence they are safe for children.
Sohrai Khovar painting
- The Sohrai Khovar painting is a traditional and ritualistic mural art being practised by local tribal women in the area of Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand.
- The painting is primarily being practised only in the district of Hazaribagh. However, in recent years, for promotional purposes, it has been seen in other parts of Jharkhand.
- It is prepared during local harvest and marriage seasons using local, naturally available soils of different colours in the area.
- Traditionally painted on the walls of mud houses, they are now seen on other surfaces, too.
- The style features a profusion of lines, dots, animal figures and plants, often representing religious iconography.
- In recent years, the walls of important public places in Jharkhand, such as the Birsa Munda Airport in Ranchi, and the Hazaribagh and Tatanagar Railway Stations, among others, have been decorated with these paintings.
- Telia Rumal cloth involves intricate handmade work with cotton loom displaying a variety of designs and motifs in three particular colours — red, black and white.
- The Rumal can only be created using the traditional handloom process and not by any other mechanical means as otherwise, the very quality of the Rumal would be lost.
- During the Nizam’s dynasty, Puttapaka, a small, backward village of the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh had about 20 families engaged in handloom weaving, who were patronized by rich families and the Nizam rulers.
- The officers working in the court of the Nizam would wear the Chituki Telia Rumal as a symbolic representation of status.
- Telia Rumals were worn as a veil by princesses at the erstwhile court of the Nizam of Hyderabad, and as a turban cloth by Arabs in the Middle East.
- Chak-Hao, the scented glutinous rice which has been in cultivation in Manipur over centuries.
- It is characterized by its special aroma. It is normally eaten during community feasts and is served as Chak-Hao kheer.
- The application for Chak-Hao was filed by the Consortium of Producers of Chak-Hao (Black Rice), Manipur and was facilitated by the Department of Agriculture.
- Chak-Hao has also been used by traditional medical practitioners as part of traditional medicine.
- According to the GI application filed, this rice takes the longest cooking time of 40-45 minutes due to the presence of a fibrous bran layer and higher crude fibre content.
- At present, the traditional system of Chak-Hao cultivation is practised in some pockets of Manipur.
- Direct sowing of pre-soaked seeds and also transplantation of rice seedlings raised in nurseries in puddled fields are widely practised in the State’s wetlands.
- The terracotta work of Gorakhpur is a centuries-old traditional art form, where the potters make various animal figures like, horses, elephants, camel, goat, ox, etc. with hand-applied ornamentation.
- The application was filed by Laxmi Terracotta Murtikala Kendra in Uttar Pradesh.
- Some of the major products of craftsmanship include the Hauda elephants, Mahawatdar horse, deer, camel, five-faced Ganesha, singled-faced Ganesha, elephant table, chandeliers, hanging bells etc.
- The entire work is done with bare hands and artisans use natural colour, which stays fast for a long time.
- There are more than 1,000 varieties of terracotta work designed by the local craftsmen.
- The craftsmen are mainly spread over the villages of Aurangabad, Bharwalia, Langadi Gularia, Budhadih, Amawa, Ekla etc. in Bhathat and Padri Bazar, Belwa Raipur, Jungle Ekla No-1, Jungle Ekla No-2 in Chargawan block of Gorakhpur.
Kovilpatti kadalai mittai
- It is a candy made of peanuts held together with glistening syrup, and topped with wisps of grated coconut dyed pink, green and yellow.
- It is made using all natural ingredients such as the traditional and special ‘vellam’ (jaggery) and groundnuts and water from the river Thamirabarani is used in the production, which enhances the taste naturally.
- It is manufactured in Kovilpatti and adjacent towns and villages in Thoothukudi district.
- It is produced by using both groundnuts and jaggery (organic jaggery), in carefully selected quantities from selected specific locations in Tamil Nadu.
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