Climate change is real. Its impact on India is high. What steps do you think India should put on a priority basis to tackle climate change and its effects? (250 Words)

Mentors Comments:
1. Climate change – facts: India specific
2. What are the unique threats India faces
3. What can be done to address the impact?

Climate change is certainly without argument the most serious global environmental crisis that we face. It is not the only environmental problem, but it is unique in its multi-scalar characteristic, from the global to the local. And, in many ways, it is arguably the most immediate of our problems.

India is the 13th most vulnerable country to climate change. Since more than 60 per cent of its agriculture is rainfed and it hosts 33 per cent of the world’s poor, climate change will have significant impacts on the food and nutritional security.

Following are the impact of Climate Change on India:
1. Impact on water Resources: Change in climate is expected to have long-term implications on the quality and quantity of water. According to NATCOM there will be decline in runoff in all river basins in India except Narmada and Tapi.
2. Impact on agriculture and Food resources: According to Indian Agricultural Research Institute, climate change will have adverse impact on Rabi crop- for every 1°C rise in temperature, the estimated loss of wheat is 4-5 million tonnes
3. Rise in extreme weather events: Climate change has increased India’s vulnerability of extreme events. The 2019 high intensity Faini cyclone and dust storms in north India was attributed to climate change.
4. Impact on Human Health: Changes in climate may alter distribution of vector species (malaria mosquitoes) and may increase vulnerability to diseases. Further rising heat waves and cold waves have adversely affected human health.
5. Impact on Forest Cover: According to studies, large areas of forest in India are likely to experience shift in forest types due to climate change. For example: xeric scrublands will increase.
6. Impact on Coastal Areas: A sea-level rise of 46-59cm in India by 2100 is estimated by NATCOM. Rising sea level and increasing tropical cyclone events pose great threat to coastal areas in India.
7. Impact on Land: According to The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) report on ‘Climate Change and Land’, it will lead to Reduced Photosynthesis, restrict growth rates of leaves and reduce the growth of the whole tree, Increased Aridity etc.
8. Impact of on India’s regions- Different physiographic regions of India will have different impact. For instance, the Indo-Gangetic plain is one of the most populous and productive agricultural ecosystems in the world. Climate change will result in both flood and drought, impacting agriculture in the region.

Issues and challenges regarding Climate Change mitigation in India:
1. Poverty: According to multidimensional poverty index, 53% of Indians are multidimensional poor. Lack of inclusive policies and unresolved debate between environment and development would make poor and tribal people more vulnerable to climate change related activities.
2. Funding: Absence of well established green equity and debt markets in India along with USA pulling out of Paris Agreement has further complicated the funding mechanisms.
3. Technology: India lacks poorly in power efficient technologies like solar technologies and efficient thermal power plants. Low budgetary allocations towards research and development especially in the field of climate change makes India dependent on developed nations for technology transfer.
4. Data: India has inadequate mechanisms to collect data on climate change in India. Example: the changing flowering pattern of plants, breeding seasons of migratory birds, etc.
5. Lack of awareness: Despite numerous government initiatives, the solution to climate change lies with the people themselves. However, the lack of awareness among people hinders the success of various initiatives aiming at combating climate change.

Initiatives taken by India to combat climate change:
1. Commitment to Paris Agreement on Climate Change, 2015. For instance, Reduce emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35% by 2030 from 2005 levels.
2. National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC): The Action plan covers eight major missions on Solar, Enhanced Energy Efficiency, Sustainable Habitat, Water, Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, Green India, Sustainable Agriculture and Strategic Knowledge on Climate Change.
3. Integration of climate change mitigation and adaptation measures in forest management through the mechanism of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus)
4. International Solar Alliance (ISA):  The vision and mission of the alliance is to provide a dedicated platform for cooperation among solar resource rich countries that lie completely or partial between the Tropics of Capricorn & Cancer.
5. FAME Scheme for E-mobility: It aims to boost sales of eco-friendly vehicles in the country. It is a part of the National Mission for Electric Mobility.
6. Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT) for Smart Cities.
7. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana: It aims to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels and conventional fuel like cow dung for cooking food, thus reducing air pollution.

Way Forward
1. It is important to build resilience among rural and urban communities to deal with natural disasters, adapt to environmental changes, and manage potential risk arising out of climate change
2. A public policy for corporate social responsibility should be formulated at national level considering disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation
3. Research and development backed with adequate funding should be encouraged to develop and promote green technologies.
4. There should be adequate focus on educating people about climate change. Behavioural change among the masses is important to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change
5. Climate Change is one of the most alarming issues of 21st century, all the countries should address the issue with a shared perspective

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4 years ago

Please review and give your valuable suggestions

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4 years ago

IPCC report 2018 highlights the impact of global rise of temperature by 1.5 degree Celsius is going to more catastrophic on populous nations like India where majority of depend on agriculture.
the major implications of climate change:-
1-Change in monsoon pattern:- with regular monsoon arrival by may-June will be delayed , EL-NINO factors may arise.
2- Sea level rise- with excessive heating along the sea may lead to rise in sea level and it may cause its effect on coastal states and islands, even marine life will be disturbed.
3- change in biodiversity- it may affect the food chain among the animals and birds , plants , even migration pattern gets affect. eg- every year the birds migration along the Asian flyway is reduced.
4-Rise in heat wave and temperature- according to world bank India average temperature may rise upto 29 degree Celsius by 2050. This may intensify rate of disease and deaths caused due to it.
5-Economic loss- as per report of ILO India may loose 30 million jobs due to climate change and climate change may cause shrink in India GDP by 10% as per world bank.
major steps that can be taken in order to curb or restrict climate change:
1- climate change specific policy need to be framed , keep in mind the key areas most prone to climate change like – arid and semi arid regions and coastal states.
2-green economy need to be promoted by investing more on renewable and non-polluting power generating resources. Coal and other green house gas producing resources need to curbed down
3-Afforestation need to promoted especially along side the factories.
4-CRZ need to more strengthen
5- GST need to be lowered on electric and renewable energy resources.
6-Agriculturist need to made aware of causes of stubble burning and more eco-friendly measures.
7- Infrastructure need to be regulated in forest and wetland areas.
Overall climate change is not individualistic in nature it is universal hence all stakeholders and people need to come together and abide by the principles of Vienna convention , Montreal protocol , pairs climate summit etc. in order to mitigate and lower climate change.

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4 years ago

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Zubia Shaikh
Zubia Shaikh
4 years ago

Awaiting a review.

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4 years ago

Please review

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4 years ago

please review m answer .

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