- In the introduction briefly expalin the human nature regarding life.
- In the body first explain reasons why people continuously try to make life safe and secure. Give views by various philosophers. Give examples and present your viewpoints.
- Conclude with a fair and balanced approach.
According to Thomas Hobbes human beings always try to secure their lives and their interests. This is animal nature of human. Every animal tries to make its life safe and secure from threats of surrounding environment. In similar way, human being also tries to protect self. In pursuance of these efforts, they may act in selfish manner or wrongful conduct. Human actions are guided or motivated by various external and internal factors.
Need for secure life
1. To fulfil the basic needs of life
2. To enhance or enrich one’s life both materialistically and spiritually
3. To face the uncertainties associated with life
4. To maintain physical and mental well being
In this pursuit often at times people tend to become ethically egoistic where they act in selfinterest, doing things that only maximizes our happiness and minimize their unhappiness.
Negative impacts of such acts
1. Universalization of selfishness
2. Creating anarchy in the society
3. Contradictions with altruism
3. Does not resolve conflict of interest- Self-centred choices
4. Against public service principle
5. Ignores the interest of future generations- Global warming and Climate Change
Aristotle viewed human nature from positive perspective. He says that human is political, social and
benign animal. It is broader view of human behaviour. In general, people tend to behave in moral
manner. They tend to uphold human values such as trust, love, compassion, respect etc.
1. Not always detrimental
1. The motivation to help family members and friends is one’s personal connection to them and the distress that would be caused by their misfortune or suffering.
2. Self-preservation is the first law of existence- Mandeville
3. Individual’s self-interest promotes society’s general interest
4. All of our commonly accepted moral duties, from doing no harm to others to speaking truth and keeping promises are rooted in one fundamental principle of self interest.
Jesus said “love thy neighbour as thyself” which is clearly demonstrating a balance between your own needs and those of others – yes you should care about and look after yourself, but you should also recognise the humanity in other people and care about them too: you should not hurt them and where possible you should help them.
Even while pursuing selfish ends, people have to ensure that they can pursue such ends over the long term. If people are too brazen or aggressive in pursuing their selfish ends to the extent of riding roughshod over others, they will meet resistance, people will be wary of them and will avoid them. Then they cannot pursue their ends.