(a) Work ethics are the basic values that are followed by employees in an organization, It represents a commitment to the fulfillment of one’s official responsibilities with a spirit of dedication, involvement and sincerity. It also implies that a government functionary would love his work and not treat it as a burden. And that efficiency, productivity and punctuality will be the hallmarks of his administrative behaviour. It is important to have positive work culture as it increases the efficiency of the employees.
(b) In Indian society, it is customary to show respect to superiors and to refrain from criticism of higher authorities. In government office any voice against the superior is considered as an act of insubordination. In such a cultural climate, even the honest employees do not speak out against the unethical practices of their seniors. All this represents a misplaced loyalty. Showing respect to seniors is good but it should not be supporting them in their wrong acts or deeds. At times where the situation demands, whistleblowing should be considered a legitimate and rational activity.
(c) Accountability is taking responsibility for one’s actions. Ethics and accountability are closely related. Effective accountability helps the achievement of ethical standards in governance system. Legislative control through questions, debates and committees provide ample opportunity to people’s representatives to raise among others,
issues of ethics and morality in the governance system. Ethics can be considered a form of self accountability or an inner – check on public administrators conduct.
(d) Self-imposed morality comes from within while state imposed laws are laws enforced from outside. While self imposed morality is not enforceable the state can enforce laws through the baton wielding police and the highly complicated law courts. But, to make sure that the laws are followed properly, it is important that the moral values are taught to the people and they follow laws due to their self-conscience of the moral responsibility rather than the fear of the police.