Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief.
• Much of the debate in epistemology centres on four areas:
(1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification,
(2) various problems of skepticism,
(3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and
(4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.
• The social and religious beliefs in any nation or country evolve over the years from their
greater and lower traditions based on history, culture, reality, myths and superstitions. The believers in social customs and religion are guided more by faith than rationality.
• Scientific temper, however, demands that a set of beliefs and values relevant in a particular social context may not be valid in changed time and contexts especially with change in the meaning and understanding of justice, equality, humanity and even people’s aspirations.
• Thus the laws need to be architectured according to the faith and beliefs of the people,
because laws are for the people and not the other way round.
• Nevertheless, in modern times, laws and judgments in the courts cannot be left totally on
what people believe. Even if faiths are respected, the changing understanding and aspirations of the people require that laws and judgments should be based on scientific temper and rational criteria with proper amount of brainstorming and taking into consideration the elements of change and progress.
• Issues of jallikattu and triple talaq should be seen in these light- first is an ancient tradition, which cannot be justified being an ancient tradition while the other was the byproduct of a particular social arrangement of the medieval time, not relevant for the present context when women aspire to have equality and dignity on one hand and patriarchal biases against them are against democratic rights.