Q.1) With the arrival of Lord William Bentinck the British Indian State experienced ‘The Wind of Change’. Comment (10 Marks)

“Mentor’s Comments”

Introduction-
Briefly write about the tenure of Lord Bentinck and connect it with changed nature of state under his rule.

Body-
In first part of the body write in brief about the policies ( War and Expansion) of various predecessor of Lord Bentinck like Clive, Cornwallis, Wellesley etc.

In the next section talk in greater details about the policies and reforms in various fields like social, public service, judicial, financial, education etc. during the tenure of Lord Bentinck.

Conclusion
conclude either with long term impact of these reforms or pointing out not much significant change has taken place in the life of Indians as basic nature of state remained colonial and exploitative.

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Kavita Sirohiya
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2 months ago

Lord William Bentinck served as first Governor General of India between 1828 and 1835 .his tenure is known for social reforms. This seven years period provided a break from past policy of wars and annexations which started under Robert Clive.

Policy of wars and Annexations before William Bentinck-

-Battle of Plassey in 1757 under Robert Clive
-Battle of Buxar in 1764 under Hector Munro
-First Anglo-Maratha war, Second Anglo-Mysore war under William Hastings
-Third Anglo-Mysore war under Lord Cornwallis
-Fourth Anglo-Mysore war under Lord Wellesley
-The policy of subsidiary alliance brought by Wellesley and under it, the annexation of Hyderabad, Mysore etc.
-First Indo-Burma War (1824-26) under Lord Amherst.

In sharp contrast to the policy of wars and annexations, William Bentinck’s tenure is known for a number of reforms undertaken in various fields like Social, public service, Judicial, Financial, Education etc

1.Social Reforms

-Abolition of Sati and cruel rites in 1829
-Suppression of Infanticide and child sacrifices
-Suppression of Thugi
2.Public Service Reforms
-No distinction on the basis of religion, place of birth, descent or colour in public service recruitment under Charter act of 1833.
3.Liberal Policy towards press
-He believed press to be safety-valve for discontent and adopted a liberal policy towards it.

4.Education Reforms
-He defined the aim of education and English as a medium of instruction.
-Committee on public instruction under Macaulay was set up.

5.Financial Reforms
-Set up 2 committees to recommend economy in expenditure.
-Reduced bhattas of military officers, reduced allowances of civil servants.
-Employed Indians as far as possible.
-Opium trade was regularised and licensed.
-Encouraged iron and coal production, tea and coffee plantations, irrigation systems.
-Land revenue collection increased under him.

6.Judicial Reforms
-Abolished provincial courts of appeal set up by Lord Cornwallis.
-A separate Sadr Nizamat and Sadr Diwani Adalat was set up at Allahabad.
-Vernacular languages other Persian can also be used as court language.
-In higher courts, English replaced Persian.
-Qualified Indians were appointed at the Junior judicial post of munsiffs.

7.Policy towards Indian states
-Non-interference as far as possible even though strong reasons were available for intervention in Jodhpur, Bundi, Kota, Jaipur, Bhopal.
-Treaty of Perpetual policy with Ranjit Singh.

However, there was the deviation from above policy. He annexed Coorg, Mysore and Cachar on the plea of misgovernance. In addition, Lord Bentinck was Utilitarian who wanted to change India by rule of law and implemented these policies to lay down a strong foundation for the British imperialism.

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