What is Joint Forest Management (JFM)? Highlight its potential in improving the livelihood of the forest dwellers and fringe forest communities.

Mentors Comments:
Explain the term Joint Forest Management with respect to India.
Through examples, highlight the significance of participation by local communities in Joint Forest Management with the government authorities.
Mention the challenges and issues that JFM is facing.
Mention the improvements that the Joint Forest Committee has made/ can make with respect to the lives of forest dweller


Joint Forest Management (JFM) is partnership involving both the forest departments and local communities in natural forest management. The concept was introduced by Government of India through the National Forest Policy of 1988.

Under JFM, village communities are entrusted with the protection and management of nearby forests.
The communities are required to organize forest protection committees, village forest committees, village forest conservation and development societies, etc.
Each of these bodies has an executive committee that manages its day-to-day affairs.
In return of their services to the forests, the communities get the benefit of using minor non-timber forest produce.
As a result, the forest can be conserved in a sustainable manner.

For example:
Controlled grazing of cattle by the Gaddi and Gujjar tribes in the Himalayan states prevents the widespread growth of wild grass, thus contributing towards conservation of biodiversity.
Bishnoi community of Rajasthan plays a very significant role in ecological conservation.
Joint conservation effort with the nomadic tribe of Maldharis, living in vicinity of Gir National Park, has contributed to the improvement of lion population.

The potential role of Joint Forest Management in improving the livelihood of the forest dwellers and fringe forest communities are as follows:
For working in coordination with villagers, Forest Committees are constituted, which play an active role to increase the agriculture and forest production and processing their produce.
Employment opportunities, such as sustainable tourism are created in villages so that villagers are dissuaded from illicit felling and encroachment of forests.
Attempts are made to provide other basic facilities so that pressure on forest is minimized.
The Panchayat (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 along with the Forest Rights Act plays a significant role towards ensuring entitlement to forest dwellers.
A specific woman sub-committee in the Joint Forest Management Committee (JFMC) ensures gender balance.
The JFMC provides training on animal husbandry, poultry farming, dairy development and
managing small forestry enterprises along with implementation of the National Rural Employment Guarantee programme in fringe forest areas.
Non-wood forest products (NWFP) are also important to JFM. NWFP are integral to lifestyle of forest-dependent communities. They fulfill basic requirements, provide gainful employment during lean periods and supplement incomes from agriculture and wage labor. Medicinal plants collected through JFM have an important role in rural health.

Challenges to JFM:
The JFM programme faces existential crisis.
On the one hand, legislations like the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006, and the Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act, 1996, have come into existence, giving rights to tribals and forest dwellers over forest resources and their management.
On the other hand, communities demand the huge sums forest departments owe them under the programme.
Questions are being raised whether the programme should be scrapped.
Implementation of JFM programmes is expensive. The cost of afforestation, for example, is about Rs 20,000 per ha.
Lack of legal status and financial and executive powers for FPCs.
Forest Department in certain States vested with arbitrary powers to dissolve FPCs.
Faulty design of micro-plans and management plans.
Absence of participation by women in spite of their formal representation in management committees.
Unreasonable controls over the duration of exploitation of admitted resources leading to low level of exploitation of admitted NTFPs.
Excessive rule and regulations.
Inadequate remuneration for local communities from JFM activities.
Inter and intra-community conflicts that hamper FPC functioning.
Denial of rights on disposal over valuable NTFPs to local communities.

JFM micro-planning needs to ensure people participation in management of forest. It should help to access the needs of the participating community and scope for development of the region or resource. It needs to plan, project and regulate the benefit flow to the participant in consultation with them. It should identify and highlight the local resources and set priorities for resource development based on site conditions and available funds.

Notify of
Newest Most Voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
User Avatar
4 years ago


User Avatar
4 years ago

Q4 not checked

User Avatar
4 years ago


User Avatar
4 years ago


User Avatar
4 years ago

Pls review

New Doc 2019-08-01 22.52.25_1.jpg
New Doc 2019-08-01 22.52.25_2.jpg
New Doc 2019-08-01 22.52.25_3.jpg
User Avatar
4 years ago


User Avatar
Vishwanath Pratap Singh
4 years ago


User Avatar
4 years ago


User Avatar

Question 1, Sir Please Review My Answer.

User Avatar
4 years ago

Payment ID: MOJO9802W00A98715356
Please review.

User Avatar
4 years ago



Join us across Social Media platforms.

💥Mentorship New Batch Launch
💥Mentorship New Batch Launch