From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Not much
Mains level : Paper 2- India-China tension and India's response
- Identifying the nature of the threat posed by China is important to formulate a response. This article discusses the plan of action on the diplomatic, strategic and economic front to deal with Chinese aggression.
Economic angle of China’s expansionism
- The Chinese growth model needed to find subservient emerging markets.
- In these markets, China can park huge debts and make investments to keep feeding China’s high growth rates.
- Friendly foreign debt-investment markets were needed to compensate for over-investment at home.
- The Belt and Road Initiative was rolled out as a meeting point for China’s geo-strategic and geo-economic interests.
- China has expanded its global footprint by signing on about 100 countries to the BRI.
- China has made aggressive moves on most of its non-submissive neighbours in the South China Sea.
- China has also made moves against its traditional rivals like Japan and Taiwan to independent-minded nations like South Korea and Australia.
- China sees itself as a global power whose time has come.
India needs to play clearer role
- Rise of China is shaking up global alignments and shaping new world order.
- The Trump administration is increasingly being criticised for not providing global leadership.
- India could afford to be largely non-aligned during the 20th century Cold War.
- Our size and economic momentum necessitate that we play a clearer role in the Cold War’s 21st-century sequel.
- India’s foreign policy has lacked a clear vision about China.
- India has been deepening our strategic relationship with the US but without wanting to alarm China.
India’s relation with neighbours
- India’s relations with other neighbouring nations have also become a cause of concern.
- Pakistan has practically become a minion state for the Chinese – the $62-billion CPEC is a case in the point.
- Nepal is no longer on our list of all-weather friends.
- Chinese influence is growing in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh — both signatories to the BRI.
- And just last week, Beijing, sent another appallingly stern message to our loyal friend, Bhutan, by making ridiculous territorial claims.
What should be India’s plan of action
- Dealing with China will require conviction and exercising a range of military, diplomatic and economic options.
- One forum we need to build on and provide leadership to is the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue.
- India should now propose the expansion of the Quad’s scope with a possible exploration of a collective defence architecture like NATO.
- The membership of the Quad should be expanded to include Vietnam, South Korea, New Zealand, and Malaysia.
- On the economic front, India must welcome the US proposal to expand G7 to include India, Russia, Australia and South Korea without China as a member.
- Next area of focus should be strengthening ties with our neighbourhood.
- Effort must be made to regain the relationship with Russia.
China must be made to choose: Is it willing to push the equally proud, equally numerous, equally historical and glorious civilisation to the south in this long-term direction for a few square kilometres of territory and a round of chest-thumping?