From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Review Petition, Curative Petition
Mains level : Capital Punishment and its justification
Curative petitions were filed in the Supreme Court by two convicts in the Nirbhaya case after their execution was scheduled. The case had shocked the nation and led to the tightening of anti-rape laws. Rape, especially gang rape, is now a capital crime.
- The concept of Curative petition was evolved by the Supreme Court of India in the matter of Rupa Ashok Hurra vs. Ashok Hurra and Anr. (2002) Judgement.
- The question was whether an aggrieved person is entitled to any relief against the final judgement/order of the Supreme Court, after dismissal of a review petition.
- The Supreme Court in the said case held that in order to prevent abuse of its process and to cure gross miscarriage of justice, it may reconsider its judgements in exercise of its inherent powers.
- For this purpose, the court has devised what has been termed as a “curative” petition.
- In the Curative petition, the petitioner is required to aver specifically that the grounds mentioned therein had been taken in the review petition filed earlier and that it was dismissed by circulation.
- This has to be certified by a senior advocate. The Curative petition is then circulated to the three senior most judges and the judges who delivered the impugned judgement, if available.
- No time limit is given for filing Curative petition. It is guaranteed under Article 137 of Constitution of India i.e. powers of the Supreme Court to review of its own judgements and orders.
- Article 137 of the Constitution provides that subject to provisions of any law and rule made under Article 145 the Supreme Court of India has the power to review any judgement pronounced (or order made) by it.
- Thus binding decision of the Supreme Court/High Court can be reviewed in Review Petition.
- The parties aggrieved on any order of the Supreme Court on any apparent error can file a review petition.
- Taking into consideration the principle of stare decisis courts generally do not unsettle a decision, without a strong case. This provision regarding review is an exemption to the legal principle of stare decisis.
- Under Supreme Court Rules, 1966 such a petition needs to be filed within 30 days from the date of judgement or order.
- It is also recommended that the petition should be circulated without oral arguments to the same bench of judges that delivered the judgement (or order) sought to be reviewed.