Climate Change Negotiations – UNFCCC, COP, Other Conventions and Protocols

India offers ‘Panchamrita’ Strategy for Climate Conundrum at Glasgow


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Panchamrita

Mains level: India's INDC

PM Modi has proposed a five-fold strategy called the ‘Panchamrita’ for India to play its part in helping the world get closer to 1.5 degrees Celsius on the first day of the global climate meeting in Glasgow.

What is Panchamrita?

  • ‘Panchamrita’ is a traditional method of mixing five natural foods — milk, ghee, curd, honey and jaggery. These are used in Hindu and Jain worship rituals. It is also used as a technique in Ayurveda.
  • The PM euphemistically termed his scheme as ‘Panchamrita’ meaning the ‘five ambrosia’.
  • Under Panchamrita’, India will:
  1. Get its non-fossil energy capacity to 500 gigawatts by 2030
  2. Meet 50 per cent of its energy requirements till 2030 with renewable energy
  3. Reduce its projected carbon emission by one billion tonnes by 2030
  4. Reduce the carbon intensity of its economy by 45 per cent by 2030
  5. Achieve net zero by 2070

Key takeaways of PM’s speech

(a) Commitment for climate action

  • India consists of 17 per cent of the world’s population but contribute only five per cent of emissions.
  • Yet, it has left no stone unturned in doing our bit to fight climate change.
  • At Paris, India was making promises not to the world but to itself and 1.3 billion Indians, PM said.

(b) Climate finance

  • The 2015 Paris CoP where the Paris Agreement was signed was not a summit but a sentiment.
  • The promises made till now on climate finance were useless.
  • When we all are increasing our ambitions on climate action, the world’s ambition could not stay the same on climate finance as was agreed at the time of Paris.

(c) India’s track record

  • India was fourth as far as installed renewable energy capacity was concerned.
  • The Indian Railways has pledged to make itself net-zero by 2030. This will result in an annual 60 million tonnes reduction in emissions.
  • India initiated the International Solar Alliance for solar energy.
  • It has also set up the coalition for disaster resilient infrastructure for climate adaptation.


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