Climate Change Negotiations – UNFCCC, COP, Other Conventions and Protocols

LT-LEDS (Long Term-Low Emission Development Strategy)


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: LT-LEDS

Mains level: Read the attached story


India has announced its long-term strategy to transition to a “low emissions” pathway at the United Nations Conference of Parties (COP) ongoing in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.

What are LT-LED Strategy?

  • The LT-LEDS are qualitative in nature and are a requirement emanating from the 2015 Paris Agreement.
  • Hereby, countries explain how they will transition their economies beyond achieving near-term NDC targets.
  • It signifies their path towards the larger climate objective of cutting emissions by 45% by 2030 and achieve net zero around 2050.


What is the meaning of Net Zero?

  • A state in which a country’s emissions are compensated by absorption and removal of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the atmosphere is called Net Zero State; it is also referred to as carbon-neutrality.
  • It is done through natural processes as well as futuristic technologies such as carbon capture and storage.

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs): 

  • To achieve the targets under the agreement, the member countries must submit the targets themselves, which they believe would lead to substantial progress towards reaching the Paris temperature goal.
  • Initially, these targets are called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).
  • They are converted to NDCs when the country ratifies the agreement.

Key announcements by India

  • Nuclear energy: India is set to expand its nuclear power capacity by at least three-fold in the next decade.
  • Green hydrogen: India aims for becoming an international hub for producing green hydrogen through the National Hydrogen Mission.
  • Ethanol blending: India aspires to maximise the use of electric vehicles, with ethanol blending to reach 20% by 2025 (it is currently 10%) and a “strong shift” to public transport for passenger and freight traffic.
  • Energy efficiency: India will also focus on improving energy efficiency by the Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme.
  • Carbon sequestration: India’s forest and tree cover are a net carbon sink absorbing 15% of CO2 emissions in 2016, and it is on track to fulfilling its NDC commitment of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of additional carbon sequestration in forest and tree cover by 2030.

Hurdles in achieving net-zero

  • Huge cost of transition: The transition to low carbon pathway will entail several costs amounting to several trillion dollars. It involves the development of new technologies, new infrastructure, and other transaction costs.
  • No climate finance mechanism: Provision of climate finance by developed countries will play a very significant role and needs to be considerably enhanced.

Significance of India’s LTS

  • India’s long-term strategy (LTS) follows up on the net zero pledge.
  • It clearly outlines key interventions across sectors that are going to be the focus of India’s efforts.

Considerations made by India

India’s approach is based on the following four key considerations that underpin its long-term low-carbon development strategy:

  1. India has contributed little to global warming: its historical contribution to cumulative global GHG emissions being minuscule despite having a share of ~17% of the world’s population.
  2. Huge domestic energy demand: India has significant energy needs for development.
  3. National circumstances: India is committed to pursuing low-carbon strategies for development and is actively pursuing them, as per national circumstances
  4. India needs to build climate resilience: It is the capacity of social, economic and ecosystems to cope with a hazardous event or trend or disturbance.


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