From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Mumbai Climate Action Plan
Mains level : Sea level rise and threats to coastal cities
The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) is drafting a Mumbai Climate Action Plan (MCAP) in a bid to tackle climate challenges.
What is the Mumbai Climate Action Plan?
- Amid warnings of climate change leading to extreme weather events in the city, the civic body has started preparing the Mumbai Climate Action Plan (MCAP).
- It will look at climate resilience with mitigation and adaptation strategies by focusing on six areas —
- Sustainable waste management
- Urban greening and Biodiversity
- Urban flooding and Water Resource Management
- Building Energy Efficiency
- Air Quality and
- Sustainable Mobility
- The plan is expected to be ready by November ahead of the United Nations Climate Change (COP26) conference at Glasgow, Scotland.
Why does Mumbai need a climate action plan?
Mumbai’s climate action plan will help set a vision and implement strategies to fight these climate challenges with mitigation and adaptation steps.
- Flash floods: As per a study conducted by the World Resource Institute (WRI) India, the city will face two major climate challenges — the rise in temperature, and extreme rain events which will lead to flooding.
- Temperature rise: The city has seen a constant rise in temperature after 2007, and a substantial increase in intense rainfall and storm events in the last five years.
- Sea level rise: A recent report from the IPCC has warned that at least 12 Indian coastal cities including Mumbai will face a sea rise of 0.1 metres to 0.3 metres in the next three decades due to climate change.
What is the greenhouse gas emission of the city?
- The data show that Mumbai’s greenhouse gas emission was 34.3 million tonnes in 2019, and of which 24.23 million tonnes or 71 per cent came from the energy sector which is mainly based on coal.
- At least 24 per cent or 82,21,902 tonnes is from transport, and the remaining 5 per cent or 18,53,741 tonnes from solid waste management.
- The maximum contribution from the energy sector was mainly due to domestic and commercial usage of electricity.
- As per the data, 95 percent of Mumbai’s electricity is coal-based and needs to be shifted to renewable energy to bring down emissions.