Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

What is Earth Hour?Prelims Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Earth Hour

Mains level : Climate activism

The Earth Hour, observed annually on the last Saturday of March, was recently celebrated.

Earth Hour

  • Earth Hour is a worldwide movement organized by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).
  • It is held annually encouraging individuals, communities, and businesses to turn off non-essential electric lights, for one hour, from 8:30 to 9:30 p.m. on a specific day towards the end of March as a symbol of commitment to the planet.
  • It was started as a lights-off event in Sydney, Australia, in 2007.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Climate change and geopolitics converge to yield locust swarmsop-ed of the day


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Paper 3- Protecting Indian agriculture against the locust attacks.


Abnormal rainfall in the Arabian desert and an effect of the Yemen war have revived a menace that could hit Indian crops

Butterfly effect- a fitting metaphor for locust attack

  • What is the butterfly effect? The butterfly effect occurs when a trivial cause, such as a butterfly fluttering its wings somewhere in an Amazon rainforest, triggers a series of events that end up having a massive impact elsewhere.
    • Edward Lorenz, the American meteorologist who coined the phrase in the early 1960s, came up with it while building a mathematical model to predict weather patterns.
    • Fitting metaphor: It is a fitting metaphor to explain a “plague” that is currently destroying vegetation and livelihoods in East Africa, the Arabian peninsula, Iran, Pakistan and India.

The impact of the locust attack in the world

  • Impact in Africa: Several countries in Africa and Asia have been dealing with “the curse of good rains”: Massive swarms—called “plagues”—of the desert locust.
    • Swarms as large as 2,400 sq. km, comprising 200 billion insects, have already damaged over 70,000 hectares of crops in Kenya and around 30,000 hectares in Ethiopia.
  • Last month, Pakistan declared a national emergency over locusts.
  • Impact in India: In India, several districts in Gujarat and Rajasthan have been affected.
    • Rajasthan has announced a compensation of ₹13,500 per hectare to affected farmers.
    • While locust swarms continue to plague African countries, for now, the outbreak has tapered down in India with swarms headed back towards Sindh and Balochistan.
  • Possibility of return of the locusts: The expectation is that the locusts will be back in June, by which time their numbers would have grown fivefold.

What are the locusts and how they form swarms?

  • Solitary creature: The brown-coloured desert locust usually lives as a solitary creature in the desert and bushlands.
  • Transformation and swarm formation: When several of them gather in close proximity, they undergo a dramatic physical transformation, change colour to black and bright yellow, become gregarious, and start moving around in swarms.
  • Contribution of moisture and temperature: Locusts lay their eggs a few inches under the soil in the presence of moisture, which hatch faster under higher temperatures.
    • Similarly, the flightless nymphs mature faster under warmer conditions and, within weeks, turn into adults that can form swarms of hundreds of millions of insects that can fly over 100km per day.
  • The scale of destruction: Each locust can eat its own body weight—around 2-3 grams—every day.
    • Which means that a swarm can consume hundreds of tonnes of vegetation that it encounters every day.

Change in the behaviour pattern

  • Limited to recession areas: Normally, desert locusts are limited to a recession area enveloping the African Sahel to the west and Rajasthan to the east.
    • After international preventive control measures started in the 1940s, the intensity and spread of these swarms reduced, resulting only in regional plagues.

What contributed to this year’s infestation?

  • Two factors contributed to this year’s infestation:
    • Abnormal weather conditions.
    • Region’s geopolitics.
  • Abnormal weather conditions: In 2018, two cyclones a few months apart delivered rain to the Rub al Khali, the remote desert called the “Empty Quarter” of the Arabian peninsula.
    • The resulting ephemeral lakes created new breeding grounds for the desert locust in a poorly monitored region.
  • Region’s geopolitics: Insecticide spraying operations were not conducted because of the war in Yemen.
    • The breeding continued before the swarms crossed the Gulf into Iran and the Red Sea to Ethiopia and Somalia in the Horn of Africa.
    • Here, too, conflict and political unrest limited control operations, leading to further breeding.
  • Another cyclone in 2019: In December 2019, another cyclonic storm hit the Horn of Africa, creating conditions for yet more breeding.
    • Today, the situation is dire in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya, and is worsening in Uganda and Tanzania.

How affected countries are responding to the infestation?

  • Pakistan declared national emergency: Across the Persian Gulf, the Pakistani provinces of Balochistan and Sindh were initially affected, and when Punjab was hit, the government declared a national emergency and approached China for assistance.
  • How India is responding? Across the border, several districts in Gujarat and Rajasthan were affected and neighbouring states, including Uttar Pradesh, are now on alert.
    • Cooperation between India and Pakistan: Despite political tensions, Indian and Pakistani locust control officials met almost once a month over the second half of 2019 to exchange information, if not coordinate control efforts.
    • So far, India’s surveillance, preparedness and response have been competent and effective.
    • The national Locust Warning Organization was set up in 1939 and is well connected to international institutions created to manage locust risks.
    • It publishes weekly bulletins and even has a Twitter handle.
    • Bulletins show when locusts were detected, the location, extent and tonnage of insecticide sprayed and the risk of future infestation.
  • China’s preparedness: China is largely protected against locust plagues by geographical barriers, but is relatively vulnerable in the Xinjiang region.
    • Past similar event: Faced with a similar situation a couple of decades ago, the Chinese government had deployed hundreds of thousands of ducks that would eat the locusts in response to the blowing of a whistle.
    • Reports in the Chinese media indicate that Beijing plans to do the same this year.

 The immediate concern in India

  • Factors that could worsen the problem: Climate change, with higher temperatures and changes in the Indian Ocean Dipole, could worsen the locust problem for India in coming years.
  • The problem could overwhelm the capacity to control: The immediate concern is that by June 2020, there will probably be extraordinarily large swarms in India and that these could overwhelm the country’s current capacity to control them.
    • Preparedness measures by the government: The Union government is procuring additional spraying equipment and planning helicopter and drone-based control operations should the need arise.
    • Containing the swarms at India’s border states is crucial, as India’s agricultural heartland lies just beyond.


The government should take stock of its preparedness to deal with the imminent locust attack in June take necessary actions to deal with the menace as it could threaten India’s food security and economy.




Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Explained: Marine Heatwave (MHW)Explained


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Marine Heatwave

Mains level : Read the attached story



Scientists have observed unusually high sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific Ocean around the western coast of the United States.  This marine heatwave (MHW), covering an area of roughly 6.5 million square kilometres, can affect marine life and lead to droughts in the surrounding regions.

What are MHWs?

  • We know that heatwaves occur in the atmosphere. We are all familiar with these extended periods of excessively hot weather.
  • However, heatwaves can also occur in the ocean and these are known as marine heatwaves, or MHWs.
  • These marine heatwaves, when ocean temperatures are extremely warm for an extended period of time can have significant impacts on marine ecosystems and industries.

When do they occur?

  • Heatwaves can happen in summer and also in winter, where they are known as “winter warm-spells”.
  • These winter events can have important impacts, such as in the southeast of Australia where the spiny sea urchin can only colonize further south when winter temperatures are above 12 °C.

What causes marine heatwaves?

  • Marine heatwaves can be caused by a whole range of factors, and not all factors are important for each event.
  • The most common drivers of marine heatwaves include ocean currents which can build up areas of warm water and air-sea heat flux, or warming through the ocean surface from the atmosphere.
  • Winds can enhance or suppress the warming in a marine heatwave, and climate modes like El Niño can change the likelihood of events occurring in certain regions.
  • MHWs can be caused due to large-scale drivers of the Earth’s climate like the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

Impacts of the MHWs

  • Marine heatwaves affect ecosystem structure, by supporting certain species and suppressing others.
  • For example, after the 2011 marine heatwave in Western Australia the fish communities had a much more “tropical” nature than previously and switched from kelp forests to seaweed turfs.
  • Marine heatwaves can cause economic losses through impacts on fisheries and aquaculture.
  • Temperature-sensitive species such as corals are especially vulnerable to MHWs. In 2016, marine heatwaves across northern Australia led to severe bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef.

How do we measure marine heatwaves?

  • A marine heatwave occurs when seawater temperatures exceed a seasonally-varying threshold (usually the 90th percentile) for at least 5 consecutive days.
  • Successive heatwaves with gaps of 2 days or less are considered part of the same event.

Why study MHWs?

  • MHWs are increasing in frequency due to climate change. MHWs increased by 54 per cent in the last 30 years.
  • Despite their potential impact on the health of marine ecosystems, MHWs remain one of the least studied consequences of global warming.

Way Forward

  • Marine heatwaves clearly have the potential to devastate marine ecosystems and cause economic losses in fisheries, aquaculture, and ecotourism industries.
  • However, their effects are often hidden from view under the waves until it is too late.
  • By raising general awareness of these phenomena, and by improving our scientific understanding of their physical properties and ecological impacts, we can better predict future conditions and protect vulnerable marine habitats and resources.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Red Snow in AntarcticaPrelims Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Red snow , How it occurs

Mains level : Impact of climate change on Antarctica



Over the last few weeks, photographs of “red snow” off the coast of Antarctica’s northernmost peninsula, have gone viral. “Red snow” or “watermelon” is a phenomenon that has been known since ancient times. Now, it raises concerns about climate change.

Red snow in Antarctica: Why it happens 

  • Aristotle is believed to be one of the first to give a written account of red snow, over 2,000 years ago.
  • What Aristotle described as worms and grub, the scientific world today calls algae.
  • This alga species, Chlamydomonas Chlamydomonas nivalis, exists in the snow in the polar and glacial regions and carries a red pigment to keep itself warm.

Signs of faster melting 

  • In turn, the red snow causes the surrounding ice to melt faster. The more the algae packed together, the redder the snow.
  • And the darker the tinge, the more the heat absorbed by the snow. Subsequently, the ice melts faster.
  • While the melt is good for the microbes that need the liquid water to survive and thrive, it’s bad for glaciers that are already melting from a myriad of other causes, the study said.
  • These algae change the snow’s albedo — which refers to the amount of light or radiation the snow surface is able to reflect back. Changes in albedo lead to more melting.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[pib] Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS)PIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Various initiaitives mentioned in the newscard

Mains level : Not Much



The INCOIS Hyderabad has launched a trio of products for users in the marine realm.


  • The institute is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Earth Sciences.
  • INCOIS prioritises requests for specific services from its diverse user community that ranges right from fishermen to offshore oil exploration industries.

Products launched:

Small Vessel Advisory and Forecast Services System (SVAS)  

The SVAS is an innovative impact-based advisory and forecast service system for small vessels operating in Indian coastal waters.

  • The SVA system warns users about potential zones where vessel overturning can take place, ten days in advance.
  • The advisories are valid for small vessels of beam width up to 7 m.
  • This limit covers the entire range of beam widths of the fishing vessels used in all the 9 coastal states and union territories of India.
  • The warning system is based on the  ‘Boat Safety Index’ (BSI) derived from wave model forecast outputs such as significant wave height, wave steepness, directional spread and the rapid development of wind at sea which is boat-specific.

Swell Surge Forecast System (SSFS)

SSFS is an innovative system designed for the prediction of Kallakkadal/Swell Surge that occurs along the Indian coast, particularly the west coast.

  • Kallakadal/Swell surge are flash-flood events that take place without any noticeable advance change in local winds or any other apparent signature in the coastal environment.
  • Hence the local population remains totally unaware of these flooding events until they actually occur. Such events are intermittent throughout the year.
  • Kallakkadal is a colloquial term used by Kerala fishermen to refer to the freaky flooding episodes and in 2012 UNESCO formally accepted this term for scientific use.
  • Kallakkadal are caused by meteorological conditions in the Southern Ocean, south of 30°S.
  • These swells once generated, travel northward and reach the Indian coasts in 3-5 days time, creating havoc in the coastal areas.
  • The system will now predict Kallakkadal and warnings will be given to concerned authorities at least 2-3 days in advance, which will help the local authorities for contingency plans and to reduce damage.

Algal Bloom Information Service (ABIS)

  • The increasing frequency of algal blooms is a major concern due to its ill effects on the fishery, marine life and water quality.
  • INCOIS has developed a service for “Detection and Monitoring of Bloom in the Indian Seas”.
  • The target users are fishermen, marine fishery resource managers, researchers, ecologists and environmentalists.
  • The service also complements INCOIS’ marine fishing advisories i.e. Potential Fishing Zone advisories.
  • INCOIS-ABIS will provide near-real-time information on spatio-temporal occurrence and spread of phytoplankton blooms over the North Indian Ocean.
  • In addition, four regions have been identified as bloom hotspots viz.

a) North Eastern Arabian Sea

b) coastal waters off Kerala

c) Gulf of Mannar and

d) coastal waters of Gopalpur

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Northern European Enclosure Dam (NEED)Priority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : NEED

Mains level : Sea level rise and its impact


An extraordinary measure to protect 25 million people and important economic regions of 15 Northern European countries from rising seas has been proposed. It is called Northern European Enclosure Dam (NEED) enclosing all of the North Sea.

Northern European Enclosure Dam (NEED)

  • The scientists have proposed the construction of two dams of a combined length of 637 km — the first between northern Scotland and western Norway.
  • It would be 476 km and with an average depth of 121 m and maximum depth of 321 m; the second between France and southwestern England, of length 161 km, and average depth of 85 m and maximum depth of 102 m.
  • A/c to scientists, separating the North and Baltic Seas from the Atlantic Ocean is considered to be the “most viable option” to protect Northern Europe against unstoppable sea level rise (SLR).
  • They have also identified other regions in the world where such mega-enclosures could potentially be considered, including the Persian Gulf, the Mediterranean Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Irish Sea, and the Red Sea.

The rationale behind

  • The concept of constructing NEED showcases the extent of protection efforts that are required if mitigation efforts fail to limit sea level rise.
  • While NEED may appear to be “overwhelming” and “unrealistic”, it could be “potentially favourable” financially and in scale when compared with alternative solutions to fight SLR, the research argues.
  • The researchers classify the solutions to SLR into three categories of taking no action, protection, and managed retreat — and submit that NEED is in the second category.
  • While managed retreat, which includes options such as managed migrations, may be less expensive than protection (NEED), it involves intangible costs such as national and international political instability, psychological difficulties, and loss of culture and heritage for migrants.
  • NEED, the paper says, will have the least direct impact on people’s daily lives, can be built at a “reasonable cost”, and has the largest potential to be implemented with the required urgency to be effective.

Viability of NEED

  • The researchers have estimated the total costs associated with NEED at between €250 billion and €550 billion.
  • They referred to the costs of building the 33.9-km Saemangeum Seawall in South Korea and the Maasvlakte 2 extension of the Rotterdam harbour in the Netherlands as examples,
  • If construction is spread over a 20-year period, this will work out to an annual expense of around 0.07%-0.16% of the GDP of the 15 Northern European countries that will be involved.
  • Also the construction will “heavily impact” marine and terrestrial ecosystems inside and outside the enclosure, will have social and cultural implications, and affect tourism and fisheries.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Urban Heat Islands in IndiaPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : UHU effect

Mains level : UHU effect


A recent study from IIT Kharagpur called “Anthropogenic forcing exacerbating the urban heat islands in India” noted that the relatively warmer temperature in urban areas, compared to suburbs, may contain potential health hazards due to heat waves apart from pollution.

About the study

  • The research did study the difference between urban and surrounding rural land surface temperatures, across all seasons in 44 major cities from 2001 to 2017.
  • It found evidence of mean daytime temperature of surface urban heat island (UHI Intensity) going up to 2 degrees C for most cities, as analysed from satellite temperature measurements in monsoon and post monsoon periods.
  • Other researchers from elsewhere have also noticed similar rise in daytime temperatures in Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad and Chennai.

What is an Urban Heat Island?

  • An urban heat island (abbreviated as UHI) is where the temperature in a densely populated city is as much as 2 degrees higher than suburban or rural areas.
  • This happens because of the materials used for pavements, roads and roofs, such as concrete, asphalt (tar) and bricks, which are opaque, do not transmit light, but have higher heat capacity and thermal conductivity than rural areas, which have more open space, trees and grass.
  • Trees and plants are characterised by their ‘evapotranspiration’— a combination of words wherein evaporation involves the movement of water to the surrounding air, and transpiration refers to the movement of water within a plant and a subsequent lot of water through the stomata (pores found on the leaf surface) in its leaves.
  • Grass, plants and trees in the suburbs and rural areas do this. The lack of such evapotranspiration in the city leads to the city experiencing higher temperature than its surroundings.

Latent impacts

  • UHI s also decrease air quality in the cities, thanks to pollution generated by industrial and automobile exhaust, higher extent of particulate matter and greater amounts of dust than in rural areas.
  • Due to this higher temperature in urban areas, the UHI increases the colonization of species that like warm temperatures, such as lizards and geckos.
  • Insects such as ants are more abundant here than in rural areas; these are referred to as ectotherms.
  • In addition, cities tend to experience heat waves which affect human and animal health, leading to heat cramps, sleep deprivation and increased mortality rates.
  • UHIs also impact nearby water bodies, as warmer water (thanks to the pavements, rooftops and so on) is transferred from the city to drains in sewers, and released into nearby lakes and creeks, thus impairing their water quality.

Control of UHIs and mitigation

  • Industrialization and economic development are vital to the country, but the control of UHIs and their fallouts are equally vital. Towards this, several methods are being, and can be, tried.
  • One of them is to use greener rooftops, using light-coloured concrete (using limestone aggregates along with asphalt (or tar) making the road surface greyish or even pinkish (as some places in the US have done); these are 50% better than black, since they absorb less heat and reflect more sunlight.
  • Likewise, we should paint rooftops green, and install solar panels there amidst a green background.
  • The other is to plant as many trees and plants as possible

Why plant more trees?

Relevant to the present context are:

  • they combat climate change; clean the surrounding air by absorbing pollutant gases (NXOy, O3, NH3, SO2, and others) and trapping particulates on their leaves and bark;
  • they cool the city and the streets; conserve energy (cutting air-conditioning costs by 50%); save water and help prevent water pollution; help prevent soil erosion; protect people and children from UV light;
  • they offer economic opportunities; bring diverse group of people together; encourage civic pride by giving neighborhoods a new identity; mask concrete walls, thus muffling sounds from streets and highways, and eye-soothing canopy of green; and the more a business district has trees, more business follows.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

India’s Scientific Expedition to the Southern OceanPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Southern Ocean

Mains level : Role of Southern Ocean in Climate dynamics


A South African oceanographic research vessel SA Agulhas set off from Port Louise in Mauritius, on a two-month Indian Scientific Expedition to the Southern Ocean 2020. Recently the vessel was at Prydz Bay, in the coastal waters of “Bharati”, India’s third station in Antarctica.

India’s polar mission

  • This is the 11th expedition of an Indian mission to the Southern Ocean, or Antarctic Ocean.
  • The first mission took place between January and March 2004.

About the Southern Ocean expedition

  • The researchers from IITM Pune are collecting air and water samples from around 60 stations along the cruise track.
  • These will give valuable information on the state of the ocean and atmosphere in this remote environment and will help to understand its impacts on the climate.
  • A key objective of the mission is to quantify changes that are occurring and the impact of these changes on large-scale weather phenomenon, like the Indian monsoon, through tele-connection.

Why study Southern Ocean?

  • We know that carbon dioxide is getting emitted into the atmosphere, and through atmospheric circulation goes to the Antarctic and Polar Regions.
  • Since the temperature is very low there, these gases are getting absorbed and converted into dissolved inorganic carbon or organic carbon, and through water masses and circulation it is coming back to tropical regions.
  • All oceans around the world are connected through the Southern Ocean, which acts as a transport agent for things like heat across all these oceans.
  • The conveyor belt that circulates heat around the world is connected through the Southern Ocean and can have a large impact on how climate is going to change due to anthropogenic forces.

Core projects of the expedition

  • Study hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry of the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean; involves sampling seawater at different depths. This will help understand the formation of Antarctic bottom water.
  • Observations of trace gases in the atmosphere, such as halogens and dimethyl sulphur from the ocean to the atmosphere. This will help improve parameterizations that are used in global models.
  • Study of organisms called coccolithophores that have existed in the oceans for several million years; their concentrations in sediments will create a picture of past climate
  • Investigate atmospheric aerosols and their optical and radiative properties. Continuous measurements will quantify the impact on Earth’s climate.
  • Study the Southern Ocean’s impact on Indian monsoons. Look for signs in a sediment core taken from the bottom of the ocean
  • Dynamics of the food web in the Southern Ocean; important for safeguarding catch and planning sustainable fishing
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

‘Future of Earth, 2020’ ReportDOMR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Highlights of the report

Mains level : Various global threats and their mitigation


The “The Future of Earth, 2020” Report was recently released.

About the report

  • The report is released by the South Asia Future Earth Regional Office, Divecha Centre for Climate Change, Indian Institute of Science.
  • The report was prepared with the aim of reducing carbon footprint and halting global warming below 2 degree Celsius by 2050.

Highlights of the report

  • Five global risks that have the potential to impact and amplify one another in ways that may cascade to create global systemic crisis have been listed by report.
  • It listed the following as five global risks:
  1. failure of climate change mitigation and adaptation
  2. extreme weather events
  3. major biodiversity loss and ecosystem collapse
  4. food crises; and
  5. water crises
  • Offering examples of how the interrelation of risk factors play a role, scientists say extreme heatwaves can accelerate global warming by releasing large amounts of stored carbon from affected ecosystems, and at the same time intensify water crises and/ or food scarcity.
  • The loss of biodiversity also weakens the capacity of natural and agricultural systems to cope with climate extremes, increasing our vulnerability to food crises, they point out.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Thwaites GlacierPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Thwaites Glacier

Mains level : Sea level rise and its impact


In the Antarctic floats a massive glacier, roughly the size of Britain, whose melting has been a cause of alarm for scientists over the years. Now, a new study has pinned the cause of the melting to the presence of warm water at a vital point beneath the glacier.

Thwaites Glacier

  • The Thwaites Glacier is 120 km wide at its broadest, fast-moving and melting fast over the years.
  • Because of its size (1.9 lakh square km), it contains enough water to raise the world sea level by more than half a metre.
  • Studies have found the amount of ice flowing out of it has nearly doubled over the past 30 years. Today, Thwaites’s melting already contributes 4% to global sea level rise each year.
  • It is estimated that it would collapse into the sea in 200-900 years. Thwaites is important for Antarctica as it slows the ice behind it from freely flowing into the ocean.
  • Because of the risk it faces — and poses — Thwaites is often called the Doomsday Glacier.

What has the new study found?

  • A 2019 study had discovered a fast-growing cavity in the glacier.
  • More recently researchers detected warm water at a vital point below the glacier.
  • Scientists dug a 600-m-deep and 35-cm-wide access hole, and deployed an ocean-sensing device called Icefin to measure the waters moving below the glacier’s surface.
  • The study reported water at just two degrees above freezing point at Thwaites’s “grounding zone” or “grounding line”.

What is the grounding line?

  • The grounding line is the place below a glacier at which the ice transitions between resting fully on bedrock and floating on the ocean as an ice shelf.
  • The location of the line is a pointer to the rate of retreat of a glacier.
  • When glaciers melt and lose weight, they float off the land where they used to be situated. When this happens, the grounding line retreats.
  • That exposes more of a glacier’s underside to seawater, increasing the likelihood it will melt faster.
  • This resulted in the glacier speeding up, stretching out, and thinning, causing the grounding line to retreat ever further.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Global Go To Think-Tank IndexIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Think Tank Index

Mains level : Not Much

Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) was placed No. 16 among 2019’s ‘top environment policy think tanks’ of the world in Global Go To Think Tank Index.

Think-Tank Index

  • The Index is released by University of Pennsylvania each year since 2008.
  • It evaluates public-policy research analysis and engagement organisations that generate policy-oriented research, analysis, and advice on domestic and international issues.
  • It claims to enable policy makers and the public to make informed decisions on public policy.
  • The 2020 report raised some critical threats and opportunities that think tanks across the globe face.
  • It called upon such organisations to develop national, regional, and global partnerships and create new, innovative platforms to deliver for an ever-expanding audience of citizens, policy makers and businesses.

India’s performance

  • CSE climbed up two notches in the 14th version of the report.
  • The organisation also moved up three places among ‘best independent think tanks’ to be at No.123 in the world and sixth among Indian think tanks.
  • Globally, it was ranked 41 of 60 organisations committed to energy and resource policy. It remained at No.58 among organisations working on science and technology policy in the world — fifth in India.

CSE as forerunner

  • CSE was named the ‘national climate leader’ from India for 2019 in the first National Climate Leader Awards published in the Global Spotlight Report #22 by Climate Scorecard.
  • CSE also received the prestigious Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development for 2018 in 2019 for ‘pioneering work on environment and sustainable development’.
  • CSE also featured in four other rankings in the report: ‘top water security think tanks’; ‘top energy and resource policy think tanks’; ‘top science and technology policy think tanks’ and ‘best independent think tanks’.
  • It also ranked 18 among 78 global think tanks for its work on ‘water security’ — second in India after Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap]Partners in actionop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Green Growth Equity Fund

Mains level : Paper 3- Climate change, Steps taken by India to mitigate the impact, collaboration in innovation with other countries.


Both India and the UK are exploring how best to develop the technology and investment needed to spur the transition from fossil to renewable fuels and make this a beneficial trajectory for everyone.

Areas of collaboration with the UK

  • Resilience to climate change: To build resilience to climate risks, the U.K. is working with the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Act to build flood defences and river structures to encourage aquifer replenishment.
  • Monsoon forecasting: Together with India’s Ministry of Earth Sciences, we are gathering land, sea and atmospheric data to help deliver a decisive step forward in monsoon forecasting.
  • Electric mobility: On electric mobility, a major joint venture between UK’s EO Charging and India’s Yahhvi Enterprises will deliver world-class smart charging infrastructure for electric vehicles across India.
  • Finance of Green Growth Equity Fund: On finance, the U.K. government committed 240 million pounds of anchor capital in the Green Growth Equity Fund.
    • Its first investment going to Ayana Renewable Power, which is developing 800MW of solar generation capacity.

India’s efforts to tackle climate change

  • India’s size and ecological diversity have placed it on the frontlines of global warming.
  • India walking the talk on climate change: It is on course to deliver the target of 40 per cent electricity generation from non-fossil fuels by 2030.
  • ISA: India has already demonstrated this personal commitment on the world stage with the India-led International Solar Alliance.
  • CDRI: India also announced the global Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure, both of which the UK a part of.
  • India and the UK can also work together on
    • Resilience and adaption.
    • Clean energy.
    • Green finance and nature-based solutions.
    • Infrastructure development.
    • Sustainable energy and smart cities.


India and the UK need to make sure that the present partnership on climate and the environment go from strength to strength in the future.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Think climate change action, act glocalop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Paper 3-Climate change and India's SAPCCs. India acting at state level.


The recent global climate summit, the annual Conference of the Parties (COP25), held in Madrid was a failure and that the multilateral process to address the climate crisis is broken. The growing global stalemate gives India the chance to focus on the State and sub-State levels.

COP 25 at Madrid and what future prospects

  • Wealthy countries disowning responsibility: At several discussions on finance, ambition, transparency of support and pre-2020 action, wealthy countries were recalcitrant.
    • Disavowing obligations: Although responsible for using the bulk of the carbon space in the atmosphere, they now disavow their obligations. With some even denying anthropogenic climate change.
    • Complete severance of science from negotiations: At this stage, there is a complete severance of climate science from the negotiations and agreements at the global level.
    • The question is, what can we do now?
  • What can happen at the next COP?
    • Hope of little change: The next COP will be held at Glasgow, U.K. (in late 2020) and there may be little change in the outcomes.
    • The global political order may not alter much. The fact that we live in an unequal and unjust world is not going to change either.
  • What else can happen on the global level?
    • Right leader: The right political leaders could nudge action in a new direction.
    • Green New Deal could pass: Younger members could be elected to the U.S. Congress and the Green New Deal could pass sometime in 2021.
    • Growing activism: In the meantime, climate activism is increasing awareness and having some success in removing insurance and financial support for fossil fuel companies. But these kinds of changes will occur slowly.
    • Participation of other stakeholders at next COP: At least one expert has called for a parallel action COP at future summits where sub-state actors, civil society groups, non-governmental organisations and academics can share ideas and nudge action.

The chance for India to develop climate change action at State and Sub-state level

  • Chance to develop climate change action: The stalemate at the global level offers India the opportunity to focus earnestly on developing its climate change action at State and sub-State levels.
    • Peripheral status of climate change: In the states, the environment and climate continue to be relegated to peripheral status.
    • Damage to the environment: This neglect has led to the destruction of ecosystems, forests, water-bodies and biodiversity.
    • Vulnerability and economic costs of the neglect: Numerous studies have shown the high economic and ecological costs and loss of lives due to extreme events.
    • We do not need more data to stimulate action. As is also well recognised, India is extremely vulnerable to the effects of warming.

Progress made by the states so far

  • The first round of SAPCCs: With support from bilateral agencies, States initially took different approaches in the first round of State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCCs).
    • Some of them set up separate climate change cells while some collaborated with academic institutions.
    • A few produced detailed action plans while others developed strategy documents.
    • Still, others integrated improvements in energy efficiency (contributing to reducing emissions), while almost all focused on adaptation.
  • The synergy between climate change and development:
    • Attention to climate change offers co-benefits to India for development. For instance-
    • Efficiency reduces pollution: Improving energy efficiency in industry reduces costs and local pollution.
    • Transport and congestion: Improving public transport reduces congestion, pollution and improves access.
    • Natural farming and fertilisers: Using natural farming methods reduces fossil fuel-based fertilizers, improves soil health and biodiversity.
    • These examples show that there are synergies in the steps to be taken for good development and climate change.
  • Next round of SAPCCs and strategies
    • The next round of the SAPCCs is being drawn up, under recommendations from the Centre.
    • Where should be the focus? The focus ought to be on integrating the response to climate change with the development plan in different departments.
    • States together to contribute NDCs: Since the States together are to deliver the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) that India has promised, it means that they require guidance from the Centre.
    • Unfortunately, most State government departments are handling climate change as a fringe issue and do not seem to recognise its urgency.

Integration of various sectors for climate action

  • Identification of sectors: Line departments for government schemes and programmes in key development sectors, such as agriculture, transport and water, should be identified for carefully integrating actions that respond to climate change.
    • Integration at district level: This integration should also take place at district and sub-district levels. But only a demonstration of its success in some departments would show how this can be done.
    • The realisation of climate as an important issue: But first and foremost, States need to get the signal that climate is an urgent issue.
  • Funds for implementing SAPCCs
    • How funds for implementing SAPCCs will be obtained is not clear.
    • There will not be enough from the Green Climate Fund, Adaptation Fund and bilateral agencies to support all States unless new sources are found.
    • Use of coal cess: The coal cess in India is a good initiative, and as others have pointed out, could be used for environment and climate-related expenses.
    • Alternative sources: Alternative sources from high emissions’ industries and practices would be an option, but still probably insufficient.

Way forward

  • Performance analysis of first SAPCCs: There is also needs to be a clear analysis of how the first round of action plans fared.
    • Challenges and performance: What were the challenges and how did they perform?
    • Reasons for success and failures: Which approaches and projects were successful and ought to be scaled up and what lessons do the failures offer?
    • Finally, what institutional structure works best?
  • Need for the greenhouse gas inventory: The country needs reliable greenhouse gas inventories.
    • Individual research groups and the civil society initiative, GHG Platform India, have been producing such inventories.
    • Such inventories would be useful in synchronising and co-ordinating State and Central mitigation programmes.
  • Programmes with longer timelines: States must also develop their programmes with longer timelines.
    • With mid-course correction based on lessons and successes that can be integrated into the next stage of the plan.
    • If the second round of SAPCCs were treated as an entry point to long-term development strategy, the States and the country would be better prepared for climate change.
  • Ultimately, climate should be part and parcel of all thinking on development.


Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed of the day] Electricity 4.0: The future of power in the age of climate changeop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Paper 3-Climate change and adoption of clean and sustainable energy to tackle with it.


Significance of electricity in our life

  • Interconnecting economic prosperity: Electrical energy is a juncture that inter-connects economic prosperity.
    • Amplifies social equity.
    • Ushers in a liveable environment for us.
    • No development in its true sense is possible if we leave aside energy and specifically sustainable energy.
    • It is almost indispensable for holistic and sustainable progress of any kind.

Burning of fossil fuel and climate change

  • Singular reliance on fossil fuel: Ever since the industrial revolution, development has almost singularly relied on the burning of fossil fuels, emitting huge volumes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
    • 41% of electricity from coal: As per data by the World Coal Association, a little over 41% of all electricity generated is produced from coal.
    • Problems with coal: Burning coal for electricity production leads to-
    • High level of hazardous carbon emissions.
    • Rising levels of pollution: water and air pollution during mining and air pollution during burning.
    • Working condition of miners: Added to the disastrous working conditions of miners, coal cannot be regarded as a sustainable source of energy.
  • Global warming and climate change: Despite increasing awareness, not much is being done to mitigate climate change.
    • Rise over 1.5oC and Consequences: IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has reiterated that unless global temperature rise is not kept within 1.5 degrees Celsius, natural and human systems will be irreparably damaged.
    • Rise over  2o  C and Consequences: Even a slight increase in atmospheric temperature by 2 degrees Celsius will result in a substantial rise in sea levels.
    • Consequences for human life: The rise in sea level would, in turn, translate into a whopping 10 million more people going homeless and another 50% people facing severe water scarcity.
  • The aim of becoming carbon neutral: To join the efforts, many global public and private stakeholders have pledged their allegiance into becoming net-zero carbon emitters.
    • But we are still far from achieving our objectives, as the IEA (International Energy Agency) recently reported that the Earth’s temperature rise will range between 1.8 degrees Celsius and 2.7 degrees Celsius soon.

Sustainable energy as a necessity

  • Energy efficiency and energy management: As the world is evolving into an interconnected form of world-of work, life and more-energy efficiency and energy management have slowly come to be a central driving force.
    • Sustainable energy a necessity: In order to power smart homes, industries, hospitals and other mission-critical operations, sustainable energy is no more a matter of choice, but of necessity.
    • IoT to help achieve energy efficiency: Technology adoptions like IoT and connected services can greatly enhance energy efficiencies and many global behemoths are coming to terms with this reality.
    • Demand for an alternative source of energy: Environmental factors, coupled with rising costs and stringent regulatory guidelines, are adding to the demand for alternative sources of energy.
    • Alternate as well as sustainable: The alternate sources are expected not only to satiate the growing consumption needs but are proven to be a sustainable option in the long run.

Electricity 4.0

  • Electricity 4.0: That is, sustainable methods of energy generation and efficient and cost-effective usage of produced energy.
    • The sustainable energy need of the sustainable future: To lay the foundation stone for a sustainable future, there is a critical need to investigate how we create and consume energy.
    • The answer lies in renewables becoming the dominant source of power, globally.
  • A new form of energy mix: There is a growing need to build a new form of energy mix under Electricity 4.0, with renewable ways of electricity creation, at its very core. A new order where-
    • Electrical internet of things (EIOT).
    • Cloud computing.
    • Artificial intelligence.
    • And the tools of today’s digital era are fully leveraged to maximise energy efficiency.

Way forward

  • Given that the major cause of global warming is Carbon Dioxide, so the first step to combat it would be-
  • Electrifying the planet: The augmented proliferation of energy-efficient, electricity-based equipments that are prevalent now, such as e-mobility, electrical heating, innovative applications such as electric aviation fleets can be one way to do that.
  • Scale up the production of renewable energy: The immediate need is to scale up the production of renewable electricity and build conducive public-policy frameworks to further this goal.
  • Adoption of digital technology: It is imperative to adopt digital technology in order to optimise the efficiency of our energy consumption and electrical networks. Digital connectivity, software and artificial intelligence can well be dubbed as the fulcrum that will support our transition toward Industry 4.0.
  • Concerted efforts from all stakeholders: To reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions or to promote energy decarbonisation, concerted efforts are required from all stakeholders – the community, regions, government and the private sector.




Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

 [op-ed snap] Global warming puts forests, plantations in the country at riskop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Paper 3- Need to define the natural forests and effects of climate change on forests.


Global warming, drought and El Niño may lead to increased forest fires.

The success story of India

  • Reduced deforestation: India has succeeded in reducing deforestation to some extent through an effective Forest Conservation Act and large-scale afforestation programme.
    • Comparison with other countries: India performed better when compared with other forest-rich tropical countries such as Brazil, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    • Without the Forest Conservation Act and its reasonably effective implementation, India would have lost significant extent of forest area.
  • Increased afforestation: India has also been implementing significant scale afforestation, though the rates of afforestation have declined recently.
    • Agro-forestry, involving raising fruit tree plantations contribute to some extent.
    • Commercial plantations of eucalyptus, casuarina, teak, poplar, etc., have been raised by farmers for commercial purposes.
    • The above steps have resulted in potentially reducing the pressure on natural forests.

Need to measure ‘natural forest’

  • Increase in an area under forest: According to the latest biennial State of Forest Report (SFR) of the Forest Survey of India (FSI), an area under forests has been increasing.
  • Natural forests not specifically measured: It is not clear what percentage of increase in forest area is due to changes in natural forests which are generally rich in biodiversity.
    • The report doesn’t specify what percentage of change in area is due to commercial plantation and what percentage is contributed by horticulture or urban parks.
  • Need to define ‘natural forest’: What will be of most concern to forest and biodiversity conservation is to understand the status of natural forest and biodiversity.
    • India can use the same definition of forests but must estimate and report the area under natural forests and other forest plantation categories.
    • India needs to define ‘natural forests’ first, further, this would involve additional staff time and resources.
  • The resilience of natural forests to forest fires: Tropical forests rich in biodiversity are likely to be more resilient than monoculture dominated plantations or exotics.
    • Vulnerability to forest fires varies from forests to forests: Studies by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) have shown that degraded forests, fragmented forests and biodiversity-poor forests are more vulnerable to climate change.

Climate change and its impacts

  • IPCC reports on large scale loss: The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports have repeatedly concluded that climate change will lead to large-scale loss of biodiversity, before the end of the current century or even earlier.
  • Modelling studies by IISc.: Preliminary modelling studies by Indian Institute of Science (IISc) have shown that about 20% of forests will be impacted by climate change.
    • No change to adapt: The modelling studies means that existing forest biodiversity and its structure and composition will not be able to adapt to the new climate and there could be mortality or forest dieback.
  • The threat of forest fires: Further, warming, drought and El Niño will lead to increased forest fires, and may even be favourable to forest pests.
    • Unfortunately, the models currently in use for assessing the impact of climate change are not suitable for the complex and highly diverse forest types that exist in India.


  • Given that global warming will continue, India will have to brace itself to adapt to the impending impacts. In India, there is very limited research on climate change and its impacts on forests, putting our famed biodiversity-rich country status under threat.
  • India needs to realistically assess, monitor and model climate change and its impacts and be prepared to adapt to impending climate change.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Thawing of PermafrostMains OnlyPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Thermokarsts, Thawing of permafrost

Mains level : Impact of climate change on polar permafrost


A recent study makes a disturbing connection between the loss of Arctic sea ice and thawing (melting) of permafrost in the region, with global implications.

What is Permafrost?

  • ‘Permafrost’ or permanently frozen ground is land that has been frozen at or below 0 degrees Celsius for two or more consecutive years.
  • A staggering 17 per cent of Earth’s entire exposed land surface is comprised of permafrost.
  • Composed of rock, sediments, dead plant and animal matter, soil, and varying degrees of ice, permafrost is mainly found near the poles, covering parts of Greenland, Alaska, Northern Canada, Siberia and Scandinavia.
  • The Arctic region is a vast ocean, covered by thick ice on the surface (called sea ice), surrounded by land masses that are also covered with snow and ice.

Permafrost thawing

  • When permafrost thaws, water from the melted ice makes its way to the caves along with ground sediments, and deposits on the rocks.
  • In other words, when permafrost thaws, the rocks grow and when permafrost is stable and frozen, they do not grow.

Why thawing?

  • The link between the Siberian permafrost and Arctic sea ice can be explained by two factors:
  • One is heat transport from the open Arctic Ocean into Siberia, making the Siberian climate warmer.
  • The second is moisture transport from open seawater into Siberia, leading to thicker snow cover that insulates the ground from cold winter air, contributing to its warming.
  • This is drastically different from the situation just a couple of decades ago when the sea ice acted as a protective layer, maintaining cold temperatures in the region and shielding the permafrost from the moisture from the ocean.
  • If sea ice (in the summer) is gone, permafrost start thawing.

Impact on Climate Change

  • Due to relentlessly rising temperatures in the region, since the late-twentieth century, the Arctic sea ice and surrounding land ice are melting at accelerating rates.
  • When permafrost thaws due to rising temperatures, the microbes in the soil decompose the dead organic matter (plants and animals) to produce methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), both potent greenhouse gases.
  • CH4 is at least 80 times more powerful than CO2 on a decadal timescale and around 25 times more powerful on a century timescale.
  • The greenhouse gases produced from thawing permafrost will further increase temperatures which will, in turn, lead to more permafrost thawing, forming an unstoppable and irreversible self-reinforcing feedback loop.
  • Experts believe this process may have already begun. Giant craters and ponds of water (called ‘thermokarst lakes’) formed due to thawing have been recorded in the Arctic region. Some are so big that they can be seen from space.

Why a matter of concern?

  • An estimated 1,700 billion tonnes — twice the amount currently present in the atmosphere — of carbon is locked in all of the world’s permafrost.
  • Even if half of that were to be released to the atmosphere, it would be game over for the climate.
  • Scientific estimates suggest that the Arctic Ocean could be largely sea ice-free in the summer months by as early as 2030, based on observational trends, or as late as 2050, based on climate model projections.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed of the day] Weathering the stormop-ed snap


State of Climate of India report by IMD should occasion interventions to make people resilient to extreme weather events.

What does the report confirm?

  • Frequent extreme weather events: The report states that extreme weather events have become par for the course in the country.
  • The report notes that excessive heat, cold and rainfall killed 1,562 people during the year.
  • Intense dry spells, even droughts, were interspersed with floods in several parts of the country
  • Above normal temperature:  The mean temperature last year was 0.36 above normal.
  • The excess rainfall: The country also recorded excess rainfall during both the southwest and northeast monsoons.

Long-term meteorological trends:

  • The IMD report should be seen in conjunction with long-term meteorological trends.
  • The warmest decade: The World Meteorological Organisation reckons that the decade starting 2011 remains on track to be the warmest on record.
  • Increase in the relative humidity: At the same time, data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecast shows that the relative humidity in the mid-troposphere in the Subcontinent has increased by about 2 percent in the past four decades.
  • Such warming has increased the capacity of oceans to form intense cyclonic disturbances.

Implications for disaster-preparedness:

  • Cyclones: Last year, as the IMD report notes, the Indian Ocean witnessed eight cyclones.
  • Cyclones don’t kill but buildings can turn hazardous during such extreme weather events.
  • The vulnerability of the poor: In Odisha winds blowing at more than 140 kilometers per hour ripped off roofs and window frames in modern houses and also exposed the vulnerability of the mud and bamboo houses of the poor.
  • Guidelines: The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs does have guidelines for climate-friendly construction.
  • But planners in coastal cities and towns rarely pay heed to its provisions.
  • Cooperation between the states: The changing dynamics of weather also demands cooperation between states that share a river basin.
  • Maharashtra and Karnataka bickered over opening the gates of the Almatti dam on the Krishna.

Implications for the farmers:

  • For farmers, vagaries in nature mean disruptions in the entire cropping cycle.
  • This year, Kerala, southern Karnataka, and Gujarat were heavily deficient till July.
  • But within a few days in the last week of July, these states recorded surplus rainfall.
  • Rainwater storage and use: Increasing their resilience calls for efficient rainwater storage and use.


It’s clear that dealing with exceptional weather will require interventions at the national, state and local levels. The Statement on Climate of India 2019 drives home the urgency of such interventions.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Carbon Stock in Indian forestsIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Carbon Stock

Mains level : India's INDC

  • The State of Forest Report (SFR) 2019 has shown an increase in the carbon stock trapped in Indian forests in the last two years.
  • However it shows why it is going to be an uphill task for India in meeting one of its international obligations on climate change.

India’s carbon commitment

  • India, as part of its contribution to the global fight against climate change, has committed itself to creating an “additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent” by 2030.
  • That is one of the three targets India has set for itself in its climate action plan, called Nationally Determined Contributions, or NDCs, that every country has to submit under the 2015 Paris Agreement.
  • The other two relate to an improvement in emissions intensity and an increase in renewable energy deployment.
  • India has said it would reduce its emissions intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) by 33% to 35% by 2030 compared to 2005.
  • It has also promised to ensure that at least 40% of its cumulative electricity generation in 2030 would be done through renewable energy.

What is the relationship between forests and carbon?

  • Forests, by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for the process of photosynthesis, act as a natural sink of carbon.
  • Together with oceans, forests absorb nearly half of global annual carbon dioxide emissions.
  • In fact, the carbon currently stored in the forests exceeds all the carbon emitted in the atmosphere since the start of the industrial age.
  • An increase in the forest area is thus one of the most effective ways of reducing the emissions that accumulate in the atmosphere every year.

How do the latest forest data translate into carbon equivalent?

  • The latest forest survey shows that the carbon stock in India’s forests (not including tree cover outside of forest areas) have increased from 7.08 billion tonnes in 2017.
  • This translates into 26.14 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent as of now.
  • It is estimated that India’s tree cover outside of forests would contribute another couple of billion of tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent.

How challenging does this make it for India in meeting its target?

  • An assessment by the Forest Survey of India (FSI) last year had projected that, by 2030, the carbon stock in forests as well as tree cover was likely to reach 31.87 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent.
  • An additional 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of sink, as India has promised to do, would mean taking the size of the sink close to 35 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent.
  • Considering the rate of growth of the carbon sink in the last few years, that is quite a stiff target India has set for itself.
  • In the last two years, the carbon sink has grown by just about 0.6%%. Even compared to 2005, the size of carbon sink has increased by barely 7.5%.
  • To meet its NDC target, even with most optimistic estimates of carbon stock trapped in trees outside of forest areas, the sink has to grow by at least 15% to 20% over the next ten-year period.

Way Forward

  • There are two key decisions to be made in this regard — selection of the baseline year, and addition of the contribution of the agriculture sector to carbon sink.
  • When India announced its NDC in 2015, it did not mention the baseline year.
  • India’s emissions intensity target uses a 2005 baseline, so there is an argument that the forest target should also have the same baseline.
  • But there is a strong demand for a 2015 baseline as well, so that it results in some concrete progress in adding new forest cover.
  • The NDC specifically mentions that and “additional” 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon sink would be created through additional forest and tree cover by 2030 MoEFCC insist that tree cover outside forest areas must include agriculture as well.
  • India would also have to specify whether it wants to count the carbon sink in the agriculture sector in its target.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[pib] Ecoclub ProgrammePIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Ecoclub Programme

Mains level : Sensitization measures for environment protection

The annual meet of the National Green Corps ‘Ecoclub’ programme of the MoEF&CC was recently organized.

Ecoclub programme

  • Environment Education Awareness and Training (EEAT) is an established central sector scheme of the Environment ministry continuing since 1983-84.
  • It aims to promote environmental awareness and mobilize student’s participation for environment conservation.
  • Under the scheme, National Green Corps (NGC) ‘Ecoclub’ programme was initiated in 2001-2002 with the objective to impart knowledge to school children through hands on experience, about their immediate environment, interactions within it and the problems therein.
  • The programme aims to inculcate proper attitude towards environment and sensitize children on issues related to environment and development.
  • The scheme is continuing to build young cadres of students and trigger their sensitivity towards environment protection and conservation.
  • It is envisaged that number of Ecoclubs shall be enhanced from about 1.5 lakh at present to 2 lakh in the ensuing year 2020-21.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

European Green DealIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : European Green Deal

Mains level : Developed countries and thier negligence for Climate action

After the failure at Madrid, the European Union has come up with an announcement on additional measures it would on climate change, called the European Green Deal.

European Green Deal

Two major decisions are at the heart of the European Green Deal. The Green Deal includes sectoral plans to achieve these two overall targets and proposals for the policy changes that would be required. They are:

1) Climate neutrality

  • The EU has promised to bring a law, binding on all member countries, to ensure it becomes “climate neutral” by 2050.
  • Climate neutrality, sometimes also expressed as a state of net-zero emissions is achieved when a country’s emissions are balanced by absorptions and removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.
  • Absorption can be increased by creating more carbon sinks like forests, while removal involves technologies like carbon capture and storage.
  • The EU is now the first major emitter to agree to the 2050 climate neutrality target. It has said it would bring a proposal by March next year on a European law to enshrine this target.

2) Emission reduction

  • The second decision pertains to an increase in its 2030 emission reduction target.
  • In its climate action plan declared under the Paris Agreement, the EU was committed to making a 40 per cent reduction in its emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 levels.
  • It is now promising to increase this reduction to at least 50 per cent and work towards 55 per cent.
  • Even at 40 per cent, the European Union had the most ambitious emission reduction targets among the developed countries.

Why such move by EU?

  • The 28 EU member countries are together the third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world after China and the United States,
  • The EU also happens to be only one among major emitters to retain the 1990 baseline for emission cuts originally mandated under the Kyoto Protocol for all developed countries.


  • The European Union, as a whole, has been doing better than other developed countries on reducing emissions.
  • In 2010, the EU had pledged to reduce its emissions by at least 25 per cent by 2020 from 1990 levels.
  • By 2018, it claimed to have achieved 23 per cent reduction in emissions.
  • In terms of emission reductions, it probably is on track to meet the 2020 target, unlike any developed country outside the EU.

More is needed

  • The EU, however, has not been fulfilling all its climate obligations.
  • The Kyoto Protocol required the rich and developed countries to provide finance and technology to the developing countries to help them fight climate change.
  • In those respects, there has been little climate money flowing out of the EU, especially for adaptation needs of developing countries, and transfer of new climate-friendly technologies.
  • This is the reason why developing countries, like India and China, have been repeatedly raising the issue of unfulfilled obligations of developed countries in the pre-2020 period, that is covered by the Kyoto Protocol.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Global Alliance on Health and Pollution (GAHP) Report, 2019IOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Highlights of the report

Mains level : Climate change induced mortality in India

India saw the most pollution deaths — about 2.3 million — a new report has found. Air pollution — both ambient and indoor — is one of the largest and most obvious types of pollution affecting global health.

About the report

  • The report is titled Pollution and Health Metrics: Global, Regional and Country Analysis.
  • It is released by the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution (GAHP).
  • It seeks to update findings from The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health, and provides a ranking of pollution deaths on global, regional and country levels.
  • The report uses the most recent Global Burden of Disease data from the Institute of Health Metrics Evaluation.

Deaths in India

  • India is followed by China in the number of pollution deaths, with about 1.8 million.
  • The United States makes the top 10 list with 1,97,000 pollution-related deaths, while ranking 132nd in the number of deaths per 100,000 people.
  • The report includes three lists on pollution-induced deaths. India is the only country that features in the top 10 in all three lists.
  • The top 10 countries with the most pollution deaths include both the world’s largest and wealthiest nations, and some of its poorer ones.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Global High-Resolution Atmospheric Forecasting System (GRAF)Prelims Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : GRAF

Mains level : Need for accurate weather forecasting

The global IT giant IBM plans to make a high-resolution weather forecast model. It will also rely on user-generated data to improve the accuracy of forecasts available in India.


  • It is the acronym for Global High-Resolution Atmospheric Forecasting System (GRAF).
  • It is the forecast system is called, can generate forecasts at a resolution of 3 kilometres.
  • This is a significantly higher resolution than the 12-kilometre models used by the IMD to generate forecasts.
  • These weather forecast techniques rely on dynamic modelling and collect a trove of atmospheric and ocean data crunch it in supercomputers and generate forecasts over desired time-frames — three days, weekly or fortnightly.


  • Weather forecasts will be available to individuals for free download and can be used by farmers.
  • The forecast engine will also be used to provide custom forecasts for energy companies, consumer brands, insurance businesses and satellite imagery analysts.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

IUCN study on De-oxygenation of the OceansIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Osteoporosis of the sea

Mains level : Impacts of oceanic warming

The world’s oceans have less oxygen today than they did up to, say, 1950 or 1960, according to a new study.

About the Study

  • The report is the work of 67 scientists from 17 countries around the world.
  • The IUCN, the global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures needed to safeguard it, released the study at the United Nations Climate Change Conference currently underway in Madrid.
  • According to the findings of the study, the levels of oxygen in oceans fell by around 2 per cent from 1960 to 2010.
  • The deoxygenation of the oceans occurred due to climate change and other human activities (such as the nutrient runoff from farm fertilizers into waterways), the report said.

Threats posed by deoxygenation

  • In many parts of the world, including along the western coast of the United States, fish have been dying en masse — a clear illustration of the ways in which deoxygenation is choking the oceans.
  • Also, the loss of oxygen in the oceans can affect the planetary cycling of elements such as nitrogen and phosphorous which are essential for life on Earth..
  • As oceans lose oxygen, they become more acidic, a phenomenon that has resulted in some places in shellfish having their shells degraded or dissolved — the so called “osteoporosis of the sea”.
  • Apart from their declining oxygen content, oceans have, since the middle of the 20th century, absorbed 93 per cent of the heat associated with human-caused greenhouse gas emissions, leading to mass bleaching of coral reefs.
  • Also, since warmer water occupies more space than cooler water, NASA estimates that this is the reason for roughly a third of the rise in sea levels.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Climate warnings: On unmet emission goalsop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Need to act on climate change


Two reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), on the impact of higher global temperatures on land, oceans and the cryosphere, lend urgency to the task before countries meeting for the UN conference. 

UN conference

  • The member-nations of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change have been trying to finalize measures under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement to commodify carbon emissions cuts and to make it financially attractive to reduce emissions.
  • The IPCC scientists’ research helps the international community decide on actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • They are worried that even under the most optimistic scenarios, human health, livelihoods, biodiversity and food systems face a serious threat from climate change. 

Climate change

  • In the case of oceans and frozen areas on land, accelerated rates of loss of ice, particularly in Greenland, the Arctic and the Antarctic, will produce a destructive rise in sea levels.
  • Increases in tropical cyclone winds, rainfall, and extreme waves, combined with relative sea-level rise, will exacerbate catastrophic sea-level events.
  • All this will also hurt the health of fish stocks. 
  • For countries with a long coastline, local sea level anomalies that occurred once in a century may become annual events, due to the projected global mean sea level rise over the 21st century. 
  • This is alarming for the 680 million residents of low-lying coastal areas, whose population may go up to one billion by 2050, and for those living in small islands.

Way ahead

  • The new IPCC assessment underscores the need for unprecedented and urgent action in all countries with significant greenhouse gas emissions.
  • The industrialized nations need to provide liberal, transparent funding to developing countries under the Paris Agreement. 
  • The principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities, recognize that rich countries reduced the carbon space available to the poor. 
  • The developed world will be focusing in Madrid on creating a global system of accounting for emissions reductions, introducing credible carbon markets, and making some of the gains from these markets available to developing nations to invest in green energy. 
  • Scientists have a high degree of certainty on losses that will arise from climate change. There must be steady progress in addressing the damage. 
  • Even with the highest resolve, the existing Nationally Determined Contributions filed under the Paris Agreement fall short and need augmenting. 
  • There is a gap between planned emissions cuts, and what needs to be done by 2030 to contain global temperature rise at 1.5°C.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Global Carbon Project estimates of emission by IndiaIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : GCP

Mains level : Impact of slow economic growth on emission

  • The Global Carbon Project, which puts out emission estimates for across the world every year, has said India’s emissions in 2019 was likely to be only 1.8 per cent higher than in 2018.
  • This is significantly lower than the 8% growth that India showed last year and the more-than-5% average growth over the last ten years.

Global Carbon Project (GCP)

  • The GCP is a Global Research Project of Future Earth and a research partner of the World Climate Research Programme.
  • Established in 2001, its projects include global budgets for three dominant greenhouse gases — CO2, methane, and nitrous oxide — and complementary efforts in urban, regional, cumulative, and negative emissions.
  • The main object of the group has been to fully understand the carbon cycle.
  • It collaborates with many groups to gather, analyze, and publish data on greenhouse gas emissions in an open and transparent fashion, making datasets available on its website and through its publications.
  • It releases the Global Carbon Atlas (established in 2013) a tool for visualizing data related to the global carbon cycle.

What arrested the growth

  • The economic slowdown has been blamed for a lower emission growth in the rest of the world as well, and also in China, the world’s largest emitter.
  • Weak economic growth in India has led to slower growth in oil and natural gas use.
  • With a weakening economy, growth in India’s generation of electricity has slowed from 6 per cent per year to under 1 per cent in 2019, despite electrification of villages adding to potential demand.
  • Moreover, the addition of a very wet monsoon led to very high hydropower generation and a decline in generation from coal.

Why the report matters

  • The numbers put out by Global Carbon Project are estimates, and not official.
  • But these offer important indicators to global trends in carbon dioxide emissions in near-real time.
  • In India’s case, the most recent official numbers relating to all kinds of emissions pertain to 2014. Those were submitted to the UN climate body in 2018.
  • According to those numbers, India’s CO2 emissions in 2014 was 1.99 billion tonnes, while its total greenhouse gas emissions, which include other greenhouse gases like methane and nitrous oxide, was 2.6 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent.
  • The GCP 2019 estimates the carbon dioxide emissions in 2019 alone to be about 2.6 billion tonnes. They do not give the estimates of emissions of other greenhouse gases.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Antarctic Treaty System (ATS)IOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Antarctic Treaty System (ATS)

Mains level : Impact of climate change on Antarctica

Reports have claimed that compared to last year, 40 per cent more tourists, numbering about 80,000, are expected to visit Antarctica, the least visited continent in the world.

Who regulates tourism in Antarctica?

  • All human activities on the continent are regulated by the Antarctic Treaty, which was signed in 1960.
  • The treaty entered into force in 1961 and currently has 54 parties. India became a member of this treaty in 1983.
  • For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude.
  • The treaty sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation, and bans military activity on the continent.
  • The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. Since September 2004, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters has been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Regulating tourism

  • Tourism in Antarctica started around the 1950s, starting out with a few hundred visitors annually to over 38,000 per year in 2015-2016.
  • Working within the mechanism of this treaty is the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO), a body which was founded in 1991 by seven tour operators to promote safe and environmentally responsible travel in Antarctica.
  • While IAATO maintains that the tourism conducted under its banner has virtually no environmental impact on the region, the IAATO rules and guidelines are not mandatory or binding.

How has Antarctica been changing?

  • In September, a report on oceans released by the IPCC said that between 2006 and 2015, the Antarctic ice sheet lost about 155 billion tonnes of mass on average every year.
  • This ice melt from Antarctica likely contributed to sea-level rises.
  • The main sources of environmental damage to the continent include planet-wide impacts such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, impacts of fishing and hunting (of whales and seals) and lastly, the impact of visitors which includes scientists and tourists.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Species in news: ClownfishPrelims Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Clownfish

Mains level : Climate change and its impact

The clownfish, made so popular by the animated film Finding Nemo and its sequel Finding Dory, cannot be expected to be able to adapt to a rapidly changing environment, a new study has concluded.


  • Clownfish are found in various parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, including the Great Barrier Reef.
  • They typically live at the bottom of shallow seas in sheltered reefs or in shallow lagoons. It is this habitat that is under threat.

Habitat under threat

  • Clownfish breed only in sea anemones, sharing a symbiotic bond.
  • Clownfish shelter in the anemone and are the only fish that do not get stung by the nematocysts of the anemone.
  • The anemone benefits because clownfish can defend the anemone from fish that might eat it. They never live anywhere but in the anemone.
  • Like coral reefs in general, Anemones are under direct threat from the impacts of climate change.
  • The anemones share another symbiotic bond, with algae. Under stress in warming waters, the algae leave the anemones.
  • If the algae stay away too long, the anemone starve to death. Which leaves the clownfish without a home.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

UNDP Accelerator LabIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Accelerator Lab

Mains level : SDGs and various initiatives for their attainment

The UNDP Accelerator Lab India project was recently launched in collaboration with the government’s Atal Innovation Mission.

Accelerator Lab

  • It seeks to address some of the most pressing issues facing India, including air pollution, through innovation.
  • The laboratory will be housed in the UNDP India office has partnered with the Indian government’s Atal Innovation Mission to achieve its objectives.
  • Other issues that the laboratory will seek to address include sustainable water management and client-resilient livelihood.
  • The vision is to make faster progress in meeting the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the U.N. by 2030.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

DendrochronologyPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Dendrochronology

Mains level : Bio-indicators

Reconstructions of past responses of vegetation from different ecosystems can predict the impact of climate change on weather and other environmental parameters.


  • It is the study of tree rings that hold a wealth of information about not only a tree’s past but also that of the ecosystem in which it lives.
  • Tree rings are layers of growth that a tree acquires in a year.
  • The colour of old wood is always darker than a comparatively newer wood which creates a contrasting pattern of rings year on year.
  • In the years of good growth, characterized by a healthy supply of resources, the ring is thick.
  • It is thin when the ecosystem has dearth of resources.
  • Trees can be great records for past and recent climates, much better than climate records as their density in a region is much greater than climate observatories and their information close enough to actual conditions.

How does Dendrochronology help?

  • As trees are sensitive to local climate conditions, such as rain and temperature, they give some information about that area’s local climate in the past.
  • For example, tree rings usually grow wider in warm, wet years and they are thinner in years when it is cold and dry.
  • If the tree has experienced stressful conditions, such as a drought, the tree might hardly grow at all in those years.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Widening gap: On UN’s Emissions Gap Reportop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Emissions Gap

Mains level : IPCC Emissions Gap report


The UN’s Emissions Gap Report comes as a sharp warning to countries preparing to meet in Madrid in December.


    • No more inaction – the report proves that every year of inaction is jeopardizing the main goal of the Paris Agreement: to keep the rise in global temperature over pre-industrial times below 2°C at 1.5°C
    • Emissions gapthe UN report estimates that there would have to be a 2.7% average annual cut in emissions from 2020 to 2030 for temperature rise to be contained at 2°C. The more ambitious 1.5° C target would require a 7.6% reduction. 
    • More risk for high emissions nations – countries with large emissions, such as the U.S., China, the European Union (EU) nations and India, will face more challenging demands if corrective measures to decarbonize are not implemented now.

Action on ground

    • EU is considering an emergency declaration, and the British Parliament adopted a resolution earlier this year. 
    • If sufficient action is not taken, hundreds of millions of people could face extreme impacts.
    • In the U.S., the Trump administration has initiated the process of withdrawing from the Paris Agreement.
    • The EU is working on legislation to bring about net-zero emissions. 
    • The U.K., which is responsible for a large share of historical emissions, has turned its net-zero 2050 goal into a legal requirement.

Rich – poor divide

    • Innovation – For these rich nations, the road to lower emissions is mainly through innovation and higher efficiencies in energy use. 
    • Development needs – China and India have to reconcile growing emissions with development needs. 
    • Innovations needed – They should scale up investments in renewable energy, leapfrog to clean technologies in buildings and transport, and greater carbon sequestration.

Role of India

UN report points out that India could do much more. 

    • Renewable – It needs to provide more consistent support for renewable energy.
    • Coal – India should have a long-term plan to retire coal power plants.
    • Other steps – enhance ambition on air quality, adopt an economy-wide green industrialization strategy, and expand mass transport. 
    • Buildings – the energy conservation code of 2018 needs to be implemented under close scrutiny.


India could use green technologies to galvanize its faltering economy, create new jobs and become a climate leader.


Emissions gap

It represents the difference between current actions to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) and what is needed to meet the target.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Eco-anxietyPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Eco-anxiety

Mains level : Environmentalism: Prospects and Challenges


This newscard is inspired by an article published in The Hindu.


  • Eco-anxiety is anxiety about ecological disasters and threats to the natural environment such as pollution and climate change.
  • Variations to the definition exist such as the broader description explaining it as the “worry or agitation caused by concerns about the present and future state of the environment.”
  • It is the helplessness that makes us see ourselves as just one insignificant entity on the planet, unable to reverse the crisis.
  • It is also the sense that no matter how hard we work, nothing will ever be enough.
  • We know the deteriorating climate is affecting our health or our child’s but you do not know how you can stop it.

A new global epidemic

  • Swedish schoolgirl Greta Thunberg, who started the school strike for climate, warned to be extremely concerned about the matter: “…I don’t want you to be hopeful, I want you to panic.
  • When she was younger, she fell into a depression and she has claimed that this was because of her worries about climate change.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Acqua altaPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Venice, Acqua alta

Mains level : Sea level rise and its impact

High tides in the Adriatic Sea have caused floods in the historic city of Venice.

Acqua alta

  • Venice is situated on the coast of northeastern Italy, bounded by the Adriatic Sea Acqua alta is the name given to exceptionally high tides in the Adriatic Sea.
  • Water levels this week has reached heights of 1.87 metres (well over 6 feet) — only a little short of the 1.91-metre record that was set during the “great flood” of 1966.
  • The city’s Saint Mark’s Square went under more than a metre of water, whereas the adjacent Saint Mark’s Basilica was flooded for only the sixth time in the last 1,200 years and for the fourth time in the last 20 years.
  • Late autumn and winter are the seasons for high tides or acqua alta in Venice.
  • At the end of October last year, over 75% of the lagoon city went underwater after high tides and stormy weather led to an increase in the water levels of the canals.

About Venice

  • Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
  • It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges.
  • The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers.
  • The lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Venice has been known as “La Dominante”, “La Serenissima”, “Queen of the Adriatic”, “City of Water”, “City of Masks”, “City of Bridges”, “The Floating City”, and “City of Canals”.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] How markets can serve climateop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Climate Finance


The next climate conference has the challenge of deciding how markets can be deployed in the service of climate. 

CDM – Clean Development Mechanism

    • CDM – is a market instrument that can help the industry as well as climate.
    • India leads the initiative – Along with China and Brazil, India is a leader in CDM since its inception in 2007.
    • India benefited from CDM – A number of small and medium projects in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy were financed from CDM.

Challenges to the future of CDM

    • New mechanisms – in 2021, new market mechanisms mandated under the Paris Agreement come into operation.
    • Opposition by developed countries – Most developed countries is strongly opposed to permitting the carryover of CDM projects and their credits into the Paris Pact’s mechanisms.
    • Credits under CDM – The credits lying unsold with the CDM projects could lose their economic worth.
    • New validation procedures – CDM projects will have to go through the process of validation and registration again with the new mechanism. This will involve additional financial and administrative costs.

India – CDM

    • CER – India has about 250 million Certified Emission Reduction (CER) units under CDM issued by the UNFCCC. The number of CDM projects registered in India is 1,376 and 89% of these projects are still active.
    • Declining demand – The demand in the EU, which has been the largest market for CDM credits, has declined sharply over the last decade because of regulatory barriers.
    • Value of CDM credits – The unrealised value of CDM credits could be in the range of almost $5 billion. India stands to lose substantially if existing CDM projects and credits are closed in 2020.

Arguments against CDM

    • No environmental impact – It has failed to demonstrate environmental benefits in addition to the “business as usual” scenario.
    • Difficult transition – Its transition to new mechanisms will have adverse impacts on carbon prices and investor sentiments in future markets.
    • Double counting – double counting could compromise global ambition on reducing GHG emissions.

Alternative arguments

    • Alternative technologies – CDM project proponents should be free to choose available cost-effective technologies as long as the objective of emission reductions is achieved. 
    • Technology is not a judge – “Additionality” in CDM projects should not be judged solely on the criterion of technology. They are also about investments and overcoming market barriers. All CDM projects have passed these tests.
    • Transition is not so quick – The argument that a transition of CDM credits may flood the market and lead to deterioration in the carbon prices in future markets is also over-stretched. Validation and registration of projects under the new mechanism may take at least three years.
    • Possible increase of credit demand – If all CDM units available globally till 2020 are traded immediately, they may be fully absorbed by 2024 — as demand for credits for meeting the Paris commitments increases. 
    • Increased demand from airlines – More than 60% of the credits may be used fully even before 2022 if we take into account the demand from airline operators to meet commitments under CORSIA.


    • Environmental integrity is an objective of the market mechanisms under the Paris Agreement. 
    • Double counting – for project/program-based mechanisms, countries should make arrangements to prevent double-counting of emission reduction units in their national accounts. 
    • Nonuniform adjustment principle – the difference in levels of development of countries requires that the adjustment principle should not be applied uniformly to developed and developing countries. 
    • ICAO actions – ICAO is actively considering a plan to limit the use of CDM credits to those issued after 2015. This could be a challenge to the CDM in the future carbon market.

Way ahead

    • For India – India should have a strategy that ensures that it does not get shut out of the CORSIA market even as ICAO enlarges the source of supplies from other countries. 
    • Changing the binaries – the relationship between the project/program-based emission reduction units and the national pool of emission reductions should be changed. 
    • Assessing carbon markets – there is a need for a firm basis to establish access to future carbon markets.




It is an emission reduction scheme for international civil aviation effective from 2021.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Climate Change and Heat-Induced Mortality in IndiaDOMR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the report

Mains level : Impact of climate change on human mortality

  • A new study has projected that 1.5 million more Indians may die per year from extreme heat due to climate change by 2100.

About the Report

  • The study, ‘Climate Change and Heat-Induced Mortality in India’, was conducted by the Climate Impact Lab in collaboration with the Tata Centre for Development at the University of Chicago.


  • India’s energy use will be more than double in the next 20 years, driven largely by fossil fuels.
  • If emissions continue to be as high as they are at present, India will see a death rate of about 60 per 100,000 by 2100, the study says.
  • This projected death rate is double the current death rate from oral cancer in India, which is the most common cancer in the country.
  • It says the average annual temperature in India is expected to increase from 24°C to 28°C.
  • The number of extremely hot days (above 35°C) across India is expected to increase by over eight times, from 5.1 per year in 2010 to 42.8 in 2100. By 2050, there are expected to be 15.8 extremely hot days a year.

Statewise data

  • The NCR is projected to see 22 times more extremely hot days and more than 23,000 climate-related deaths annually by 2100 in a high-emission scenario.
  • Odisha is projected to see the highest increase in the number of extremely hot days, at about 30 times more than what it is today.
  • Punjab is projected to experience 85 extremely hot days a year, the highest among all states.
  • Overall, the six states of UP (4,02,280), Bihar (1,36,372), Rajasthan (1,21,809), Andhra (1,16,920), MP (1,08,370) and Maharashtra (1,06,749) are projected to account for over 64 per cent of the heat-related deaths.

Affected by wealth

  • According to the report, the risks associated with extreme temperatures vary around the world and are dependent upon the wealth of a country.
  • For instance, the impact of a single hot day on the annual mortality rate of a wealthy and warm city such as Houston, US, will be 0.4 deaths per 100,000.
  • The same will be double for a warm and poorer city such as Delhi, at 0.8 deaths per 100,000.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] A portrait of the student as a political activistop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not Much

Mains level : Climate activism


  • Student protests are erupting across world capitals against rising inequality, corruption and a pervasive sense of alienation.
  • Thunberg’s denunciatory speech at the UN’s Climate Action Summit which found sympathetic echoes among students elsewhere also reflects frustration with current rulers for forfeiting the future.
  • It’s imprudent to ignore these uprisings, whether separated by geography or ideology.

Student’s activism

  • There is something else that connects Thunberg with the widening global arc of student protests: Both have re-ignited latent fires of patriarchy.
  • For example, critics of Thunberg’s speech have used different sticks to beat her argument, but they also revealed society’s dominant fault-line.
  • This is an aversion to sharing power with women or younger citizens, including students.

Rising above Patriarchy

  • Thunberg has triggered a predictable backlash from society’s dominant patriarchal system, especially the leadership of many countries.
  • There is indignation at a young girl challenging the writ of the established male political order, repository of all wisdom and knowledge.
  • At the same time, scholars investigate the consequences of patriarchy, i.e., differential access to scarce societal resources, including power, authority and opportunity by gender.”

Where Thunberg lags

  • There is the developed-versus-developing argument, which posits that as a Swedish citizen, Thunberg cannot tell poor nations that they must forgo their development for the sake of climate change.
  • Even Russian president Vladimir Putin, for example, dismissed Thunberg’s UN speech, citing her lack of understanding about special development needs of poor nations.
  • India, as many other developing nations, lags behind developed countries on the basis of per-capita emissions. But then two other issues kick in.

No easy answers for development

  • Even though India’s per-capita emissions lag, the overall emissions might be significant, given India’s population.
  • The second is a more ethical question: Even if we agree that India has a long way to go in playing catch-up it is not agreeable to keep emitting all the way up.

Students in the patriarchal world

  • But, while dismissing her developed-world credentials, Putin also revealed his patriarchal self by suggesting that Thunberg is perhaps being manipulated.
  • His statement, bereft of any proof so far, does betray a common failing: An inability to understand how young people can take an independent stand based on conviction.
  • This patronizing attitude speaks of a larger malaise in society: Misplaced expectations from students.
  • The world is surprised by the Hong Kong students’ force of conviction and prolonged resistance.

Generic ordeal for students

  • The popular notion is students should be studying, not indulging in politics. This ignores a ground reality.
  • Most college students are eligible to vote in general and state elections, which require thinking politics and taking a political decision.
  • But, thereafter, they are then expected to repress their personal political belief system.
  • Decades of emphasis on an employment-based education system has created a large technocratic base that privileges employability over political thought or awareness.

Vitality of independent thought

  • Society’s patriarchal attitude towards students, that youngsters are incapable of independent thought and are best kept yoked to textbooks and classrooms, save the occasional trip to the polling booth, is also at fault.
  • This disregards the historical fact that student protests are capable of fashioning societal changes.
  • The Indian independence movement may not have acquired the necessary mobilization without student participation.
  • The student protests that erupted across the globe primarily against racism, authoritarianism and war—may not have succeeded in shaping a global political revolution, but did accomplish a cultural revolution.
  • It is, therefore, always sensible to heed student protests—because they contain the seeds of future unrest.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Gill-Oxygen Limitation TheoryPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory (GOLT)

Mains level : Impacts of oceanic warming

  • Warming waters have less oxygen. Therefore, fish have difficulties breathing in such environments says a new study.

 Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory

  • Among various ways in which climate change is impacting life on Earth, one has been to change the distribution of fish species in the oceans.
  • Scientists have predicted that the shift will be towards the poles. They have explained the biological reasons why fish species will follow that direction.
  • It stems from the way fish breathe which is described as the Gill-Oxygen Limitation Theory, or GOLT.

How does it work?

  • Warming waters have less oxygen. Therefore, fish have difficulties breathing in such environments.
  • Additionally, such warming, low-oxygen waters also increase fish’s oxygen demands because their metabolism speeds up.
  • This is because, as fish grow, their demand for oxygen increases.
  • However, the surface area of the gills (two-dimensional) does not grow at the same pace as the rest of the body (three-dimensional).
  • The larger the fish, the smaller it’s surface area relative to the volume of its body.
  • So, the fish move to waters whose temperatures resemble those of their original habitats and that satisfy their oxygen needs.


  • As the global sea surface temperature has increased by approximately 0.13°C per decade over the past 100 years, “suitable” waters are more and more found towards the poles and at greater depths.
  • This will cause some fish species to shift their distribution by more than 50 km per decade.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Role of mountain streams in carbon cyclePriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not Much

Mains level : Role of mountain streams in carbon cycle

  • The role of mountain streams in carbon cycle was recently assessed by some researchers.
  • It was found that Mountain streams emit a surprising amount of carbon dioxide

Mountain streams

  • Mountains cover 25 per cent of the Earth’s surface, and the streams draining these mountains account for more than a third of the global runoff.
  • Researchers have found that mountain streams have a higher average carbon dioxide emission rate per square metre than streams at lower altitudes.
  • This is due in part to the additional turbulence caused as water flows down slopes.

Significance in carbon cycle

  • Researchers found that mountain streams have a higher average CO2 emission rate per square meter than streams at lower altitudes.
  • So even though these streams make up just 5% of the global surface area of the fluvial networks, they likely account for 10% to 30% of CO2 emissions from these networks.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Ozone holePriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Ozone hole

Mains level : Ozone depletion and its impact on climate change

  • During September and October, the ozone hole over the Antarctic has been the smallest observed since 1982.

Shrinking ozone hole

  • The annual ozone hole reached its peak extent of 16. 4 million sq km on September 8, then shrank to less than 10 million sq km for the remainder of September and October, satellite measurements show.
  • NASA has described it as great news for the Southern Hemisphere.

Ozone hole

  • Ozone, made up of three oxygen atoms, occurs naturally in small amounts.
  • Roughly 10 km to 40 km up in the atmosphere (the layer called the stratosphere), the ozone layer is a sunscreen, shielding Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation.
  • On the other hand, close to the surface, ozone created as a byproduct of pollution can trigger health problems such as asthma and bronchitis.
  • Manufactured chemicals deplete the ozone layer. Each spring over Antarctica (it is now spring there), atmospheric ozone is destroyed by chemical processes.
  • This creates the ozone hole, which occurs because of special meteorological and chemical conditions that exist in that region.

Why it is smallest this year?

  • There have been abnormal weather patterns in the atmosphere over Antarctica.
  • In warmer temperatures like this year, fewer polar stratospheric clouds form and they don’t persist as long, limiting the ozone-depletion process.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

How aerosol formation helps brighten clouds, balance climatePriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Aerosols

Mains level : Role of aerosols in maintaining Earth temperature

  • Small aerosol particles help in “brightening” of clouds, enabling them to alter Earth’s radiative balance and ultimately its climate, according to a study.

What is Aerosol?

  • An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
  • Aerosols can be natural or anthropogenic. Examples of natural aerosols are fog, dust, forest exudates and geyser steam.
  • Examples of anthropogenic aerosols are haze, particulate air pollutants and smoke.

Formation in atmosphere

  • When deep, convective clouds in the tropics carry gases high into the atmosphere, they form small aerosol particles in a process called gas-to-particle conversion.
  • As they condense, they grow big enough to brighten lower-level cloud in the lower troposphere.
  • This gas-to-particle conversion brightens clouds in the tropics over both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

Why are they significant?

  • These brighter clouds reflect more energy from the sun back to space.
  • Further, this formation of new particle covers about 40 per cent of the Earth’s surface, which means some of the current climate models underestimate the cooling impact of some clouds.
  • Understanding how these particles form and contribute to cloud properties in the tropics will help us better represent clouds in climate models and improve those models.
  • The study showed that in remote places with cleaner air, the effect of aerosol particle formation on clouds was found to be much larger,
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

MOSAiC MissionPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the expedition

Mains level : Role of Arctic in global climate

  • Vishnu Nandan, a 32-year-old polar researcher from Kerala, will be the only Indian among 300 scientists from across the world aboard the MOSAiC expedition.


  • MOSAiC stands for Multidisciplinary drifting observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate.
  • It aims for studying the impact of climate change on the Arctic and how it could affect the rest of the world.
  • MOSAiC is the largest ever Arctic expedition in history, will be the first to conduct a study of this scale at the North Pole for an entire year.
  • Previous studies have been of shorter periods as the thicker sea ice sheets prevent access in winter.

Key highlights

  • Under it, the German research vessel Polarstern has been anchored on a large sheet of sea ice in the Central Arctic.
  • They will allow the water to freeze around them, effectively trapping themselves in the vast sheet of white that forms over the North Pole each winter.
  • They will build temporary winter research camps on the ice, allowing them to perform tests that wouldn’t be possible at other times of the year or by satellite sensing.


  • The results of MOSAiC mission will contribute to enhance understanding of the regional and global consequences of Arctic climate change.
  • It will be helpful in understanding the reasons behind the sea-ice loss and improve weather and climate predictions.
  • Its expeditions will support safer maritime and offshore operations, increase coastal-community resilience, contribute to an improved scientific basis for future traffic along northern sea routes.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

D28 icebergPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : D28

Mains level : Climate change and on cryosphere

  • A more than 1,500 D28 iceberg recently broke off Antarctica.


  • The iceberg, dubbed D28, broke away from the Amery ice shelf according to observations from European and American satellites.
  • It is about 210 metres thick and contains 315 billion tonnes of ice.
  • The east of Antarctica — where D28 broke off — is different from the west of the continent and Greenland, which are rapidly warming due to climate change.

Not related to Climate Change

  • Scientists found that the event is part of a normal cycle and is not related to climate change.
  • The figures are huge, but iceberg production is part of the normal cycle of ice shelves, which are an extension of the ice cap.
  • Ice shelves have to lose mass because they gain mass.
  • The gain in mass comes from snow falling on the continent and glaciers that move slowly toward the shore.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] At hot seaop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Climate change and warming oceans


As per a recent IPCC report, by 2100, oceans all over the world will absorb five to seven times more heat than they have done in the past 50 years if we do not reduce our emissions trajectory. 

Importance of oceans

    • Oceans cover more than 70% of the earth’s surface.
    • They provide critical ecosystem services such as soaking up the heat and distributing it evenly.

Challenges due to warming oceans

    • This will lead to global sea- levels rising by at least a meter. This will submerge several coastal cities, including Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, and Surat. 
    • Marine heatwaves are projected to be more intense. They would last longer and occur 50 times more often. 
    • Sea-level rise could also lead to an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events, which occur, for example, during high tides and intense storms.
    • As the planet warms, it’s oceans get most of the extra energy
    • Hotter oceans also mean stronger cyclones and storms. This could lead to unprecedented volatility in several coastal regions. For instance, in 2014, Cyclone Nilofar was the first extremely severe cyclone to be recorded in the Arabian Sea in the post-monsoon season. 
    • Earlier, cyclones impacting the country generally originated in the Bay of Bengal and made their landfall on India’s eastern coast. Cyclone Nilofar did not make landfall but it led to heavy rains in the country’s west coast
    • In October last year, a higher than normal surge in sea-level due to the dual impact of Cyclone Luban and high tide swamped several beaches in Goa. Some of them went completely underwater for a few hours. 
    • Warming seas have changed cyclone behaviour in other ways as well. In 2017, Cyclone Ockhi, which originated in the Bay of Bengal, traveled more than 2,000 km to wreak havoc on India’s western coast — the first cyclone to do so in 30 years.
    • The IPCC report warns of more “frequent El Nino and La Nina events”. These events in the Pacific Ocean are critically linked to the southwest monsoons in India. An El Nino caused a severe drought in the country in 2015. 

Way ahead

    • Countries will have to upscale efforts to check GHG emissions.
    • Ramp up investments in infrastructure and knowledge systems to build up peoples’ resilience against extreme weather events. 
    • The latest IPCC report should serve as a wake-up call.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Climate Vulnerability Map of IndiaPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Climate Vulnerability Map of India

Mains level : Need and significance of such maps

  • For preparing communities and people to meet the challenge arising out of climate, information specific to a state or even district is needed.
  • In order to meet this need, a pan India climate vulnerability assessment map is being developed.

Climate Vulnerability map of India

  • The map is being developed under a joint project of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) under the Union Ministry of Science and Technology and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).
  • This research programme of DST is being implemented as part of the National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE) and National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change (NMSKCC).
  • Such climate vulnerability atlas has already been developed for 12 states in the Indian Himalayan Region, using a common framework.
  • Now this methodology will be extended to non-Himalayan states so that we can have a national level climate vulnerability profile for India.
  • The atlas is expected to be ready by the middle of 2020.

Why such move?

  • Climate risk is interplay of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. There is a rise in climate-sensitive livelihood of people.
  • While the occurrence of natural hazards such as landslides, droughts and floods is projected to go up, their impact depends on the level of exposure such as presence of people and infrastructure in areas.
  • Hence a common methodology for assessing vulnerability was critical for comparison and for planning adaptation strategies.
  • Vulnerability is the propensity to be adversely affected and can be measured in terms of both biophysical as well as socio-economic factors.
  • Addressing vulnerability can help reduce risk to climate change. It also helps in identifying what makes a state or district vulnerable to climate change.

Mapping strategy

  • The map for the Himalayan region, developed in consultation with states, has details up to the district level.
  • The national map will also do the same, as vulnerability within a state may differ from one region or district to another.
  • A common set of indicators will be used vulnerability profile and ranking of 650 districts all over the country.
  • Among the priority areas identified for research are glaciology, climate modeling, urban climate, extreme events and Himalayan ecosystem studies.
  • In all, climate change cells have been in 25 states in the country and centres of excellence are also being established in states for capacity building.
  • Sensitivity of agricultural production is captured by indicators like percentage area under irrigation; yield variability; and percentage area under horticulture crops.

Take a look at following infographs:

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] The food industry’s role in sustainable developmentop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Sustainable food production


Feeding a planet of 7.7 billion people is not easy. 


    • Every person on the planet has the right to a healthy diet
    • Every farmer has the right to a decent livelihood
    • The roughly ten million other species on the planet need a habitat in which they can survive. 
    • Every business that produces, processes and transports food needs and expects to earn a profit.

Challenges to food security

    • Over 820 million people are chronically hungry
    • Another two billion or so suffer from micronutrient deficiencies, such as a lack of vitamins or proteins. 
    • Around 650 million adults are obese. This is caused in part by ultra-processed foods stuffed with sugar, saturated fats, and other chemical additives.

Agri Industry – Issues

    • Healthfulness of products – Too few companies report on the healthfulness of their product lines or how their products contribute to healthy and sustainable dietary patterns. 
    • Environmental contribution – Too few recognize that they are part of the environmental crisis, either directly in their own production, or as buyers of products produced in environmental hotspots such as the Amazon or Indonesia. 
    • Tax practices – Companies don’t report in detail on their tax practices.

Agri industry – what can be done

    • It is a powerhouse of the global economy. 
    • Solving food crises needs the industry to change its ways.
    • Their practices are the main cause of deforestation, freshwater depletion and pollution, soil erosion, and the collapse of biodiversity
    • Human-induced climate change is wreaking havoc on crop production. 
    • In 2015, all 193 members of the United Nations agreed unanimously to two vital agreements.
      • Agenda 2030 – adopts 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a roadmap to human well-being and planetary safety. 
      • Paris climate agreement – commits the world’s governments to take decisive action to keep global warming to less than 1.5º Celsius. 
    • All companies in the food sector should adopt clear guidelines, metrics and reporting standards to align with the global goals. 
    • Each company must address four critical questions:
      • Do their products and strategies contribute to healthy and sustainable diets? The fast-food culture has to change to promote healthy diets.
      • Too many companies are engaged in chemical pollution, massive waste from packaging, deforestation, excessive and poorly targeted fertilizer use, and other environmental ills.
      • Company’s upstream supplier’s sustainability – no consumer food company should use products from farms that contribute to deforestation.
      • Good corporate behavior – aggressive tax practices that exploit legal loopholes should be avoided, as they deprive governments of the revenues needed to promote public services.

Way ahead

Around the world, young people are demanding a sustainable and safe way of living and doing business. Companies will change. The business sector must urgently recognize, acknowledge and act upon its global responsibilities.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

IPCC report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing ClimateIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : IPCC

Mains level : Key highlights of the report

  • With representatives from nearly 200 countries at the UN Climate Summit underway in the United States, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) made public a special report.
  • It underlined the dire changes taking place in oceans, glaciers and ice-deposits on land and sea.

About the report

  • The ‘Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate’ was prepared following an IPCC Panel decision in 2016 to prepare three Special Reports.
  • It follows the Special Reports on Global Warming of 1.5°C (SR1.5), and on Climate Change and Land (SRCCL).

 Unprecedented conditions ahead

  • Over the 21st century, the ocean is projected to transition to unprecedented conditions with increased temperatures, further ocean acidification, marine heatwaves and more frequent extreme El Niño and La Niña events,” according to the report.
  • It is virtually certain that the global ocean has warmed unabated since 1970 and has taken up more than 90% of the excess heat in the climate system (high confidence).
  • Since 1993, the rate of ocean warming has more than doubled.
  • Marine heatwaves have very likely doubled in frequency since 1982 and are increasing in intensity, the report notes.
  • The Southern Ocean accounted for 35%–43% of the total heat gain in the upper 2,000 m global ocean between 1970 and 2017, and its share increased to 45%–62% between 2005 and 2017.

Sea level rise

  • Globally sea levels are estimated to rise 1.1 metre by 2100, if countries are not able to restrict emissions “well below” 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
  • This is likely to have a direct impact on the lives of 680 million people living in low-lying coastal zones.


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  • The IPCC is an intergovernmental body of the UN dedicated to providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change, its natural, political and economic impacts and risks, and possible response options.
  • The IPCC was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and was later endorsed by the UNGA.
  • Membership is open to all members of the WMO and UN.
  • The IPCC produces reports that contribute to the work of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the main international treaty on climate change.
  • In addition to climate assessment reports, the IPCC publishes Special Reports on specific topics.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[oped of the day] The nationalist hindrance to climate actionsop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Action on climate change - global challenges

Op-ed of the day is the most important editorial of the day. This will cover a key issue that came in the news and for which students must pay attention. This will also take care of certain key issues students have to cover in respective GS papers.


Global Climate Action Summit backed by the United Nations Secretary General seeks to bring concrete climate action with the support of global youth protests. It seeks to spur action to address climate change.

Climate change is a reality

  • The scientific advisory group to the summit reports the following
    • five years since 2015 is set to be the warmest of any equivalent recorded period
    • sea-level rise is accelerating
    • oceans have become 26% more acidic since the dawn of the Industrial era
  • Recent weather events show the implications of a warming world
    • this summer saw Delhi-like temperatures across southern Europe
    • Hurricane Dorian rendered large parts of the Bahamas unliveable
    • simultaneous raging fires in the Amazon, central Africa, and even Siberia
  • Scientists are able to link these individual events with climate change. Heatwave in France and Germany was made 8 to 10 times more likely by climate change. 

Root causes continue

Concentrations of CO2 continue to rise and current country pledges would not stem this increase even by 2030.

Rising youth

  • This has spurred an upwelling of social action among the youth. 
  • An estimated 4 million youth turned out in protest on Friday against inaction on climate change around the world.

Problems in addressing the issue at hand

  • A turn toward nationalism in multiple countries has created a short-term, look-out-for-our-own mentality inimical to the global collective action.
  • United States president not only refuses to enhance actions but has actively rolled back measures in the electricity sector and actions to limit methane emissions in the name of competitiveness. 
  • In Brazil, President Jair Bolsonaro has made it clear he sees environmental protections as limiting Brazilian business. 

UN Summit – possibilities

  • Countries have been urged to enhance their pledges for action made as part of the Paris Agreement. 
    • A number of small and mid-sized countries, including the United Kingdom, have already committed to achieving the objective of making their economies net carbon neutral by 2050. 
    • Several large countries such as the United States, Brazil, Australia, Canada, Japan, and Mexico are reportedly not even going to participate in the event at a high level. 
    • China and India have issued hinted that they are doing quite enough.
    • India has highlighted the need for enhanced finance if it is to do more. 
  • By the use of diplomacy, it seeks to induce changes in real economies around a set of ‘action portfolios’.
    • Furthering and accelerating an energy transition toward low-carbon energy
    • Making cities more climate-friendly and more resilient to climate disruption
    • Starting the process of turning energy-intensive sectors such as steel and cement more carbon friendly. 
    • Domestic objectives are central to these actions: 
      • promoting solar energy for energy security reasons
      • making cities more liveable
      • making industries more efficient and competitive

What India should do

  • India is a deeply vulnerable country to climate impacts. It should argue for enhanced global collective action.
  • India has the potential to show the pathway to accelerating action on climate change while pursuing its development interests. 
  • Its energy efficiency track record helps limit greenhouse gases even while saving the nation’s energy. 
  • India is recognised for promoting renewable energy but is working on future coal use. 
  • While some increase in fossil fuel is inevitable for India, it needs domestic energy policies that are more clearly and coherently tuned to a future low carbon world.
  • India should be a truly global climate leader, rather than a leader only among climate laggards. 
  • India and China can jointly help ensure that Africa’s development is powered by renewable energy rather than fossil fuels and based on an energy-efficient future.


  • The pathway to enhanced action is unlikely to override entrenched national politics. 
  • The aim should be to make accelerated climate action congruent with national interest by focusing on areas such as energy and urbanisation.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Explained: Global Climate Strike movementExplained


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Global Climate Strike movement

Mains level : Consequences of inaction on climate change

  • Students in more than 2,000 cities across the world are holding demonstrations under the #FridaysforFuture movement, protesting inaction towards climate change.

The Global Climate Strike movement

  • The #FridaysforFuture movement, also known as the Youth Strike for Climate Movement was started in August 2018 by Greta Thunberg.
  • She sat outside the Swedish parliament every school day for three weeks to protest against inaction towards climate change and called for concrete government action.
  • Then in September 2018, Thunberg called for a strike every Friday until the Swedish parliament revised its policies towards climate change.
  • Gradually, students and adults from across the world started mobilizing and demonstrating in front of parliaments and local city halls in their respective countries, making global, a local movement.

Who is Greta Thunberg?

  • Thunberg describes herself as a “16-year-old climate activist with Asperger’s”.
  • She says that she first heard about “something called climate change or global warming” when she was eight years old.
  • Since 2018, when she started skipping school, Thunberg has come a long way to become one of the world’s youngest climate change crusaders.
  • She has delivered speeches at the World Economic Forum in Davos, the EU Parliament, COP24, and to the UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres.
  • Earlier this year, she was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize 2019, the winners of which will be announced in October.

Why such strike?

  • In the present phase of the strikes, students are demanding “urgent” and “decisive” action in order to keep global average temperatures from rising above 1.5 degree Celsius.
  • The global strikes will commence just as the United Nations Climate Action Summit 2019 is set to take place in New York on September 23, where Thunberg has been invited.

What started the global school student movements?

  • The global school movements began in 2015.
  • A Climate Strike was organised in November 2015, the idea for which came to the organisers at the Global Youth Summit of 2015.
  • Under this strike, students were urged to skip school and join other protestors. The strike was meant to be a “wake-up call” for the young generation.
  • Their demands at that time were to stop the extraction of fossil fuels and to make the transition to 100 per cent clean energy.

Why are students protesting this time?

  • Even though climate change affects everyone, the present generation of youngsters is the ones who are going to be bearing the brunt of it in the coming decades.
  • The sentiments behind these are the “broken promises” of older generations, members of which continue to extract and use fossil fuels, leading to increased CO2 emissions and subsequently, increasing average global temperatures.
  • Distrust of political leaders among the younger generation is also a reason why they feel the need to take things into their own hands.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)Mains Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : AMOC

Mains level : Impacts of oceanic warming

  • While greenhouse warming caused by human activity is heating up the Indian oceans, it is likely to boost a key system of currents in the Atlantic Ocean that plays a key role in determining the weather across the world.

Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)

  • AMOC is sometimes referred to as the “Atlantic conveyor belt”.
  • It is one of the Earth’s largest water circulation systems where ocean currents move warm, salty water from the tropics to regions further north, such as western Europe and sends colder water south.
  • It aids in distributing heat and energy around the earth, as the warm water it carries releases heat into the atmosphere, and in absorbing and storing atmospheric carbon.

Why in news?

  • For thousands of years, AMOC has remained stable, but since the past 15 years, it has been weakening.
  • This change could have dramatic consequences for Europe and other parts of the Atlantic rim.

Impact of AMOC slowdown

  • AMOC last witnessed a slow down 15,000 to 17,000 years ago.
  • It caused harsh winters in Europe, with more storms or a drier Sahel in Africa due to the downward shift of the tropical rain belt.
  • The mere possibility that the AMOC could collapse should be a strong reason for concern in an era when human activity is forcing significant changes to the Earth’s systems.

Need for delaying AMOC slowdown

  • Researchers found that rising temperatures in the Indian Ocean can help boost the AMOC and delay slow down.
  • Warming in the Indian Ocean generates additional precipitation, which, in turn, draws more air from other parts of the world, including the Atlantic.
  • This higher level of precipitation in the will reduce precipitation in the Atlantic and increase salinity in the waters.
  • This saline water in the Atlantic, as it comes north via AMOC, will get cold much quicker than usual and sink faster, acting as a jump start for AMOC, intensifying the circulation.

Uncertainty ahead

  • Scientists don’t know for how long this enhanced warming in Indian Ocean will continue.
  • If other tropical oceans’ warming, especially the Pacific’s, catches up with the Indian Ocean, the advantage for AMOC will stop.
  • Moreover, it isn’t clear whether slowdown of AMOC is caused by global warming alone or it is a short-term anomaly related to natural ocean variability.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Delhi Declaration to restore degraded land by 2030IOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : LDN, UNCCD

Mains level : Global mechanisms against desertification

  • The two week long UNCCD COP ended with a commitment to achieve land degradation neutrality by 2030.

Delhi Declaration

  • The Delhi Declaration, a consensus document, agreed upon by more than 100 countries “welcomed” the proposed adoption of a “voluntary” land degradation neutrality target by India.
  • India has committed to restoring at least 26 million hectares of degraded land by 2030. The Declaration doesn’t detail commitments by other countries.
  • Almost 122 nations, including India, have made voluntary commitments in previous years to ensure that a certain percentage of their degraded land was restored.
  • India had agreed, again on a voluntary basis, to restore 20 million hectares by 2020.
  • Nearly 96 million hectares of land is deemed ‘degraded’ in India.
  • Countries will address insecurity of land tenure, promote land restoration to reduce land-related carbon emissions and mobilise innovative sources of finance from public and private sources.

Click here to access complete draft of the declaration (Not important)


Explained: Land Degradation Neutrality

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] A case for a differential global carbon taxop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Financing global climate transition


Climate change is a global problem, and a global problem needs a global solution. 


  • The most recent IPCC report suggests that we might have just over a decade left to limit global warming. 
  • It says total global emissions will need to fall by 45% from 2010 levels by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050. 
  • If these targets are not met, tropical regions of the world, which are densely populated in the global South are likely to be most negatively affected because of their low altitudes and pre-existing high temperatures. 
  • Some impact of this was already felt during the Tamil Nadu water crisis this year.

Sharing the burden

  • The global South has historically contributed less to the problem and even at present its per capita carbon emissions are much smaller in comparison to the countries in the global North.
  • But they happen to be at the receiving end of the lifestyle choices made by the global North. 
  • Though time is running out, a genuine global consensus on the mitigation of this problem is missing. 
  • In the absence of a collective agreement, the environment is becoming a casualty. 
  • Both worlds need to contribute to averting this danger in their self-interest. 
  • The burden of adjustment cannot be equal when the underlying relationship between the two worlds has been historically unequal. 
  • A just approach would involve a global sharing of responsibility among countries according to their respective shares in global emissions. 
  • Currently, the most accepted model of mitigating strategy has been the carbon trading process. It has its own limitations.

A new burden-sharing model – Just Energy Transition (JET)

  • It is premised on a sense of global justice in terms of climatic fallouts and the respective contributions of the countries. 
  • It will also help the resource-poor developing countries to make the energy transition without having to worry about finances unduly.

A new way for Climate Financing

  • Fundamentally change the energy infrastructure. It requires massive investments for the green energy program across the world. 
  • Financing
    • On the top of the funnel, apart from funding their own energy transition, countries should partially support the transition for the countries at the bottom.
    • This sharing of the burden of development should be done in a way that inverts this injustice funnel. 
    • Countries have to spend around 1.5% of their GDP. 
  • Global energy transition should be financed through a system of the global carbon tax. Total global carbon emissions are 36.1 billion metric tonnes of CO2. This amounts to a global carbon tax of $46.1 per metric tonne.
  • Those at the receiving end of climate injustice are duly compensated for even as the entire world transitions to greener earth as a result of this process of carbon tax sharing.
  • Currently, the global average of carbon emissions is 4.97 metric tonne per capita. All the countries with emissions above this level are “payers” to finance energy transition for ‘beneficiary’ countries which are emitting below this level.
  • The total amount of “carbon compensation” made by the payer nations comes to around $570 billion. The distribution of this amount across the payer countries is based on their distance from the global average. 
  • Compensated countries and the distribution of this fund across them is also based on how to lower their emissions are in comparison to the global average.
  • Once you add (subtract) the carbon compensation amount to (from) each of the countries, you get the effective carbon tax for them.
  • The two top ‘payer’ countries in terms of absolute amounts of transfers are the U.S. and China since their emissions are higher than the global average. 
  • The effective tax rate for the Chinese is lower than the possible universal tax rate of $46.1 per metric tonne and that’s because their own energy transition (1.5% of China’s GDP) plus the global compensation they make requires a tax rate only of $34.4 per metric tonne. 
  • The burden of adjustment is only partially falling on their shoulders and only because they emit more than the global average.

Robin Hood Tax

  • In terms of ‘compensated’ countries, India comes at the top due to its population size and its distance from the global emissions’ average. India has per capita emissions of 1.73 metric tonnes. 
  • Countries like France, Sweden, and Switzerland are also in the compensated list. Even high-income countries that have currently kept their per capita emissions low are beneficiaries of this globally-just policy. 


It wants all nations to climb down the emissions ladder without necessarily having to give up on their standard of living. It’s a global green Robin Hood tax!

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Basel Ban amendment becomes lawIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Basel Ban

Mains level : Global mechanisms against desertification

  • The 1995 Basel Ban Amendment, a global waste dumping prohibition, has become an international law after Croatia ratified it on September 6, 2019.

Basel Convention against global waste dumping

  • Basel Convention in 1995, to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes, according to Basel Action Network (BAN).
  • BAN is a Unites States-based charity organisation and is one among the organisations and countries, which created the Basel Ban Amendment — hailed as a landmark agreement for global environmental justice.
  • The Ban Amendment was originally adopted as a decision of the second meeting of the Conference of the Parties in March 1994.
  • The Ban Amendment prohibits all export of hazardous wastes, including electronic wastes and obsolete ships from 29 wealthiest countries of the OECD to non-OECD countries.
  • The Ban Amendment had been stalled for all these years due to uncertainty over how to interpret the Convention.

Giants are yet to ratify

  • Most countries like the US, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Russia, India, Brazil, and Mexico are yet to ratify the ban.
  • The US produces the most waste per-capita but has failed to ratify the Basel Convention and has actively opposed the Ban Amendment.
  • Non-adherence to international waste trade rules has allowed unscrupulous US ‘recyclers’ to export hazardous electronic waste to developing countries for so-called recycling.
  • Nearly, 40 per cent of e-waste delivered to US recyclers is exported to Asian and African countries.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Shades of greenop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Land Degradation

Mains level : Land Degradation - Importance for India


Prime Minister announced that India will scale up its ambition to restore degraded land at the ongoing 14th CoP of the United Nation’s Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).


  • The step is significant for India’s global environmental commitments. 
  • This move will now restore 26 million hectares by 2030. That is 5 million hectares more than what is pledged at the Paris Climate Change Meet.
  • This also acknowledges the growing crisis of desertification. According to ISRO’s Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas, nearly 30% of land in the country is degraded. 

Landscape restoration

  • The plan is to reverse degradation by adopting a landscape-restoration approach. 
  • This needs a shift from plantation-oriented afforestation schemes to recognising the importance of ecosystem services of land and forests such as watershed management, biodiversity conservation and improving soil health.

Increasing forest cover

  • Over the past two decades, the Forest Survey of India has reported a consistent increase in the country’s forested area. 
  • But the question of how forests have not been impacted by pressure on land is not answered. 
  • The answer lies in a methodological problem with the FSI’s audits: it uses satellite images to identify green cover as forest and does not discriminate between natural forests and plantations. 
  • Several studies show the limitations of monoculture plantations in sequestering GHG emissions. A study published in the journal Science in 2016 found that the capacity of the green areas in Europe to absorb CO2 has come down significantly despite recording an increase in such areas over the past 250 years.

Land degradation and climate change

  • An IPCC report last month has shown the links between global warming and land degradation. 
  • Climate change not only exacerbates land degradation processes but it becomes a dominant pressure that introduces degradation pathways in ecosystems. 


India’s environment establishment now needs to re-evaluate the methods to measure the country’s green cover.



Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] India’s climate score: high on vulnerability, low on resilienceop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Climate change risk and importance of resilience


HSBC’s 2018 assessment of India ranks it as the country most vulnerable to climate change.


  • Against scientific warnings, carbon emissions continue to rise in China, the U.S., and India.
  • Brazil is encouraging unprecedented deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. As forest fires worsen global warming, the hardest hit by the resulting floods, storms, heatwaves, and droughts will be in India.
  • Cutting hurdles to investment can boost short-term growth and benefit interest groups. But damaging the environment would be self-defeating as it would impact long-term growth and well-being.

India – vulnerability

  • A number of Indian States have experienced extreme heatwaves in the past three years, and Delhi recently recorded a temperature of 48°C, its hottest day in 21 years. 
  • India’s exposure to climate hazards is heightened by the location of its coastline in the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. 
  • India also has a high population density located in the danger zone. For instance, Kerala, which experienced intense floods and landslides in 2018 and 2019, is among the States with the highest density.
  • Increasing temperatures and changing seasonal rainfall patterns are aggravating droughts and hurting agriculture across the country. 
  • Extreme storms like the one that hit Odisha this year and the floods that swept Chennai in 2015 are damaging when infrastructure is not resilient.

Importance of resilience

  1. India must boost its coastal and inland defences. 
  2. It needs to do more to build resilience in the sectors of agriculture, fisheries, manufacturing, energy, transport, health, and education. 
  3. The priority for spending at the national and State levels for disaster management needs to rise. 
  4. Adequate resources must also be allocated for implementing climate action plans that most States have now prepared.
  5. India must reinforce its infrastructure and adapt its agriculture and industry.
  6. India should replace urgently its fossil fuels with renewable energy.

Way ahead

  • Global leadership must act with greater urgency.
  • Countries should switch rapidly from polluting fossil fuels to cleaner renewable energy.
  • There is a need for building much stronger coastal and inland defences against climatic damage.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

ANDREX ProjectPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : ANDREX Project

Mains level : Oceans as carbon sink

  • Scientists have made a new discovery challenging the previous understanding of the link between the Southern Ocean — next to Antarctica — and the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.
  • The study published in a journal shows that biological processes far out at sea are the most important factors determining how the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide.

ANDREX Project

  • Researchers studied the ocean circulation and carbon concentration of the Weddell Gyre — a region lying east of the Antarctic Peninsula.
  • The team studied data collected as part of the ANDREX project (Antarctic Deep water Rates of Export) which measured the physical, biological, and chemical properties of the waters in the gyre between 2008 and 2010.
  • The data considered in this study showed unambiguously that, in the Weddell Gyre, the dominant process enabling the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and its removal to the deep ocean included the role of phytoplanktons.
  • The researchers reasoned that as phytoplankton in the centre of the gyre grow and sink, they remove carbon from the surface of the ocean, causing an uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere – a process known as the ‘biological carbon pump’.

Role of Southern Ocean in CO2 absorption

  • Carbon dioxide is absorbed in the surface oceans and stored in the deep seas, gradually, over a timescale of 100s to 1,000s years.
  • The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in how the carbon dioxide is taken out of the atmosphere.
  • It helps scientists understand its role during dramatic climate transitions in the past, such as the ice ages, and better predict the current and future climate change.
  • Whether carbon is released into the atmosphere or trapped in the deep ocean, is crucially determined by the transformation of the water from light to dense which is in turn caused by cooling at the ocean’s surface.


  • The dominant factor driving the uptake of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean was not related to dense water formation in the shallow seas close to Antarctica, but rather to biological processes further out in the sea.
  • The results carry implications for our understanding of how the high-latitude Southern Ocean, close to the Antarctic continent, influences atmospheric carbon and global climate on 100 to 1000-year timescales.
  • The findings are important both for our understanding of climate transitions in the past, such as the ice ages, as well as our projections of future climate change.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] A polar region we must keep on the radar in a multipolar worldop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Arctic - climate change - geopolitics


Recent offer by the US president to buy Greenland is indicative of the emerging geopolitics of the Arctic region. Climate change and China are fast destabilizing the status quo and throwing up political, security, legal, and environmental challenges. Autonomous vehicles and robots can populate uninhabitable regions and the next few decades could see the Arctic emerge as a hotspot of great power competition.


  1. Rising global temperatures are causing the frozen Arctic ocean to melt, opening up new sea routes and opportunities to extract hydrocarbons and minerals from the seabed and the newly exposed land surfaces. 
  2. Countries of the Arctic are trying to take advantage of these opportunities. 
  3. China declared itself a “near Arctic” country and is making determined efforts to extend its footprint in the polar region. Chinese firms have tried to purchase large tracts of land in Iceland, Norway and Denmark. 
  4. There are concerns that Chinese investments in Greenland’s natural resource economy might persuade the local population to secede from Denmark, creating a Laos-like Chinese satellite state between North America and Europe. 

History of superpower behavior

  1. In the 19th century, the US acquired Louisiana, Florida, Alaska and parts of Arizona and New Mexico through purchases. 
  2. China drew dashed lines on a map around the South China Sea it coveted and claimed that it had always belonged to Beijing. 
  3. Russia annexed Crimea by sending unmarked, masked troops to just take over the place.

Arctic politics

  1. How should the region be shared among the eight Arctic countries – Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the US as there are overlapping territorial claims among them. 
  2. Should these countries be allowed to assert territorial claims at all? They have formed the Arctic Council to institutionalize their self-assigned rights, but many in China, the European Union, India are against conceding sovereignty to the Arctic countries. 
  3. Russia, Canada and Denmark are all claimants to the ownership of the Arctic pole.
  4. Russia is both building up its military capabilities in the region and promoting the Northern Sea Route (NSR) as a new artery of global shipping. It  recently announced that it will impose rules on commercial and naval vessels using the route. 
  5. Both China and the US will contest Russia’s jurisdiction on this water. 
  6. China’s position in the Arctic is all for freedom of navigation, while its position over the South China Sea is denial of freedom to other countries.
  7. China has declared that it wants to be a polar great power. To be considered a polar great power, it must have high levels of polar scientific capacity,scientific research funding, presence in the polar regions, economic, military, political, and diplomatic capacity and international engagement in polar governance.
  8. Russia is keen for India to get involved in the Russian Far East and the Arctic. It liberalized visa procedures to enter Vladivostok, invited Prime Minister as the chief guest at this week’s Eastern Economic Forum.

Indian position

  1. So far, Indian involvement in the Arctic has centred around scientific and environmental studies, mostly in partnership with Norway. 
  2. Indian and Russian energy companies have signed agreements worth billions of dollars on exploration and joint production. 
  3. Conditions are favourable for private Indian investors to go beyond these and explore the Siberia and further North.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] A new ethics for a sustainable planetop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Climate change - land degradation


Brazil’s Amazon forests are ablaze with dozens of fires mostly set intentionally by loggers and others seeking greater access to forest land. They are paving the way for a global climate catastrophe. 

Climate Change

  1. Energy and transport are mainly responsible for the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere.
  2. Changes in land use patterns also have made significant contributions. 
  3. Deforestation, industrial agricultural systems and desertification are major drivers of climate change. 
  4. Agriculture, forestry and other land use activities accounted for a little less than a quarter (23%) of the total net anthropogenic emissions of GHGs between 2007-2016.
  5. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently brought out a special report on Climate Change and Land that covers desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. It makes it clear that unless land is managed in a sustainable manner, the chances for humanity to survive climate change will become smaller.

Examples of Climate Change

  1. Many cities in Europe and elsewhere have seen high temperatures never before experienced. 
  2. Heat waves have also accelerated melting of glaciers in Greenland at a rate that was not anticipated by scientific models until much later this century.
  3. The burning of the world’s largest forest reserves as witnessed in Amazon recently.

Problems in tackling climate change action

  1. The USA has withdrawn from the Paris Climate Agreement stating that it is against the national interests of the U.S.

Importance of Land Management

  1. Land is part and parcel of people’s lives. It provides food, water, livelihoods, biodiversity and a range of other benefits from its ecosystems. 
  2. Decades of poor land management in the agricultural system destroyed farm systems
    • soils have become depleted with heavy use of chemicals
    • farms have few or no friendly insects
    • monoculture has led to a reduction in the use of indigenous crop varieties with useful characteristics
    • groundwater is depleted
    • polluted farm runoff is contributing to contaminated water bodies while destroying biodiversity

Efficient land management

  1. Implementing more sustainable agricultural practices: 
    • reducing chemical input drastically
    • food production through natural methods of agroecology to reduce emissions and enhance resilience to warming
    • avoiding conversion of grassland to cropland
    • bringing equitable management of water in agriculture
    • crop diversification
    • agroforestry 
    • investment in local and indigenous seed varieties that can withstand higher temperatures
    • practices that increase soil carbon and reduce salinisation
  1. Sustainable food systems reduce food waste, which is estimated to be a quarter of the food produced. 
  2. It also necessitates eating locally grown food and cutting meat consumption. 
  3. It is important to put an end to deforestation, conserve mangroves, peatland, and other wetlands.

Examples of change

To address the transnational challenges of climate change and land, the narrow lens of nationalism is not serving us. La Via Campesina, The Transition Network, and Ecoregionalism are civil society movements in that direction. Fridays for Future and Fossil Fuel Divestment are part of such evolving sensibilities. 


Land use policy should incorporate better access to markets for small and marginal farmers, empower women farmers, expand agricultural services and strengthen land tenure systems. 

In the Great Transition Initiative, Paul Raskin has said that seeing our place as part of the web of life, instead of at its center, requires a Copernican shift in world views.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] The Last Window


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing much

Mains level : Climate change impact on food systems


The latest IPCC report on ‘Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse gas fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems’ states that the land surface air temperature has risen by nearly twice the global average temperature, at about 1.3°C.


The 2018 IPCC Special Report on Global warming of 1.5°C said that human activities have caused a 0.87°C rise in global average temperature over pre-industrial times. 


  1. World’s land systems have a direct impact on human well-being, livelihood, food security, and water security.
  2. Desertification of land under agricultural use will exacerbate the already worsening dangers of declining crop yields and crop failures. 

What needs to be done

  1. It requires the implementation of measures from several remedial options proposed in the report such as reduced tillage, planting cover crops, improvements in grazing management and greater use of agroforestry.
  2. Maintaining and extending forest cover is important as forests act as enormous natural carbon sinks.

Challenges to India

  1. The dilution of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) in India seems regressive. 
  2. Agriculture in India accounts for more than an estimated 86% of the country’s freshwater use. The water intensity of Indian paddy is also below global best practices. 
  3. 2019 HIMAP report by ICIMOD has shown that with receding glaciers, there is a need to manage water better both in the short and in the long run to address the challenge of food security.
  4. Consumption and waste management in the food sector are considered to have climate implications as well. 

Way ahead

  1. Industrial development and environmental protection can be planned prudently to be compatible. 
  2. Land sparing industrialisation, appropriate zoning and environmental safeguards are possible without the replacement of the ecological services provided by the forest ecosystem.
  3. Global assessment reports have shown that consulting indigenous people is an important way of integrating local knowledge with scientific knowledge.
  4. Water management is also critical. Union government has taken up the goal of “irrigation water productivity”. Other solutions include
    • Promoting compatible irrigation practices like drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation
    • Shifting away from water-intensive cash crops
    • Alternate wetting and drying (AWR) practices in paddy cultivation
    • Extension services for providing access
    • Sensitizing farmers to efficient water use technologies and practices 
    • Use of water-efficient agricultural practices 
    • Traditional rainwater harvesting practices like building tanks and artificial ponds in low-lying catchment areas 
  1. A shift towards a more plant-based based diet is considered a healthy sustainable dietary option in the IPCC report. 
  2. The UN estimates that the world’s population could breach 9.7 billion by 2050, so there is a need to augment food supplies per unit availability of land and water. This shift is even more important for India due to a largely poor population. 
  3. Diversification of the food system, balanced diets, low meat diets is all identified with health benefits, adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable development benefits. 
  4. Livestock sector management with crop management is necessary for multiple benefits.
  5. Education can play an important role in managing meat consumption. Market incentives to need to be aligned with human health benefits.

There are some cultural advantages and multiple options for India for adopting sustainable practices to avoid a carbon-intensive development path.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Okjokull Glacier, IcelandPrelims Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Location of the glacier

Mains level : Sea level rise and global warming

  • Iceland loses about 11 billion tonnes of ice per year, and scientists fear that all of the island country’s 400-plus glaciers will be gone by 2200.
  • In Iceland, people gathered to commemorate the loss of the glacier Okjokull, which was officially declared dead in 2014 at the age of 700.

Okjokull Glacier is now dead

  • Okjokull, also called OK (jokull is Icelandic name for “glacier”), was part of the Langjökull group.
  • The glacier was officially declared dead by the Icelandic Meteorological Office when it was no longer thick enough to move.
  • What once was glacier has been reduced to a small patch of ice atop a volcano.
  • The people attending the ceremony will walk up the volcano northeast of the capital Reykjavik to lay a plaque which carries a letter to the future.
  • The plaque is also labelled “415 ppm CO2”, referring to the record level of carbon dioxide measured in the atmosphere in May 2018.

Why is Iceland mourning?

  • An ice-free Iceland represents more than just an identity crisis for Icelanders.
  • If global leaders don’t take action to slow rising temperatures, the melting of Greenland’s ice sheet alone could raise sea-levels more than five feet in the next 200 years.
  • Enormous quantities of methane slumbering in the Arctic permafrost are threatening to come alive as record temperatures fry the poles.
  • Two fast-melting glaciers in Antarctica are holding back enough sea ice to flood oceans with another 11 feet of water.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Explained: July 2019 was the hottest ever month on record; what now?IOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Climate change impact

Mains level : Climate change impact


The World Meteorological Organization announced that July 2019 matched, and broke the record for the hottest month since analysis began.


  1. The previous warmest month on record was July 2016, and July 2019 was at least on par with it.
  2. July 2019 was close to 1.2°C above the pre-industrial level.


  1. Exceptional heat has been observed across the globe in recent weeks, with several European countries recording temperature highs.
  2. The extraordinary heat was accompanied by dramatic ice melt in Greenland, in the Arctic and on European glaciers.
  3. Unprecedented wildfires raged in the Arctic devastating the pristine forests which absorb carbon dioxide and turning them into fiery sources of greenhouse gases.

If we do not take action on climate change now, these extreme weather events are just the tip of the iceberg.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Climate on the farmop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Climate change due to agriculture

Mains level : Climate change

A report released on Thursday by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded that better management of the world’s farms and forests is necessary to tackle climate change.


  1. Land use has always been part of conversations on climate change and activities like afforestation have held an important place in the fight against global warming.
  2. Discourse on combating global warming has given more thrust to curbing vehicular and industrial emissions. 

What the report says

  1. The IPCC report warns that clean energy, clean transport and reducing emissions alone will not cut global emissions enough to avoid warming beyond 2 degrees Celsius.
  2. It points out that the global food system is responsible for 21 to 37% of the world’s GHG emissions.
  1. About a quarter of the Earth’s ice-free land area is subjected to “human-induced degradation”. 
  2. Rapid agricultural expansion has led to the destruction of forests, wetlands and grasslands and other ecosystems.
  3. Soil erosion from agricultural fields is 10 to 100 times higher than the soil formation rate.
  4. When land is degraded, it becomes less productive, restricting what can be grown and reducing the soil’s ability to absorb carbon. 
  5. Agriculture and allied activities like cattle rearing are major sources of methane and nitrous oxide and are more dangerous GHGs than carbon dioxide.

Way ahead

  1. It raised a key scientific input for future climate negotiations, such as the CoP of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification and the UNFCCC CoP25.
  2. It could pressure developing countries like India to ramp up their global warming mitigation targets.

India should pay heed to the IPCC report’s recommendations on curbing land degradation and soil erosion by improving knowledge systems.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Sardine RunMains OnlyPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Sardine Run, Phenology

Mains level : Climate change and its impact

Sardine Run

  • The sardine run is well known among residents of the KwaZulu-Natal coastline that runs along South Africa’s east coast.
  • Every year in winter, sardines migrate close to the shoreline. The event is well documented in the local press.
  • The sardine run is of great economic importance because it provides prime fishing opportunities and attracts large numbers of tourists who come for dolphin and shark sightings.
  • Similar migration patterns are seen in Sweden, Chile, and the Pacific Ocean.

A phenological event

  • The sardine run is what scientists term a “phenological event” — a biological event that occurs at the same time every year.
  • Phenological events are standard for plants and include the appearance of leaf and flower buds, blossoming, fruit development, fruit harvest and leaf colouration and fall.
  • For animals, the events are more varied and include hibernation, hatching, animal calls, moulting, and in the case of birds, game and fish (among others) migration.

Why is phenology so important?

  • Scientists have become very interested in phenology over the past few decades, because it’s one of the most sensitive biological indicators of climate change.
  • As temperatures increase, the plants or animals experience their triggers for spring earlier and their triggers for winter later.
  • As a result, many of these phenological events are occurring at different times of the year.

Nature’s biological clock

  • Phenological shifts are specific to species and location.
  • For example, Granny Smith apple trees are flowering approximately four days earlier for each 1 degree Celsius increase in temperature in Poland.
  • In South Africa, these Granny Smith apples are flowering two days earlier for each 1°C increase in temperature.
  • For many species these events are happening earlier. This is because they are spring events and, under climate change, the temperatures that are perceived by plants and animals to be the onset of spring are occurring in late winter.
  • For events that occur in autumn, the events are often occurring later, because the cooling that marks the start of winter has not yet occurred.

Why study Sardines?

  • A recently published paper reports sardine run between 1946 and 2012 the South African coast.
  • Researchers explored how the dates of the sardine run have changed over the 65-year period, and statistically examined oceanographic and climatological factors to determine the cause of this change.
  • It’s also known that climate affects the timing of phenological events globally, including marine environments.
  • The study found that sardines arrived off the coast of Durban increasingly late — at a rate of 1.3 days later per decade.

Why delay in sardines run?

  • Through analysis comparing the constructed phenological record with climate and ocean data, the study concluded that the delay could be caused by two things.
  • First, the ocean water is warmer. Sardines can tolerate a maximum surface temperature of 21°C. But this temperature isn’t being reached consistently at the same time every year due to changes in ocean temperature.
  • The second factor is mid-latitude cyclones. There have been an increasing number of these in the east coast region.

Why it matters

  • The delay is concerning. First, the large influx of sardines is important for the fishery industry.
  • If the sardine run occurs at an unexpected time, or doesn’t occur at all, supply chains are disrupted and fishermen are placed at economic risk.
  • The unpredictability is also a problem for tourism. The sardine run attracts visitors who are keen on shark and dolphin sightings and may leave disappointed.
  • The delays in the sardine run also result in food shortages for predators such as sharks, which feed on the sardines.
  • This is termed a species mismatch, and is increasingly observed as a result of climate change induced phenological shifts, where predators and their prey are no longer in the same place at the same time.
  • This is because each species has its own unique trigger for a particular activity.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed of the day] The wheels to a low-carbon transport systemMains Onlyop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing Much

Mains level : Improvement in Transport Sector


Congested streets and polluted air are common experiences in India’s metropolises, although the average Indian contributes only minuscule amounts of transport-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to global climate change. Patterns of road transport, however, diverge wildly between cities and districts. Delhi tops the charts and emissions are more than twice as high as other Indian megacities, such as Mumbai, Bengaluru or Ahmedabad.

Poor Conditions

  • Studies show that India’s road transport emissions are small in global comparison but increasing exponentially.
  • In fact, the Global Carbon Project reports that India’s carbon emissions are rising more than two times as fast as the global rise in 2018.
  • Globally, the transport sector accounts for a quarter of total emissions, out of which three quarters are from road transport.
  • Reducing CO2 emissions of road transport leverages multiple co-benefits, for example, improving air quality and increasing physical activity, which are critical for well-being, particularly in urban areas.
  • Climate action also requires an understanding of how emissions vary with spatial context.
  • In India, we find in our new study (published in Environmental Research Letters), that income and urbanisation are the key determinants of travel distance and travel mode choice and, therefore, commuting emissions.

Public Transport’s Role

  • The way cities are built and the design of public transit are critical for low-carbon mobility systems.
  • The study is based on the most recent results of the Indian Census in 2011.
  • Average commuting emissions in high-emitting districts (Delhi) are 16 times higher than low-emitting districts (most districts in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh).
  • Average per capita commuting emissions are highest for the most affluent districts, which are predominantly urban, and that heavily use four-wheelers for commuting.
  • This is a surprising result, as in other parts of the world such as the United States, commuting emissions are low in urban areas but high in suburban or ex-urban settings.
  • In contrast, average per capita commuting emissions are lowest for Indian districts that are poor, and commuting distances are short and rarely use three-wheelers.

Suggestions To improve

Two policy implications follow.

1.Organise cities around public transport  –

  • First, mayors and town planners should organise cities around public transport and cycling, thereby improving mobility for many, while limiting car use.
  • Uptake of non-motorised transport emerges as a sweet spot of sustainable development, resulting in both lower emissions and better public health in cities.
  • According to the recent National Family Health Survey (2015-16), nearly 30% of all men are overweight or obese in southwest Delhi, but only 25% in Thiruvananthapuram and 13% in Allahabad.
  • These data correlate with high reliance of car use in Delhi and low demand for walking.

Effect on Health

  • Addressing Chronic Diseases – Another of our studies that investigates data from the India Human Development Survey shows that a 10% increase in cycling could lower chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases for 0.3 million people, while also abating emissions.
  • Car use, in contrast, correlates with higher rates of diabetes.
  • Therefore, fuel price increases, congestion charges or parking management could be a strategy that improves the well-being of individuals living in urban areas.
  • In contrast, fuel price increases would be detrimental in poorer rural areas, impairing mobility where there is a lack of alternatives.

2.Technology transition

  • Electric Vehicles – Second, India should double down in its strategy to transition to electric two and three-wheelers.
  • A recent study reports that India has 1.5 million battery-powered three-wheeler rickshaw (over 300,000 e-rickshaws sold in 2018).
  • Rampant Growth – In the coming years, experts judge that the electric three-wheeler market is expected to grow by at least 10% per year. In 2019, nearly 110,000 electric two-wheelers were also sold, and the annual growth rate may be above 40% per year.
  • Make in India – India is one of the world’s largest producers and consumers in two- and three- wheelers and Indian companies can take a leading role in switching to electric vehicles. This will also help in transforming India’s vision of ‘Make in India’.

Way Forward

  • Compact cities improve accessibility and reduce emissions from transport and even the building sector.
  • Most Indian cities are already very dense, with few benefits expected by further high-rise.
  • Short routes and fast access – City managers should ensure that existing urban areas provide short routes and fast access to schools, hospitals and jobs, otherwise, residents would be required to travel long distances.
  • To achieve this aim, mayors and decision-makers need to rethink how to deliver basic services such as education and health.
  • Achieving low carbon development – Building schools and hospitals matters especially for informal settlements and are critical in achieving low carbon development as well as improving the quality of life.
  • Access to public service Centres – Providing access to public service, choosing rapid transit over car driving in cities and supporting the rise of electric two and three-wheelers will help drive India to a modern and low-carbon transport system fit for the 21st century.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Bengal port records country’s highest sea level rise in 50 yearsPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not Much

Mains level : Sea level rise and global warming

  • Of the major ports in India, Diamond Harbour in West Bengal located at the mouth of river Hooghly has recorded the maximum sea level increase.

Freaky rise in Sea Levels

  • Going by the data from the Ministry of Earth Sciences, four ports — Diamond Harbour, Kandla, Haldia and Port Blair — recorded a higher sea level rise than the global average.
  • Chennai and Mumbai, recorded a sea level rise far below the global and the national averages at 0.33 mm per year (1916-2005) and 0.74 mm (1878-2005) respectively.
  • Sea level rise in the country has been estimated to be 1.3 mm/year along India’s coasts during the last 40-50 years, at Diamond Harbour the rise was almost five times higher at 5.16 mm per year.
  • The mean sea level rise for Diamond Harbour was based on recordings over the period from 1948 to 2005.
  • This is followed by Kandla port in Gujarat where the sea level rise was 3.18 (1950 to 2005) , followed by Haldia in West Bengal, which recorded a sea level rise of 2.89 mm a year (1972 to 2005).
  • Port Blair also recorded a sea level rise of 2.20 mm per year (1916-1964).

Why rise in sea level?

  • Sea level rise is said be linked with global warming and as per the fifth assessment report of the International Panel on Climate Change.
  • The global sea level was rising at an average rate of 1.8 mm per year over the last century.
  • Global warming not only causes melting of ice and glaciers, but also leads to internal expansion of water in oceans and thus a rise in the sea level.
  • Heavy rainfall and temperature extremes like heat waves and shifts in semi-arid regions were some of the recent findings which may have linkages with climate change and global warming.
  • Studies over Indian region have shown a warming trend of 0.6°C on all India average basis, mainly contributed by maximum temperatures.
  • The sea level rise is higher in West Bengal, particularly in the Sunderbans delta is because of the deltaic sediment deposition as a result of the mixing of fresh water and saline water, according to experts.


  • Rising sea levels can exacerbate the impacts of coastal hazards such as storm surge, tsunami, coastal floods, high waves and coastal erosion in the low lying coastal areas.
  • In addition it causes gradual loss of coastal land to sea.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Turning down the heatMains Onlyop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing Much

Mains level : Creating Carbon Sinks


During the run-up to the Paris climate change meeting in 2015 (COP-21) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, each country decided the level and kind of effort it would undertake to solve the global problem of climate change.

These actions were later referred to as nationally determined contributions (NDCs).

Enhancing green cover

  • India has yet to determine how its carbon sink objectives can be met.
  • In a recent study, the Forest Survey of India (FSI) has estimated, along with the costs involved, the opportunities and potential actions for additional forest and tree cover to meet the NDC target.
  • Given that forest and green cover already show a gradual increase in recent years, one might use this increase as part of the contribution towards the NDC.
  • Or one might think of the additional 2.5-3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent sink as having to be above the background or business-as-usual increase.

Ways to achieve sinks

  • The additional increase in carbon sinks, as recommended in this report, is to be achieved by the following ways: restoring impaired and open forests; afforesting wastelands; agro-forestry; through green corridors, plantations along railways, canals, other roads, on railway sidings and rivers; and via urban green spaces.
  • Close to three quarters of the increase (72.3 %) will be by restoring forests and afforestation on wastelands, with a modest rise in total green cover.
  • The FSI study has three scenarios, representing different levels of increase in forest and tree cover. For example, 50%, 60% or 70% of impaired forests could be restored.
  • The total increase in the carbon sink in these scenarios could be 1.63, 2.51 or 3.39 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent by 2030, at costs varying from about ₹1.14 to ₹2.46 lakh crore.
  • These figures show that the policy has to be at least at a medium level of increase to attain the stated NDC targets.

Natural forests

  •  Locking up the carbon from the atmosphere in trees, ground vegetation and soils is one of the safest ways with which to remove carbon.
  • If done correctly, the green cover increase will provide many other benefits: it will improve water quality, store water in wetlands, prevent soil erosion, protect biodiversity, and potentially provide new jobs.
  • It is  estimated that allowing land to be converted into forests naturally will sequester 42 times the carbon compared to land converted to plantation, or six times for land converted to agroforestry.

Restoration type is key

  • The most effective way is through natural forest regeneration with appropriate institutions to facilitate the process.
  • Vast monocultures of plantations are being proposed in some countries, including in India, but these hold very little carbon; when they are harvested, carbon is released as the wood is burned.
  • Besides, some of the trees selected for the plantations may rely on aquifers whose water becomes more and more precious with greater warming.
  • Such forms of green cover, therefore, do not mitigate climate change and also do not improve biodiversity or provide related benefits.
  • India, therefore, needs first to ensure that deforestation is curtailed to the maximum extent.
  • Second, the area allocated to the restoration of impaired and open forests and wastelands in the FSI report should be focussed entirely on natural forests and agroforestry.


  • While using a carbon lens to view forests has potential dangers, involving local people and planting indigenous tree varieties would also reduce likely difficulties.
  • Instead of plantations, growing food forests managed by local communities would have additional co-benefits. Once natural forests are established, they need to be protected.
  • Protecting and nurturing public lands while preventing their private enclosure is therefore paramount.
  • Active forest management by local people has a long history in India and needs to expand to meet climate, environment and social justice goals.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Explained: Where to plant a trillion trees to save planet Earth?Priority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not Much

Mains level : Reforestation and its role as carbon sink

Forests as CO2 sink

  • Trees, which absorb carbon dioxide, are a natural sink for the gas emitted into the atmosphere.
  • According to a study trees absorb about 25% of the CO2 released into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels, while the oceans absorb another 25%.
  • The half that remains in the atmosphere contributes to global warming.

Reforestation to curb global warming

  • Restoration of forests has long been seen as a potential measure to combat climate change.
  • What has so far been unclear, however, is how much of this tree cover might be actually possible in the existing conditions on the planet.

No more a vague idea

  • The latest special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests that an increase of 1 billion hectares of forest will be necessary to limit global warming to 1.5°C by 2050.
  • Now, researchers have quantified how much land around the world is available for reforestation, as well as the extent of carbon emissions these would prevent from being released into the atmosphere.
  • The new forests planted, once mature, could store 205 billion tonnes of carbon, the researchers calculated.

How much land needs to be reforested?

  • The study, by researchers with the Crowther Lab of ETH Zurich University has been published in the journal Science.
  • On the basis of nearly 80,000 images from around the world, they calculated that around 0.9 billion hectares of land would be suitable for reforestation.
  • If an area of 0.9 billion hectares is indeed reforested, the researchers calculated, it could ultimately capture two-thirds of human-made carbon emissions.
  • The estimated land excludes cities or agricultural areas from the total restoration potential as these areas are needed for human life.

Land available

  • Earth’s continuous tree cover is currently 2.8 billion hectares, and the researchers calculated that the land available could support 4.4 billion hectares, or an additional 1.6 billion hectares.
  • Out of this, 0.9 billion hectares — an area the size of the US — fulfil the criterion of not being used by humans.
  • That is about two-thirds of the 300 billion tonnes of carbon that has been released into the atmosphere as a result of human activity since the industrial age.

Land available in India

  • In India, there is room for an estimated 9.93 million extra hectares of forest.
  • India’s existing forest cover makes up 7,08,273 sq km (about 70.83 million hectares) and tree cover another 93,815 sq km (9.38 million hectares), according to the MoEFCCs ‘State of Forest Report 2017’.
  • The study found that the six countries with the greatest reforestation potential are Russia (151 million hectares); the US (103 million hectares); Canada (78.4 million hectares); Australia (58 million hectares); Brazil (49.7 million hectares); and China (40.2 million hectares).
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

MOSAiC MissionPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : MOSAiC Mission

Mains level : Consequences of climate change on Polar region


  • Scientists from 17 nations will take part in the year-long MOSAIC mission as they anchor the RV Polarstern ship to a large piece of Arctic sea ice to study climate change.

 MOSAiC mission

  • The MOSAiC mission stands for Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate.
  • It is a one-year-long expedition into the Central Arctic, planned to take place from 2019 to 2020.
  • For the first time a modern research icebreaker will operate in the direct vicinity of the North Pole year round, including the nearly half year long polar night during winter.
  • It comes about 125 years after Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen first managed to seal his wooden expedition ship, Fram, into the ice during a three-year expedition to the North Pole.
  • MOSAiC will contribute to a quantum leap in our understanding of the coupled Arctic climate system and its representation in global climate models.
  • The focus of MOSAiC lies on direct in-situ observations of the climate processes that couple the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, bio-geochemistry and ecosystem.

Why study Arctic climate?

  • The Arctic is a key area of global climate change, with warming rates exceeding twice the global average.
  • The observed rate of climate change in the Arctic is not well reproduced in climate models.
  • Many processes in the Arctic climate system are poorly represented in climate models because they are not sufficiently understood.
  • Understanding of Arctic climate processes is limited by a lack of year round observations in the central Arctic.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Explained: How global warming could impact jobs in IndiaIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the report

Mains level : Impact of climate change on Labour

ILO report on impact of heat stress on labour productivity and decent work

  • By 2030, India is expected to lose an equivalent of 34 million jobs as a result of global warming, says a report released by the ILO.
  • The report, ‘Working on a warmer planet: The impact of heat stress on labour productivity and decent work’ anticipates an increase in “heat stress” resulting from global warming.
  • It projects global productivity losses equivalent to 80 million full-time jobs in 2030, and the projection of 34 million jobs would make India the worst affected.

How excess heat impact?

  • The report defines heat stress as heat in excess of what the body can tolerate without suffering physiological impairment.
  • It generally occurs at temperatures above 35°C, in high humidity.
  • Excess heat during work is an occupational health risk and restricts workers’ physical functions and capabilities, work capacity and thus, productivity.
  • The report makes its projections based on a global temperature rise of 1.5°C by the end of the century, and also on labour force trends.
  • These projections “suggest that in 2030, 2.2 per cent of total working hours worldwide will be lost because of higher temperatures, a loss equivalent to 80 million full-time jobs.
  • This is equivalent to global economic losses of US$2,400 billion,” says the report.
  • The ILO says this is a conservative estimate, assuming that the global mean temperature does not rise more than 1.5°C.

The India projection

  • The region projected to lose the most working hours is southern Asia, at 5% in 2030, corresponding to around 43 million jobs, respectively.
  • A third of the southern Asian countries have already incurred losses greater than 4%.
  • India, which lost 4.3% of working hours in 1995 because of heat stress, is projected to lose 5.8% of its working hours in 2030, which corresponds to 34 million jobs.
  • The impact of heat stress on labour productivity and decent work’ anticipates an increase in “heat stress” resulting from global warming.

Losses in India

  • The report projects losses in working hours as 9.04% in agriculture (in shade), 5.29% in manufacturing, 9.04% in construction, and 1.48% in services.
  • Although most of the impact in India will be felt in the agricultural sector, more and more working hours are expected to be lost in the construction sector, where heat stress affects both male and female workers,” the report says.
  • There is little data in the country to corroborate trends of climate change and employment.
  • However, that there has been no direct job loss at present, with distressed workers switching from one vulnerable sector to another.

Global Scenario

  • Globally, the two sectors projected to be hit worst are agriculture and construction, with agriculture worse affected.
  • The ILO says 940 million people around the world work in the agricultural sector, which is projected to account for 60% of working hours lost due to heat stress by 2030.
  • In construction, an estimated 19% of global working hours is likely to be lost.
  • In addition to the massive economic costs of heat stress, we can expect to see more inequality between low and high income countries and worsening working conditions for the most vulnerable, as well as displacement of people.
  • To adapt to this new reality appropriate measures by governments, employers and workers, focusing on protecting the most vulnerable, are urgently needed.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)IOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : UNCCD, Bonn Challenge

Mains level : Desertification in India

  • India for the first time will host the 14th session of the Conference of Parties (COP-14) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in September 2019.

About United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

  • Established in 1994, the UNCCD is the only legally binding international agreement linking environment and development issues to the land agenda.
  • It addresses specifically the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, known as the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and peoples can be found.
  • 2006 was declared “International Year of Deserts and Desertification”.

Desertification in India

  • India faces a severe problem of land degradation, or soil becoming unfit for cultivation.
  • A 2016 report by the ISRO found that about 29% of India’s land (in 2011-13) was degraded, this being a 0.57% increase from 2003-05.
  • At the previous edition of the COP, India had committed to restore 13 million hectares of degraded and deforested land by the year 2020, and an additional 8 million hectares by 2030.

The Bonn Challenge

  • Ahead of the COP-14, MoEFCC launched a flagship project, part of a larger international initiative called the Bonn Challenge, to enhance India’s capacity for forest landscape restoration (FLR).
  • The Bonn Challenge is a global effort to bring 150 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded land under restoration by 2020, and 350 million hectares by 2030.
  • It will be implemented during a pilot phase of three-and-a-half years in Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland and Karnataka.
  • The project will aim to develop and adapt the best practices and monitoring protocols for the country, and build capacity within the five pilot States.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Arctic Kelps: Underwater forests in the ArcticPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Kelps

Mains level : Impact of climate change on the underwater ecosystem of the Arctic

  • Climate change is altering marine habitats such as kelp forests on a global scale.
  • In Western Australia, eastern Canada, southern Europe, northern California and eastern United States, kelps are disappearing due to warming temperatures.

Arctic Kelp Forests

  • Kelp is a type of large brown seaweed that grows in shallow, nutrient-rich saltwater, near coastal fronts around the world.
  • They occur on rocky coasts throughout the Arctic. The longest kelp recorded in the Arctic in Canada was 15 metres, and the deepest was found at 60-metre depth (Disko Bay, Greenland).
  • Kelps function underwater in the same way trees do on land. They create habitat and modify the physical environment by shading light and softening waves.
  • The underwater forests that kelps create are used by many animals for shelter and food.
  • More than 350 different species – up to 100,000 small invertebrates – can live on a single kelp plant, and many fish, birds and mammals depend on the whole forest.
  • Kelp forests also help protect coastlines by decreasing the power of waves during storms and reducing coastal erosion.

What makes Kelps special?

  • Many find it surprising that marine plants can grow so well in harsh Arctic environments. Kelps have adapted to the severe conditions.
  • These cool water species have special strategies to survive freezing temperatures and long periods of darkness, and even grow under sea ice.
  • In regions with cold, nutrient-rich water, they can attain some of the highest rates of primary production of any natural ecosystem on Earth.

Threats to Kelps

  • Coastal conditions in the Arctic are changing dramatically and the region is warming faster than the rest of the world, but these changes could actually be good for kelp.
  • In Canada, Alaska, Greenland, Norway and Siberia, permafrost soils that have been frozen for thousands of years are receding by half a metre per year.
  • Thawing permafrost and crumbling Arctic coasts are dumping sediments into coastal waters at alarming rates, which blocks light and could limit plant growth.
  • The run-off from melting glaciers will also lower salinity and increase turbidity, which impacts young kelp.

Importance of Kelps

  • Kelp forests throughout the world play an important role in coastal economies, supporting a broad range of tourism, recreational and commercial activities.
  • Kelp is making its way onto the plates of North Americans, and the kelp aquaculture industry is growing at a rate of seven per cent per year for the last 20 years globally.
  • Kelp is a coveted food source in many countries which is full of potassium, iron, calcium, fibre and iodine.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Next, PlasticeneMains Onlyop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Anthropocene

Mains level : Broad usage of plastic should make it a category under anthropocene.


The Holocene is drawing to a close, and the Age of Humans will dawn in 2021. But the Anthropocene lacks a sub-category.


Anthropocene era –

  • Just when the human race seems ready to annihilate itself and enter the fossil record for keeps, the Anthropocene Working Group of the International Commission on Stratigraphy is propelling it into the Anthropocene Age — the era in which the imprint of this industrial and agricultural species becomes visible planetwide.
  • Of course, stratigraphers work with geological slowness.
  • The process of defining the Anthropocene was initiated in 2016 and, while the working group has voted overwhelmingly for the motion, it will be formally proposed only two years later to the commission.

Difference in the legacy of Holocene and Anthropocene

  • Humans have also left their mark on the Holocene, the era which began about 11,650 years ago, when the glaciers retreated.
  • Ruined cities like Petra and Ur are stirring tourist attractions. Further back in time are the odds and ends of material culture — Acheulian hand-axes, Jomon pottery — and much further back are fossils like Lucy, and fossilised human footprints on the sands of time.
  • Signs of the Anthropocene are less poetic — traces of pollution in tree rings, layers of soot in the substrata of industrial towns, massive deforestation and erosion, millions of acres of concrete, space junk in orbit.

Subcategory of Anthropocene

  • However, there is time yet, until 2021.
  • Time to define a subsidiary age of the Anthropocene, in recognition of a human stain that is far more pervasive than all these vile signs — plastic. Undegraded plastic is everywhere, from landfills to kitchens and the innards of cows.
  • Rivers of plastic flow down to the sea, where it breaks down into microscopic particles that are now found in maritime life forms.
  • Plastic is the most enduring sign of the human race. It is significant enough to be eponymous, identifying a subsidiary of the Anthropocene. It must be named Plasticene
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Green is coolMains Onlyop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : ICAP

Mains level : Analysis of ICAP


India — as the fastest growing and rapidly urbanising economy — is projected to have the strongest growth in cooling demand worldwide. While India’s soaring demand in this sector is in line with the country’s developmental needs, it does portend significant environmental, social and economic concerns.

India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)

  • The government’s launch of the India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) on March 8 is a bold response to addressing India’s future cooling needs while neutralising its impacts.
  • ICAP most visibly is about enhancing access to cooling amenities, optimising demand and efficient cooling practices and technologies.


Space cooling sector – The space cooling sector, which represents a dominant share of India’s current and future cooling needs, the underlying thrust is to enable thermal comfort and well-being for all citizens by providing affordable and reliable cooling options, maintaining reliable electricity grids, and enhancing climate resilience of buildings and homes.

Focus on Vulnerable Section – The thrust is on ensuring that the vulnerable populations, particularly children and the elderly, are not exposed to undue heat stresses.

Energy efficient approach – To maximise the cooling load reduction and possible benefits for this sector, ICAP proposes an approach that first reduces the cooling energy demand through climate appropriate and energy efficient building design, then serves the demand through energy efficient appliances and finally, controls and optimises the demand through demand-side and user adaptation strategies, such as adaptive thermal comfort.

Climate appropriate designs for affordable housing – The plan lays special emphasis on enabling thermal comfort for the economically-weaker sections through climate-appropriate designs of affordable housing, and low-cost interventions to achieve better thermal insulation (such as cool roofs).

Benefits of ICAP

  1. Enhancing Productivity – The benefits of the proposed actions extend to enhancing nationwide productivity, reducing heat-islands in urban areas, mitigating peak-load impacts and reducing the stress on the power systems — much of this would also free up capital for other developmental priorities.

2. Integrated Cold chain Infrastructure –

  • Within the cold chain sector, ICAP proposes development of an integrated cold chain infrastructure with the appropriate market linkages, supported by adequate training and up-skilling of farmers and professionals.
  • The co-benefits include economic well-being of farmers and reducing food losses thus strengthening food security and alleviating hunger-related issues.

3. Training and certification –

  • Driving skill-building of the services sector through training and certification is an important target identified by the plan.
  • It also presents an opportunity for providing increased employment, better livelihoods, and safer working practices for the HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) sector.

4. Building R&D ecosystem –

  • ICAP’s emphasis on an innovative R&D ecosystem aims to drive the nation towards better utilisation of public-funded R&D efforts that solve pressing issues related to the environment — and quality of life.
  • The plan also positions India’s cooling challenge as an opportunity for the nation to demonstrate leadership in areas related to innovation. It also supports the Make in India campaign through indigenous production of cooling equipment and refrigerants.

5. Impact on SDGs –

  • The benefits of ICAP could impact several SDGs — good health and well-being, decent work and economic growth, sustainable cities and communities, reduced inequalities, affordable and clean energy, responsible consumption and production, and climate action.
  • The onus is now on the various stakeholders to work collaboratively, with the right policy and market levers, to lead the country towards a cooling transformation that exemplifies sustainable and responsible cooling for all.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Facing the climate emergencyMains Onlyop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nothing Much

Mains level : There is need of radical change in bringing awareness regarding impacts of climate change.


A recent paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. shows that global warming during the past half century has contributed to a differential change in income across countries.

Changes due to global warming

  • Already wealthy countries have become wealthier and developing countries have been made poorer in relative terms during this time.
  • India’s GDP growth penalty between 1961 and 2010 is in the order of 31% for the period, whereas Norway gained about 34% on a per capita basis.
  • More recently, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services has reported that, worldwide, the abundance of species has reduced by at least one-fifth, about a million species are under threat of extinction in the next few decades and 85% of wetlands have been lost.

Instances of collusion against climate change warnings

  • What we have, moreover, are numerous instances of elite networks that are taking advantage of the situation to consolidate their control.
  • Collusion among corporations – These networks often involve governments actively or quiescently colluding with fossil fuel companies, agro-industrial elites, financial elites and other big businesses that are ignoring climate change and making a fast buck often even from the growing disasters.
  • Subsidy to fossil fuels – The International Monetary Fund estimates in a recent working paper that fossil fuel subsidies were $4.7 trillion in 2015 and estimated to be $5.2 trillion in 2017.
  • Power Struggle in the Arctic – The Arctic is melting rapidly and the tenor of the recent discussions among Arctic countries suggests that even as increasing glacier melt is responsible for opening up shipping in the area, superpowers are angling to access wealth from the oil, gas, uranium and precious metals in the region.
  • Case study –  Recent example is the draft Indian Forest Act of 2019, which enhances the political and police power of the forest department and curtails the rights of millions of forest dwellers.

Movement to bring changes

  • Luckily  we are witnessing is a large-scale movement for “planet emergency”, climate and ecology.
  • Greta Thunberg has been leading this among school-going children, and Extinction Rebellion has been organising “die-ins” in many parts of Europe and now in Asia.
  • Their non-violent civil disobedience is just what is needed and it is indeed inspiring to see children and grandparents protest together.
  • People’s movements, whether made up of students or adults, cannot be ignored for long and governments will have to pay attention.

Spread of misinformation

  • The atmosphere now has concentrations of over 415 parts per million (ppm) of carbon dioxide, compared to 280 ppm in pre-industrial times.
  • But then, fossil fuel companies and politicians have known about climate change for at least 30 years.
  • They have funded misinformation regarding climate directly, taking lessons from tobacco companies that propagated lies for decades about cigarettes being safe.


  • We are now at a stage where we need major overhaul of our lifestyles and patterns of consumption.
  • The U.K. Parliament became the first recently to declare a climate emergency.
  • It remains to be seen if appropriate actions will follow this declaration.
  • When a 16-year-old speaks with far greater clarity and conviction than the thousands of dithering policy wonks who have been debating for over three decades, we know the politics of the climate crisis must undergo a radical transformation.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] From Idai to FaniMains Onlyop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Cyclone Fani

Mains level : Why frequency of high intensity cyclones is increasing in Indian Ocean.


The Indian Ocean has made its mark on the global news cycle this year. In March, tropical cyclone Idai made headlines as one of the most severe storms to have made landfall in Mozambique.

  • After Idai, Eline was the strongest – though not the deadliest – cyclone to have hit the southern east African cost.
  • This ranking as the strongest was soon after challenged by tropical cyclone Kenneth, a category 4 tropical cyclone that made landfall over the border of Mozambique and Tanzania six weeks after Idai.
  • Most cyclones in the region occur from January to March.It was also unusual for the Mozambique Channel to experience two severe tropical cyclones that made landfall within one season.
  • The third major cyclone to emerge out of the Indian Ocean came a few weeks after Kenneth, when cyclone Fani, a tropical cyclone on the border of Category 5 intensity wind speeds, hit the east coast of India.
  • Category 5 tropical cyclones were only first recorded in the North Indian Ocean from 1989 so, again, this storm is unusually severe in the context of the longer historical records.

Reason for high-intensity storms

1.Warm Sea surface –

  • These high intensity storms have been tied to the very warm sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean. Temperatures of 30°C are occurring more often and over longer periods of time.
  • This is a result of gradual warming on a global scale, which has resulted in a net increase in ocean temperatures.

2.Formation of stronger storms and El Nino

  • Warmer ocean temperatures allow stronger storms to form.
  • These conditions are exacerbated by global forcing mechanisms including El Niño and the Indian Ocean Dipole, which concentrates warm ocean waters in smaller geographic areas.
  • High intensity storms have been a frequent feature along the coast of the US throughout recorded history.
  • Their increased frequency in the Indian Ocean should be raising alarm bells because countries like the US are much better equipped to help people prepare ahead of time and to handle the fallout.

Measuring intensity

  • Tropical cyclone intensity is classified according to the Saffir Simpson scale.
  • Categories are measured on the basis of the sustained wind speed and the storm’s central pressure.
  • Each category is accompanied by estimates of the likely severity of damage and possible storm surge height.
  • Tropical cyclones form and intensify due to a combination of seven primary climatological conditions. Among other things, these include warm sea surface temperatures, high humidity levels and atmospheric instability.
  • For a storm to intensify, these conditions have to be maximised while the storm remains over the ocean.

Optimal Conditions

Warming of South Africa –

  • Tropical cyclones require a sea surface temperature of 26.5°C to form, while the highest intensity storms require much warmer sea surface temperatures of 28°C-29°C.
  • This is important because it’s one of the reasons why southern Africa is experiencing more intense tropical cyclones.

Warming of the South Indian Ocean –

  • Increase in temperature ranges – The regions that previously experienced the temperatures of 26.5°C that facilitated tropical cyclone formation are now experiencing temperatures as warm as 30°C-32°C.
  • More common landfall –  This increases the range in which these storms occur, making storms like tropical cyclone Dineo, which made landfall in February 2017 in southern Mozambique, more common.

  • Lower-lying, relatively flat areas are more prone to flooding than higher elevation regions or those with rugged topography.
  • And when flooding does occur, some regions are better able to warn and evacuate people to prevent or minimise the loss of life.
  • Another factor which determines the devastation resulting from a tropical cyclone is the population density of the area of landfall.
  • The higher the population density, the more people who are at threat of losing their life, their homes and livelihoods.
  • This also means more people who would need to be evacuated in a short period, and more people who need shelter until the storm’s immediate effects have subsided.


This is why Idai and Eline resulted in far greater losses and fatalities than the stronger intensity Kenneth, and why the total damage from Fani is projected to be particularly devastating. We need to start measuring storm destructiveness in addition to climatological metrics.


Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

India re-elected as observer to Arctic CouncilIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Arctic Council

Mains level : Read the attached story

  • The 11th Arctic Council ministerial meeting is being held at Rovaniemi, Finland.
  • India has been re-elected as an observer to intergovernmental forum Arctic Council.

India’s interest in Arctic

  • Indian researchers have been studying whether there is a co-relation between Indian monsoon and the Arctic region.
  • India’s National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research, an institute under the Ministry of Earth Sciences, has set up a research station, ‘Himadri’, in Svalbard in Norway.
  • It studies the mass balance of glaciers, the effect of the warming on the marine system, the formation of clouds and precipitation, and the effect on biodiversity.

About Arctic Council

  • It is an advisory body that promotes cooperation among member nations and indigenous groups as per the Ottawa Declaration of 1996.
  • Its focus is on sustainable development and environmental protection of the Arctic.
  • It promotes cooperation, coordination and interaction among Arctic states, the region’s indigenous communities and other inhabitants on common issues, particularly on sustainable development and environmental protection.
  • The Arctic Council consists of the eight Arctic States: Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States.
  • India and China are one of the observer countries since 2013.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] One million species face extinction: Why biodiversity report mattersMains Onlyop-ed snap


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : IPBES

Mains level : Threat to biodiversity due to human interferrence


Among the findings that are making global headlines is the assessment that as many as 1 million different species, out of a total of an estimated 8 million plant and animal species, are facing the threat of extinction, more than at any previous time, because of changes brought about in natural environments by human activities.

What is IPBES

  • IPBES is a global scientific body very similar in composition and functioning to the better-known Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that makes periodic reviews of scientific literature to make projections about the earth’s future climate.
  • IPBES is mandated to do a similar job for natural ecosystems and biodiversity. Formed in 2012, this is the first global assessment report by the IPBES .
  • Like IPCC, IPBES does not produce any new science, it only evaluates existing scientific knowledge to make assessments and projections.

Findings of the report

  • Among the findings that are making global headlines is the assessment that as many as 1 million different species, out of a total of an estimated 8 million plant and animal species, are facing the threat of extinction, more than at any previous time, because of changes brought about in natural environments by human activities.
  • The report says that 75% of Earth’s land surface and 66% marine environments have been “significantly altered”, and that “over 85%” of wetland area had been lost.

Implications of findings of the report

  • The two UN Conventions — Convention on Biological Diversity that addresses biodiversity issues, and the Convention on Combating Desertification that deals with sustainable land management — are likely to be guided by this report in future.
  • It is possible that so would be a host of other international agreements and processes, like the Ramsar Convention on wetlands, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, or the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.

Indian Connection

  • The report does not have country-specific information.
  • But as a major biodiversity hotspot, vast areas, especially the coastline, of which are under tremendous stress due to large population, India can identify with most of the trends pointed out in the report.
  • For example, it says 23% of global land area had shown a reduction in productivity due to degradation, and that between 100 to 300 million people were at an increased risk of floods and hurricanes because of loss of coastal habitats and protection.
  • It says plastic pollution had increased 10 times from 1980, the number of large dams (those with a height of 15 m or more) had reached almost 50,000, and that human population had more than doubled since 1970s, and the number of urban areas had doubled since 1992.


All these trends have been clearly visible in the case of India, and bring with them the associated risks to natural ecosystems highlighted in the report.


Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

UK has become the first country to declare a ‘climate emergency’Priority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Climate Emergency

Mains level : Climate change and associated threats

  • UK Parliament has passed an extraordinary measure: a national declaration of an Environment and Climate Emergency.
  • The UK is the first national government to declare such an emergency.

Why such move?

  • The decision marks a renewed sense of urgency in tackling climate change, following a visit to Parliament by teenage activist Greta Thunberg.
  • There are now some 49 million people living under national, city and local declarations of a climate emergency around the world.
  • The UK is legally committed to a 80% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050 (relative to their 1990 levels).
  • It was recently recognised as one of just 18 developed economies that have driven down carbon dioxide emissions over the last decade.

The cost of inaction

  • Research in Australia has investigated the cost to the global economy if the Paris Agreement is not met and the world hits 4˚C warmer.
  • The values are eye-watering: an estimated $23 trillion a year over the long-term.
  • This has been likened to the world experiencing four to six global financial crises on the scale of 2008 every year.

What is a climate emergency?

  • There is no precise definition of what constitutes action to meet such an emergency, the move has been likened to putting the country on a “war footing”.
  • This has put the climate and the environment at the very centre of all government policy, rather than being on the fringe of political decisions.

Counting down to 2030

  • The year 2030 is an important target.
  • In spite of what climate contrarians might voice very loudly, five of our planet’s warmest years on record have occurred since 2010, whilst 2018 experienced all manner of climate extremes that broke numerous global records.
  • It’s sobering to realize that, because the oceans are a major sink of heat, the estimated 40-year delay in the release of this energy back into the atmosphere means the conditions of the last decade are in part a consequence of our pollution from the 1970s.

Way Forward

  • At a time when politicians discuss the need to “live within our means” when it comes to national finances, this does not appear to translate to the environment when we’re considering future generations.
  • Instead we seem to be caught in a debate surrounding the costs of action rather than inaction.
  • The welcome announcement from the UK is a major step in the right direction and potentially a watershed moment for a more sustainable global future.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Ross Ice ShelfPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Ross Ice Shelf

Mains level : Consequences of climate change

  • Antarctica’s Ross Ice Shelf, the world’s largest ice shelf roughly the size of France is melting rapidly.

Ross Ice Shelf

  • An international team of scientists has found out that this ice shelf is melting 10 times faster than the overall average, due to solar heating of the surrounding ocean surface.
  • The melting ice shelf has led to global sea-level rise of around 13.8mm over the last 40 years.
  • Solar heating of the surrounding ocean surface spurred the rate at which the ice is melting.
  • Using instruments deployed through a 260 metre-deep borehole, the team measured temperature, salinity, melt rates and ocean currents in the cavity under the ice.
  • Earlier, scientists believed that heat radiating to the bottom melted the underside of the shelf, while the ocean surface cooled down quickly.
  • However, the latest findings show that heat in the ocean surface plays a crucial role.

Why is it alarming?

  • Antarctica comprises 90 per cent of the world’s ice.
  • The Ross Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf of Antarctica (as of 2013 an area of roughly 500,809 square kilometres and about 800 kilometres across: about the size of France)
  • If this situation continues, sea-levels would rise up to 60 metres by 2050 — and the ocean would engulf coastal cities across the globe.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Explained: Cyclone Fani- an unusual stormMains OnlyPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Cyclone Fani

Mains level : Tropical Cyclones in India

Cyclone Fani

  • A powerful cyclonic storm named Fani (pronounced Foni) is headed towards the Odisha coast..
  • It is not just a severe cyclone but an “extremely severe cyclone”.
  • Expected to generate storms with wind speeds as high as 200 km per hour, it has the potential to cause widespread damage in Odisha and neighbouring states.
  • The last time such a powerful cyclonic storm had emerged in the Bay of Bengal at this time of the year, in 2008, it had killed more than 1.25 lakh people in Myanmar.
  • However India has impressively managed disasters caused by cyclones, most remarkably during Cyclone Phailin of 2013, which was even stronger than the approaching Fani.
  • Fani is, thus, unusual, and that is mainly because of the place it originated, very close to the Equator, and the long route it has taken to reach the landmass.

How are they formed?

  • Cyclones are formed over slightly warm ocean waters.
  • The temperature of the top layer of the sea, up to a depth of about 60 metres, need to be at least 28°C to support the formation of a cyclone.
  • This explains why the April-May and October-December periods are conducive for cyclones.
  • Then, the low level of air above the waters needs to have an ‘anticlockwise’ rotation (in the northern hemisphere; clockwise in the southern hemisphere).
  • During these periods, there is a ITCZ in the Bay of Bengal whose southern boundary experiences winds from west to east, while the northern boundary has winds flowing east to west.
  • This induces the anticlockwise rotation of air.
  • Once formed, cyclones in this area usually move northwest. As it travels over the sea, the cyclone gathers more moist air from the warm sea, and adds to its heft.

What strengthens them?

  • A thumb rule for cyclones is that the more time they spend over the seas, the stronger they become.
  • Hurricanes around the US, which originate in the vast open Pacific Ocean, are usually much stronger than the tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal, a relatively narrow and enclosed region.
  • The cyclones originating here, after hitting the landmass, decay rapidly due to friction and absence of moisture.

Cyclone Fani in Odisha: In situ origins

  • A big difference between the strengths of cyclones in April-May and October-December is that the former originate in situ in the Bay of Bengal itself, barely a few hundred kilometres from the landmass.
  • On the other hand, cyclones in October-December are usually remnants of cyclonic systems that emerge in the Pacific Ocean, but manage to come to the Bay of Bengal.
  • They are considerably weakened after crossing the southeast Asian landmass near the South China Sea.
  • These systems already have some energy, and gather momentum as they traverse over the Bay of Bengal.
  • April-May is not the season for typhoons in the west Pacific Ocean. Most of the typhoons in west Pacific in northern hemisphere form between June and November.
  • That is why almost all the cyclones in the Bay of Bengal in April-May period are in situ systems.

What’s unusual with Fani?

  • The in situ cyclonic systems in the Bay of Bengal usually originate around latitude 10°, in line with Chennai or Thiruvananthapuram.
  • Fani, on the other hand, originated quite close to the Equator, around latitude 2°, well below the Sri Lankan landmass.
  • The forecast landfall on the Odisha coast is at a latitude of almost 20°.
  • It has traversed a long way on the sea, thus gaining strength that is unusual for cyclones originating in the Bay of Bengal in this season.
  • It was initially headed northwestwards, towards the Tamil Nadu coast, but changed course midway, and swerved northeast away from the coastline to reach Odisha.
  • If it had remained on its original course, and made a landfall over the Tamil Nadu coastline, Fani would only have been a normal cyclone, not the extremely severe cyclone it has now become.


Tropical Cyclones in India

  • The eastern coast of India is no stranger to cyclones.
  • On an average, five to six significant cyclonic storms emerge in the Bay of Bengal region every year.
  • The months of April and May just before the start of the monsoon, and then October to December immediately after the end of the monsoon, are the prime seasons for tropical cyclones.
  • Cyclones emerging in April-May usually are much weaker than those during October-December.
  • There have been only 14 instances of a “severe cyclone” forming in the Bay of Bengal region in April since 1891, and only one of them, which formed in 1956, touched the Indian mainland.
  • The others all swerved northeast to hit Bangladesh, Myanmar or other countries in the southeast Asian region. Since 1990, there have been only four such cyclones in April.

Grading of Cyclones

  • Tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal are graded according to maximum wind speeds at their centre.
  • At the lower end are depressions that generate wind speeds of 30 to 60 km per hour, followed by:
  1. cyclonic storms (61 to 88 kph)
  2. severe cyclonic storms (89 to 117 kph)
  3. very severe cyclonic storms (118 to 166 kph)
  4. extremely severe cyclonic storms (167 to 221 kph) and
  5. super cyclones (222 kph or higher)
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Emperor Penguin colony in Antarctica vanishesPrelims OnlyPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Emperor Penguin, Halley Bay

Mains level : Consequences of climate change

  • The Antarctic’s second-largest colony of emperor penguins collapsed in 2016, with more than 10,000 chicks lost, and the population has not recovered, according to a new study.
  • Still, the population in Halley Bay represents only about 8% of the world’s population of emperor penguins.

Habitat loss leads to breeding failure

  • Emperor penguins — the world’s largest — breed and molt on sea ice, chunks of frozen seawater.
  • Under the influence of the strongest El Niño in 60 years, September 2015 was a particularly stormy month in the area of Halley Bay, with heavy winds and record-low sea ice.
  • The penguins generally stayed there from April until December when their chicks fledged or had grown their feathers, but the storm occurred before the chicks were old enough.
  • Those conditions appeared to have led to the loss of about 14,500 to 25,000 eggs or chicks that first year and the colony has not rebounded.

About Emperor Penguin

  • The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica.
  • Like all penguins it is flightless, with a streamlined body, and wings stiffened and flattened into flippers for a marine habitat.
  • Its diet consists primarily of fish, but also includes crustaceans, such as krill, and cephalopods, such as squid.
  • The only penguin species that breeds during the Antarctic winter, emperor penguins trek 50–120 km over the ice to breeding colonies which can contain up to several thousand individuals.
  • In 2012 the emperor penguin was uplisted from a species of least concern to near threatened by the IUCN.

Halley Bay

  • Halley Research Station is an internationally important platform for global earth, atmospheric and space weather observation in a climate sensitive zone.
  • Built on a floating ice shelf in the Weddell Sea, Halley VI is the world’s first re-locatable research facility.
  • This award-winning and innovative research station provides scientists with state-of-the-art laboratories and living accommodation, enabling them to study pressing global problems from climate change and sea-level rise to space weather and the ozone hole – first discovered at Halley in 1985.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Global Deal for Nature (GDN)IOCRPrelims Only


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : GDN, Mass extinction

Mains level : Climate change and associated threats

  • Saving the diversity and abundance of life on Earth may cost $100 billion a year, say scientists who have proposed a policy to prevent another mass extinction event on the planet.
  • There have been five mass extinctions in the history of the Earth.

Global Deal for Nature (GDN)

  • Scientists have proposed new science policy to reverse the tide, called A Global Deal for Nature (GDN).
  • It is a time-bound, science-based plan to save the diversity and abundance of life on Earth.
  • The GDN campaign is being driven by One Earth, an initiative of the Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation that aims to gather support from international institutions, governments, and citizens of planet Earth to support ambitious conservation goals.
  • The policy’s mission is to save the diversity and abundance of life on Earth — for the price tag of $100 billion a year.

WHat would GDN do?

  • Societal investment in the GDN plan would, for the first time, integrate and implement climate and nature deals on a global scale to avoid human upheaval and biodiversity loss.
  • The study outlines the principles, milestones and targets needed to avoid the disastrous extinction threats of a two degrees Celsius global warming forecast.

Why GDN?

  • Scientists now estimate that society must urgently come to grips this coming decade to stop the very first human-made biodiversity catastrophe.


  • To protect biodiversity by conserving at least 30% of the Earth’s surface by 2030;
  • Mitigate climate change by conserving the Earth’s natural carbon storehouses; and
  • Reduce major threats.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Western DisturbancesMains OnlyPriority 1


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Western Disturbances

Mains level : Western Disturbances and its impact on India

  • Under the continued influence of a western disturbance, various parts of the country received unprecedented rainfall and hailstorms few days back.

Western Disturbance

  • A Western Disturbance is an extratropical storm originating in the Mediterranean region that brings sudden winter rain to the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent.
  • It is a non-monsoonal precipitation pattern driven by the westerlies.
  • The moisture in these storms usually originates over the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Extratropical storms are a global phenomena with moisture usually carried in the upper atmosphere, unlike their tropical counterparts where the moisture is carried in the lower atmosphere.
  • They are important for the development of the Rabi crop, which includes the locally important staple wheat.

Importance of Western Disturbances

  • The western disturbances affect weather conditions during the winter season up to Patna (Bihar) and give occasional rainfall which is highly beneficial for the standing rabi crops.
  • The arrival of these causes precipitation leading to an abrupt decrease in air temperature over North-West India.
  • Western Disturbances also bring heavy snowfall in the Himalayan Region and a cold wave to north Indian plains.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[pib] Resilient Cities Asia-Pacific (RCAP) CongressIOCRPIB


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : RCAP

Mains level : Building climate resilient urban infrastructure

  • The 4th Resilient Cities Asia-Pacific (RCAP) Congress 2019 was organized by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI).

Resilient Cities Asia-Pacific

  • RCAP is the annual global platform for urban resilience and climate change adaptation.
  • It is convened by ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability and co-hosted by the World Mayors Council on Climate Change and the City of Bonn.
  • It was launched in 2010 with the goal of forging partnerships and dialogues that matter.
  • The success of the series ‘Resilient Cities – The Annual Global Forum on Urban Resilience and Adaptation’ that attracts hundreds of participants to Bonn, Germany, every year since 2010 is a clear indication of how pressing the issue of adaptation and resilience is perceived among local governments worldwide.
  • The RCAP is a response to heightened demand from the Asia Pacific Region, which encouraged ICLEI to expand the congress series to include Resilient Cities Asia-Pacific, bringing the event and the focus to the Asia-Pacific region, catering to the situation, challenges and opportunities of local governments specifically in this region.
  • It aims to provide an Asian platform for urban resilience and climate change adaptation where partnerships are forged and concrete dialogues are happening, with the ultimate goal of identifying solutions and creating lasting impacts for cities in the region.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Global Cooling CoalitionIOCR


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Global Cooling Coalition

Mains level : Need for such united action

  • The first-ever global coalition on clean and efficient cooling was launched at the First Global Conference on Synergies between the 2030 Agenda and Paris Agreement in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Global Cool Coalition

  • The Global Cool Coalition is a unified front that links action across the Kigali Amendment, Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals.
  • It is expected to inspire ambition, identify solutions and mobilise action to accelerate progress towards clean and efficient cooling.
  • Besides the UN, it is supported by the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program and Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL).
  • It includes government officials from Chile, Rwanda, Denmark as well as leaders from civil society, research and academia.

Need for such coalition

  • Throughout the world, 2018 was the fourth hottest year, preceded by 2017, 2015 and 2016.
  • With increasing incomes and urbanisation, number of air conditioning units across the globe is set to increase from 1.2 billion to 4.5 billion by 2050, and India alone may account for one billion units.
  • In the next 20 years, India’s cooling requirement will increase by eight times, with air conditioners alone consuming more than half of the total energy required for cooling in the country by 2037-38.
  • India has already developed a national cooling action plan that was launched by the Union environment ministry on March 8, 2019.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Ocean heat hits record high: UNPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Environment| Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: State of Climate Report

Mains level: Oceanic warming


  • Ocean heat hit a record high in 2018, the United Nations has said.

State of the Climate Report

  • In its latest State of the Climate overview, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) reaffirmed that the last four years had been the hottest on record.
  • 2018 saw new records for ocean heat content in the upper 700 metres.
  • The UN had data for heat content in the upper 700 metres of the ocean dating back to 1955.
  • About 93 percent of excess heat — trapped around the Earth by greenhouse gases that come from the burning of fossil fuels – accumulates in the world’s oceans.
  • It proves what we have been saying that climate change is moving faster than our efforts to address it.

About World Meteorological Organization

  • The WMO is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 192 Member States and Territories.
  • It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), the roots of which were planted at the 1873 Vienna International Meteorological Congress.
  • Established by the ratification of the WMO Convention on 23 March 1950, WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology.
  • The Secretariat, headquartered in Geneva, is headed by the Secretary-General.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Arctic warming may lead to prolonged droughts: StudyPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Environment| Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Global warming and its impact on precipitation


Impact of arctic warming

  • Arctic warming weakens the temperature difference between the tropics and the poles, resulting in less precipitation, weaker cyclones and mid-latitude westerly wind flow.
  • This result in prolonged droughts, a study has found.
  • When those opposite temperatures are wider, the result is more precipitation, stronger cyclones and more robust wind flow.
  • However, due to the Arctic ice melting and warming up the poles, those disparate temperatures are becoming closer.

What happens when Arctic is warmer?

  • Analysis shows that, when the Arctic is warmer, the jet stream and other wind patterns tend to be weaker.
  • The temperature difference in the Arctic and the tropics is less steep.
  • The change brings less precipitation to the mid-latitudes.

What is happening right now?

  • The northern high latitudes are warming at rates that are double the global average.
  • This will decrease the equator-to-pole temperature gradient to values comparable with the early to middle Holocene Period that began 12,000 to 11,500 years ago.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Rising sea levels to affect water table along Chennai’s shorelineStates in News


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not Much

Mains level: Impacts of rising sea level on coastal India


  • The fragile water table in the coastal areas of Chennai is under threat of severe seawater intrusion due to anticipated rise in sea levels in the next few decades.
  • There is a rise in sea level by 2mm every year based on a report by the Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA) under the MoEFCC.


  • The INCCA is a proposed network of scientists in India to be set up to publish peer-reviewed findings on climate change in India.
  • It was announced on 7 October 2009.
  • It would operate as a sort of Indian ‘IPCC’.

Aquifers to become saline by 2100

  • The study has forecast the impact of sea level rise on the coastal aquifer in the coming years, till 2100.
  • The increasing sea level would also force the water table along the coastline to move upwards.
  • But it would slowly replace the freshwater at the bottom of the aquifer.
  • Given the rate of increase in sea level, the water table would witness an incursion of sea water to the extent of 2-3mm every year.
  • The volume of fresh water would gradually reduce in the coastal areas due to climate change-induced sea level rise.

Why this sudden threat?

  • Rapid urbanisation and indiscriminate drawal have already led to salt water intrusion in areas from the Adyar river to Palavakkam.
  • Residents are heavily dependent on other resources, including private water tankers.
  • The water table along ECR is fragile as it is surrounded by the sea, the Adyar river, the Buckingham canal and the backwaters of Muttukadu.

Way Forward

  • It is imperative to change the land-use pattern along the shoreline to tackle the impact of climate change.
  • Only minimal groundwater extraction through open wells must be allowed and water pumped in localities along the shoreline must be replenished through rainwater harvesting.
  • Large residential complexes must adopt other measures like permeable pavements.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Urban areas cooler than non-urban regions during heat wavesPriority 1


Mains Paper 1: Social Issues | Urbanization, their problems & remedies

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Urban Heat Island Effect

Mains level: Impact of Heat waves


  • A study of 89 urban areas in India has found that though there is an absolute increase in temperature during heat waves in both urban and non-urban areas, the urban areas are relatively cooler than the surrounding non-urban areas.

Urban areas Heat lesser

  • At 1.94°C, the absolute increase in temperature during the day in non-urban areas during a heat wave was significantly higher than in urban areas (0.14°C).
  • According to the analysis, urban areas were found to be relatively cooler than the surrounding non-urban areas during heat waves.
  • At 44.5°C, the non-urban areas were warmer than urban areas (43.7°C).
  • However, during the night, all urban areas were hotter than the surrounding non-urban areas.
  • This result was quite unexpected.


  • The urban areas witness less temperature increase during heat waves compared with non-urban areas due to significantly higher tree cover and more number of water bodies.
  • In contrast, a majority of non-urban areas are located in agriculture-dominated regions.
  • In non-urban areas, the vegetation cover in the form of crops and soil moisture from cropland irrigation decline sharply after crops are harvested and well before the onset of heat waves during summer.
  • The urban areas, on the other hand, have perennial vegetation in the form of tree cover and lawns, and more number of water bodies, which help in keeping the urban areas relatively cooler than non-urban areas.


Urban Heat Island Effect

An urban heat island (UHI) is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities. This effect is known as Urban Heat Island effect.

Causes of UHI Effect

  • Heavy vehicular and industrial pollution in urban areas.
  • Discharge of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in substantial amounts, which trap the outgoing infrared radiations.
  • Tall buildings and other infrastructure which obstruct the flow of wind, consequently obstructing the transfer of heat.
  • Lack of vegetation which can act as both heat and carbon sink.
  • Majority of urban surfaces are composed of metal, glass, concrete or asphalt. These materials have high heat retaining capacity during the day and emit this heat out during the night.
  • The inability of water to penetrate the above materials, makes the urban landscape behave as a desert landscape.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Honey as a biomarker for pollution


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Biomarkers

Mains level: Utility of biomarkers in pollution assessment


  • Honey from urban areas can be used as biomarker to identify polluted localities, according to a study conducted by Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical research (PCIGR).

What is a Biomarker?

  • A Biomarker is defined as a change in biological response, ranging from molecular through cellular and physiological responses to behavioral changes, which can be related to exposure to or toxic effects of environmental chemicals.

Honey as bio-marker

  • The honey samples, analysed for the study, were collected from six geographical areas within Vancouver, including urban, industrial, residential and agricultural.
  • From these samples, the scientists tested for three major elements — Lead, Zinc, Copper.
  • The results showed that areas with heavy vehicle movement and industrial activity had increased concentration of lead in honey.
  • On the other hand, samples from agricultural land indicated high levels of manganese, which researchers suspect could be because of pesticide use.
  • Since the honey bee collects nectar from within a range of three to four kilometers, it is easy to point the source for its contamination.

Other biomarkers

  • Similarly, another study of the aquatic plant called water hyacinth, or Eichhornia crassipes, found that these can be used as biomarkers.
  • This plant is commonly found in tropical countries and is known for its ability to absorb nutrients and other elements from water.
  • The stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries.
  • The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots, states the study.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Climate Vulnerability Index for India on the anvilStates in News


Mains Paper 3: Environment| Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the Index

Mains level: Impact of climate change on Himalayan States


  • The Department of Science and Technology (DST) will be commissioning a study to assess the climate risks faced by States in India.
  • This follows an assessment of the global warming risks faced by 12 Himalayan States.

Climate Vulnerability Index

  • Last year the IIT at Mandi and Guwahati, and the IISc Bengaluru, coordinated with authorities of 12 Himalayan states to evolve a common methodology, and determine how districts there are equipped to deal with the vagaries of climate change.
  • The researchers prepared a ‘vulnerability index’ of each of these States based on district-level data.
  • Vulnerability would be a measure of the inherent risks a district faces, primarily by virtue of its geography and socio-economic situation.
  • The eight key parameters included: percentage of area in districts under forests, yield variability of food grain, population density, female literacy rate, infant mortality rate, percentage of population below poverty line (BPL), average man-days under MGNREGA and the area under slope > 30%.

Ranking of the states

  • On a scale ranging 0-1, 1 indicating the highest possible level of vulnerability, at the top of the scale were Assam with a score of 0.72 and Mizoram at 0.71, whereas Sikkim, with an index score of 0.42 was relatively less vulnerable.
  • This doesn’t mean that States with a lower score are safe in an absolute sense.
  • In fact, some districts in Uttarakhand [at 0.45 and at the lower end of the scale] are more vulnerable than those in Assam.

Different factors

  • Different factors contributed to a State’s vulnerability.
  • In Arunachal Pradesh, the key factors are low female literacy and high percentage of population above BPL whereas in Nagaland the key issues are loss of forest cover, steep slope and high yield variability.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap]India could save trillions in healthcare costs if Paris climate goals are met: Global Environmental Outlookop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Environment| Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Global Environment Outlook, Lancet Health Report

Mains level: The news-card analyses the issues of steps needed to be taken to deal with challenge of Climate Change



India could save at least $3 trillion (₹210 trillion approx.) in healthcare costs if it implemented policy initiatives consistent with ensuring that the globe didn’t heat up beyond 1.5 degrees Celsius by the turn of the century, says the sixth edition of the Global Environmental Outlook (GEO), prepared by the United Nations Environment Programme.

India’s Record in Environment programme

  • India’s stated commitment is to lower emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35% compared to 2005 levels by 2030; increase total cumulative electricity generation from fossil free energy sources to 40% by 2030, and create additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tons through additional forest and tree cover.
  • India is on track to achieve two of these goals — of emissions intensity and electricity generation — according to independent climate-watch site Climate Tracker.

Need for Further steps to be taken

  • However these actions are only enough — and provided other countries too live up to their commitments — to limit temperature rise to 2 degrees.
  • For India to leapfrog onto a 1.5-degree pathway it would have to “abandon plans to build new coal-fired power plants.
  • The landmark Paris Agreement of 2015 aims to keeping a global temperature rise this century well to “…below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.”
  • However there has been limited progress by countries since then in committing to greenhouse gas emissions cut since then.

Suggestion by Reports

  • The GEO report, made public Wednesday, for its assessment on health benefits to India relied on a modelling study by group of scientists and published by Lancet Planetary Health in March 2018.
  • The report advises adopting less-meat intensive diets, and reducing food waste in both developed and developing countries, would reduce the need to increase food production by 50% to feed the projected 9-10 billion people on the planet in 2050. At present, 33% of global edible food is wasted, and 56% of waste happens in industrialised countries.




Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Global Environmental Outlook Report 2019IOCR


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspectives, the following things are important

Prelims Level: GEO Report

Mains Level: Read the attached story 


  • Human activities are degrading the global environment at a pace that could endanger the “ecological foundations of society” and human health, according to a landmark United Nations report.

Global Environment Outlook (GEO) 2019

  1. The GEO is often referred to as UN Environment’s flagship environmental assessment.
  2. The first publication was in 1997 and was originally requested by Member States.
  3. It is a flagship report because it fulfills the core functions of the organization, which date back to the UN General Assembly resolution that established the UNEP in 1972.
  4. The report is the sixth and is the UN’s most comprehensive report on the state of the global environment since the fifth edition in 2012.
  5. It is a consultative and participatory process to:
  • prepare an independent assessment of the state of the environment,
  • effectiveness of the policy response to address these environmental challenges and
  • possible pathways to be achieve various internationally agreed environmental goals.

Highlights of the report

Child Mortality

  • Air pollution remains a major public health problem as the main environmental contributor to disease around the globe.
  • It results in 6 million to 7 million premature deaths and losses of $5 trillion each year.

Species Extinction

  • Species extinction rates also continue to increase at a pace that could compromise Earth’s ability to meet human needs, the report says.
  • Among invertebrates, 42% of land dwellers, 34% of freshwater species and 25% of marine species are at risk of extinction.

Health emergencies

  • The GEO compiles a litany of pollution-related health emergencies.
  • It said that poor environmental conditions “cause approximately 25% of global disease and mortality” — around 9 million deaths in 2015 alone.
  • Lacking access to clean drinking supplies, 1.4 million people die each year from preventable diseases such as diarrhoea and parasites linked to pathogen-riddled water and poor sanitation.

Food Waste

  • Thirty-three percent of edible food is wasted worldwide, with more than half thrown out in industrialized nations, the report says.
  • Food waste for instance, which accounts for 9% of global greenhouse gas emissions, could be slashed.
  • The report depicts a growing chasm between rich and poor countries as rampant overconsumption, pollution and food waste in the developed world leads to hunger, poverty and disease elsewhere.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Smart farming in a warm worldop-ed snap


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Climate change threat to Indian agriculture and moving towards climate resilient agri practices.



Many areas are facing drought in recent years like Bundelkhand. There is a need to introduce alternatives.

Changes in rainfall and weather and it’s impact

  • Bundelkhand was once blessed with over 800-900 mm rainfall annually, but over the last seven years, it has seen this halved, with rainy days reported to be down to just 24 on average in the monsoon period.
  • There is hardly any greenery in many villages, making it difficult for farmers to even maintain cattle.
  • Hailstorm has been destroying crop in recent years, with the arhar crop failing completely in 2015. Farmers are increasingly abandoning their lands and heading to nearby towns to find work as labourers.

Vulnerability due to Monsoon

  • India is fortunate to have the monsoon, but it is also uniquely vulnerable to rising temperatures, with the country ranked 14th on the Global Climate Risk Index 2019.
  • The country has over 120 million hectares suffering from some form of degradation.
  • According to one estimate, they may face a 24-58% decline in household income and 12-33% rise in household poverty through exacerbated droughts.
  • With rain-fed agriculture practised in over 67% of our total crop area, weather variability can lead to heavy costs, especially for coarse grains (which are mostly grown in rain-fed areas).
  • A predicted 70% decline in summer rains by 2050 would devastate Indian agriculture.
  • Within 80 years, our kharif season could face a significant rise in average temperatures (0.7-3.3°C) with rainfall concomitantly impacted, and potentially leading to a 22% decline in wheat yield in the rabi season, while rice yield could decline by 15%.


  • Promotion of conservation farming and dryland agriculture, with each village provided with timely rainfall forecasts, along with weather-based forewarnings regarding crop pests and epidemics in various seasons, is necessary.
  • Our agricultural research programmes need to refocus on dryland research, with adoption of drought-tolerant breeds that could reduce production risks by up to 50%.
  • A mandate to change planting dates, particularly for wheat, should be considered, which could reduce climate change induced damage by 60-75%,
  • There needs to be an increase in insurance coverage and supply of credit. Insurance coverage should be expanded to cover all crops, while interest rates need to be subsidised, through government support and an expanded Rural Insurance Development Fund.

Loss of forest land

  • India is estimated to have lost over 26 million hectares of forest land and 20 million hectares of grasslands/shrublands between 1880 and 2013.
  • , insufficient coordination between the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) has led to institutional apathy towards alarming air pollution levels in the metros.
  • India hosts over 172 globally threatened species, primarily in reserve forests where they have little meaningful protection against wildlife crime and forest protection, given limited budgets for anti-poaching.

Reforming IFS

  • The Indian Forest Service would also benefit from restructuring, in order to make it equivalent to the police and the army, albeit in the environmental domain.
  • State-of-the-art training to its personnel must be provided, and specialisation should be encouraged in wildlife, tourism and protection for new recruits.
  • Deputations from other services will no longer do; this needs to remain a specialised service.
  • heritage towns should be given more attention — cities like Sawai Madhopur, Bharatpur, Chikmagalur and Jabalpur, which are adjacent to national parks and sanctuaries, need to be converted into green smart cities with upgraded waste recycling processes.
  • The Van Dhan Yojana, as adopted by the State government in Rajasthan, can be scaled up towards building a green mission to save our non-protected forests (outside the existing national parks and sanctuaries).

Way forward

  • Prudent investments and policy reform can help make India resilient to climate change.
  • Any adaptation to ongoing climate change will require that climate justice.
  • This is not a blame game — this can be induced by expansion of joint research and development partnerships (like the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center), pairing India’s emerging smart cities with green cities in the West.
  • India needs to decarbonise, there is no doubt about that. But the West needs to pay its bills too.


Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

A third of Hindu Kush Himalaya glaciers will melt by 2100Priority 1


Mains Paper 1: Geography | Changes in critical geographical features including water-bodies & ice-caps

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Hindukush Range

Mains level: Impact of global warming on Himalayas


  • Two-thirds of Himalayan glaciers, the world’s “Third Pole”, could melt by 2100 if global emissions are not reduced, scientists warned in a major new study.

Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment

  1. The ‘Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment’ is released by the Kathmandu-based International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).
  2. It provides insights into changes affecting one of the greatest mountain systems in the world.
  3. At least a third of the ice in the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush will melt down this century as temperatures rise, disrupting river flows vital for growing crops from China to India.
  4. And even if the “most ambitious” Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to 1.5° C is achieved, one-third of the glaciers would go, says the report.

Findings of the report

  1. Even if efforts are made to limit global warming to 1.5̊C by the end of the Century, the Hindu Kush Himalaya will warm by around 1.8 ̊C, the report has found.
  2. The warming will at least be 0.7 ̊C higher in the northwest Himalaya and Karakoram region.
  3. The HKH will warm more than the global mean and more rapidly at higher elevations.
  4. Even the most ambitious goal set by the Paris Agreement to limit global warming would lead to a 2.1 spike in temperature in the HKH region leading to melting of one-third of the region’s glaciers.
  5. It also points out that the Tibetan Plateau, Central Himalayan Range and Karakoram will warm more than the HKH average.

About Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH)

  1. HKH region covers 3500 kms across eight countries – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan.
  2. It is the source of ten major river basins including the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus in India.
  3. Two billion people are dependent on the HKH for their water needs across Asia.
  4. Glaciers in the HKH region are a critical water source for some 250 million people in the mountains as well as to 1.65 billion others in the river valleys below.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

What’s causing extreme cold in US MidwestPriority 1


Mains Paper 1: Geography | Salient features of World’s Physical Geography

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Polar Vortex

Mains level: Polar Vortex


  • A record-breaking cold wave has swept through the US Midwest, with 22 states hitting sub-zero temperatures.
  • The extreme cold has been caused by a blast of Arctic air, which in turn is a result of what is known as a “polar vortex” event.

Polar Vortex

  1. It is described as a whirling cone of low pressure over the poles that is strongest in the winter months due to the increased temperature contrast between the polar regions and the mid-latitudes, such as the US and Europe.
  2. The counter-clockwise flow of air helps keep the colder air near the poles.
  3. It spins in the stratosphere, a layer of the atmosphere 10-48 km above the ground and above the troposphere, where most familiar weather patterns develop.
  4. Usually, when the vortex is strongest, cold air is less-likely to plunge deep into North America or Europe.
  5. In other words, it forms a wall that protects the mid-latitudes from cold Arctic air.

When does the polar vortex cause extreme cold?

  1. In winter, the polar vortex sometimes becomes less stable and expands.
  2. Many times during winter in the northern hemisphere, the vortex expands, sending cold air southward with the jet stream.
  3. This is called as the “breaking off” of a part of the vortex.
  4. Normally, when the vortex is strong and healthy, it helps keep a current of air known as the jet stream traveling around the globe in a pretty circular path.
  5. This current keeps the cold air up north and the warm air down south.
  6. But without that strong low-pressure system, the jet stream doesn’t have much to keep it in line. It becomes wavy and rambling.

Is all cold weather the result of a polar vortex event?

  1. Though the polar vortex is always hanging out up North, it takes pretty “unusual conditions” for it to “weaken” for it to migrate far south.
  2. Portions of Europe and Asia also experience cold surges connected to the polar vortex.
  3. By itself, the only danger to humans is the magnitude of how cold temperatures will get when the polar vortex expands, sending Arctic air southward into areas that are not typically that cold.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

How will global warming affect El Niño in the 21st Century?Priority 1


Mains Paper 1: Geography | Salient features of World’s Physical Geography

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: El Nino, La Nino and ENSO

Mains level: Impact of El-Nino



  1. El Niño is the largest climate phenomenon that occurs frequently, producing droughts, floods, wildfires, dust and snow storms, fish kill, and even elevated risks of civil conflicts.
  2. The theatre of action for El Niño is the tropical Pacific Ocean but its global reach costs the global community tens of billions of dollars each time.

Why study El Nino occurrence?

  1. El Niños occur every two-to-seven years, with very strong El Niño’s occurring about every 15 years.
  2. How the frequency, time and strength between two events will change because of global warming remains a grand challenge for climate models.
  3. This also impacts projections of future climate since El Niños redistribute the heat gathered by the ocean between two El Niño events to cause a mini global warming.

Measuring El Nino

  1. El Niño is measured by an index that averages sea surface temperature anomalies over the central-eastern tropical Pacific.
  2. This has been an issue in finding a consensus among models as far as the El Niño response to global warming is concerned.
  3. But by using a model-specific El Niño index to make room for the inter-model differences, the latest projection shows that strong El Niños and extreme weather events associated.
  4. The results should serve as a warning to countries on all continents that suffer from these extreme weather events during strong El Niño events such as the ones during 1982-83, 1997-98 and 2015-16.

Major Caveats

  1. The first caveat is that the eagerly-awaited winter rain and snow storms over California did not occur over California during the latest extreme El Niño.
  2. It is thus unclear if global warming is already affecting El Niño and its remote impacts.
  3. Secondly, the models used for making future projections have not stood the test of time for their depiction of El Niño during the 20th century.

Lack of consensus

  1. Some models warm the eastern tropical Pacific more than the west while others produce a faster warming in the west.
  2. Whether the east warms faster or the west has serious consequences for global warming itself since the cold eastern Pacific soaks up a lot of heating from the atmosphere.
  3. A slower warming of the east would imply more heat uptake by the ocean and a slower global warming.

Data insufficient

  1. Available data is not sufficient to say with confidence how the tropical Pacific has responded to global warming till now.
  2. All available evidences indicates that El Niño is highly variable and its variability depends on weather noise over the western Pacific, volcanoes, impact of phytoplankton on penetration of solar radiation into the ocean, aerosols and so on.
  3. It is unclear if the impact of global warming on El Niño can easily be extracted.

Way Forward

  1. It is imperative that models be held to very stringent standards on their performance of El Niño behaviour during historic periods for their reliability for future projections.
  2. This would also be necessary for projecting other events such as droughts and floods.
  3. For example, droughts over India are closely tied with El Niño and any projections of how droughts will respond to global warming will depend on how models perform.

Assist this newscard with:

UN sees 70% chance of El Nino event this year

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Where the rich got their way on the climate change convention at Katowice, Polandop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Environment| Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Basics aspects of COP24 and Climate Finance.

Mains level: The news-card analyses the issues of climate change discussed in COP-24 of the UNFCCC, held at Katowice in Poland, in a brief manner.


  • The 24th Conference of the Parties (COP-24) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), held at Katowice in Poland, brings little cheer on the climate front for developing countries.
  • With the passage of the “rulebook” for the implementation of the Paris Agreement, the developed countries have largely succeeded in establishing a global climate regime that gives them the strategic advantage and assuages some of their core concerns.
  • This signals the making of a new, contradictory situation where the scope and complexity of the regime are fundamentally at odds with the very purpose for which the regime has been constructed.


  • At the heart of this strategic success is the substantial rollback of differentiation between the global North and South in climate action.
  • The first step of this process began with the Paris Agreement, when the developed nations were allowed to make voluntary commitments to climate mitigation, on par with the developing nations, without any benchmark to ensure the relative adequacy of their commitment.


Rulebook: Standards of reporting, monitoring and evaluation

  • At Katowice the process went further, with uniform standards of reporting, monitoring and evaluation for all countries.
  • These reporting requirements, while superficially impressive, appear in their true light when we realise that in their uniformity they are intended as much for Maldives as the U.S.
  • The real targets of this uniformity arenot the poorest nations, who have been provided exemptions, but the larger developing nations.
  • While all developing nations are ostensibly allowed flexibility in these reporting requirements, the concession has been hedged in with a number of conditions, with the intention of forcing them to full compliance in short order.
  • The reporting requirements are also marked by a pseudo-scientific concern for stringency, which is far in excess of the accuracy of climate science itself.
  • Indeed, the recent Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on global warming at 1.5°C estimates substantial uncertainties in the quantum of cumulative global emissions that are still allowed before the global carbon budget of the world is exhausted.
  • In the face of such uncertainty, the requirement of reporting as little as 500 kilo tonnes or 0.05% of national emissions per country has little scientific significance.
  • More pernicious is the uniformity of the stringency in reporting being expressed in percentage terms.
  • Elementary mathematics informs us that a smaller percentage of the emissions of a large emitter will be a larger quantity in absolute terms compared to the larger percentage of emissions of a small emitter.


  • The crux of the problem is the contradiction between the onerous nature of these universal rules and the total lack of initiative by the developed countries in taking the lead in climate mitigation.
  • All developed countries continue to invest in fossil fuels either through direct production or imports.
  • Some do so because of the downgrading of nuclear energy due to domestic political pressures. Others are still trying to wean themselves off coal by shifting to gas.
  • Overall, as the International Energy Agency reports, the use of fossil fuel-based electricity generation continues to rise for OECD countries.

Special Report of the IPCC

  • In the event, the dispute that broke out at COP24 over whether the Special Report of the IPCC should be welcomed or merely noted must be considered a red herring.
  • Despite the vociferous pleas of the Least Developed Countries and the Small Island Developing States for the former choice, in the absence of adequate action, such symbolic gestures are clearly of little value.
  • Indeed, the report itself appears to have been used to generate a sense of urgency in stampeding countries into approval of the “rulebook” rather than point the way to more substantial mitigation by the developed nations.
  • The Special Report, for instance, did little to inspire the developed countries to increase the quantum of climate finance as well as speeding up its delivery.

Debate surrounding Climate finance

  • It has been the long-standing argument of the developing world that the bulk of climate finance must be from public sources.
  • In contrast, the developed countries have succeeded in putting other sources of finance, including FDI and equity flows, on par in the accounting of the flow of climate assistance that developing countries need.
  • As the “rulebook” stands today, private sector flows or loans, which will increase the indebtedness of developing countries, are to be considered adequate fulfilment of developed country obligations under the UNFCCC.
  • Much of the pressure exerted by developed countries at COP24 had the active backing and instigation of the U.S.
  • Despite the public posturing by other G-8 heads of state outside the climate summits, the marked synergy between the U.S. and its political and strategic allies in pushing through several critical elements of the “rulebook” was no secret.

India and COP24

  • India, despite its articulation of the need for equity in climate action and climate justice, failed to obtain the operationalisation of these notions in several aspects of the “rulebook”.
  • Even though it pushed for equity, particularly in the benchmarks for the periodic review of the Paris Agreement, it failed to press home its point.
  • Successive dispensations in New Delhi have fallen short of doing the needful in this regard.
  • In contrast, Brazil held its ground on matters relating to carbon trading that it was concerned about and postponed finalisation of the matter to next year’s summit.
  • Regrettably, while India has not been shy to hold out against the global nuclear order it has not extended this attitude to protecting its interests in the emerging global climate regime.
  • It is now evident that New Delhi underestimated what was at stake at Katowice and the outcome portends a serious narrowing of India’s developmental options in the future.
  • A number of environmental and climate think tanks, NGOs and movements have also done their share to disarm the government in the negotiations.
  • Buying uncritically into the climate narrative of the developed nations, they have been continually urging unilateral domestic action on moral grounds, while ignoring the elementary fact that global warming is a global collective action problem.
  • Despite the significant number of Indians at COP24, the broad articulation of India’s needs was at the lowest ebb seen in the last several years.


  • At the final plenary of COP24, the Like-Minded Developing Countries grouping echoed India’s reservations on the neglect of equity and climate justice in the final form of the “rulebook”, while the broader G77 plus China combine expressed its regret at the unbalanced nature of the outcome, with its undue emphasis on mitigation by all.
  • But with the “rulebook” nevertheless having been adopted, COP24 signals a global climate regime that benefits and protects the interests of the global rich, while leaving the climatic fate of the world, and the developmental future of a substantial section of its population, still hanging in the balance.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2019IOCR


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspectives, the following things are important

Prelims Level: CCPI 2019

Mains Level: Performance of India in CCPI


  • The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2019 recently released shows that only few countries have started working towards limiting global warming below 2°C or even at 1.5°C.

About CCPI

  1. The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an annual publication by Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute and Climate Action Network Europe.
  2. Its aim is to put political and social pressure on those countries that have, until now, failed to take ambitious action on climate protection, and to highlight those countries with best practice climate policies.
  3. It evaluates the climate protection performance of 60 countries, responsible for over 90% of global energy-related CO2 emissions.

India’s Performance

  1. India ranks 11th in this year’s CCPI, improving its standing by three places compared to the previous edition.
  2. Most notably India improved its performance in the Renewable Energy category, joining the group of medium
  3. However, national experts argue that plans to build new coal-fired power plants may pose a risk of offsetting positive developments in the renewable energy sector.
  4. Comparatively low levels of per capita GHG emissions and a relatively ambitious mitigation target for 2030 give India an overall high rating in the emissions category.

Global Performance

  1. Morocco has been named the second best performing country after Sweden in the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI).
  2. With the connection of the world’s largest solar plant to the grid, Morocco is on track for achieving its target of 42% installed renewable energy capacities by 2020.
  3. Sweden is in top position, followed by Morocco and Lithuania in the CCPI 2019.
  4. The bottoms five in the list are Saudi Arabia, U.S., Iran, South Korea and Taiwan.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

NE and Himalayan states stare at climate riskPrelims OnlyStates in News


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspectives, the following things are important

Prelims Level: Highlights of the report

Mains Level: Sustainable development and conservation of Himalayan region


  • All the 12 Himalayan states in India are extremely vulnerable to global warming with Assam, Mizoram and J&K topping the list says a report.

Climate Vulnerability Assessment

  1. The report titles ‘Climate Vulnerability Assessment for the Indian Himalayan Region Using a Common Framework’.
  2. It is submitted by IIT Mandi and IIT Guwahati in collaboration with IISc Bangalore presents a chilling vulnerability map and assessment for the Indian Himalayan Region.
  3. The study is based on four broad indicators in each state:
  • Economic and sociological status of the people and their health,
  • Possible impact on agriculture production,
  • Forest-dependent livelihoods
  • Access to information services and infrastructure.
  1. States having low per capita income, low area under irrigation and low area under forests per 1,000 households and high area under open forests received a high vulnerability score.
  2. Assam has the least area under irrigation, least forest area available per 1,000 rural households and the second lowest per capita income among the other IHR states, and thus scores the highest vulnerability score.

Prospects of the report

  1. The Himalayan ecosystem is vital to India’s ecological and economic security.
  2. Himalayan communities have a large dependency on climate-sensitive sectors such as rain-fed agriculture and have a fragile mountain ecosystem.
  3. The communities have limited livelihood options and experience higher marginalization because physical infrastructure is limited and there is a high dependence on natural resources.
  4. Under changing and variable climate such constraints are likely to add to the vulnerability of Himalayan communities.

Policy Measures

  1. In response to the serious threats posed by climate change to the development process and the limitations, the Centre has a  National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem.
  2. Recently NITI Aayog has constituted the ‘Himalayan State Regional Council’ to ensure sustainable development of the Indian Himalayan region.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] What’s in climate change RulebookIOCRop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Rulebook for implementing Paris Agreement

Mains level:  Outcomes of COP-24


The quest for a global Rulebook

  1. During the weekend, the global fight against climate change reached another milestone when negotiators from 196 countries finalised a rulebook for the 2015 Paris Agreement.
  2. The finalization paves the way for implementation of the Paris Agreement, which is supposed to replace the existing Kyoto Protocol in 2020.
  3. The creation of the rulebook has been hailed as an important step that has breathed life into the Paris Agreement.
  4. At the same time, several countries and nongovernmental organisations have said the deal reached in Katowice, though welcome, was not enough.

The Rulebook

  1. The rulebook contains various other processes and guidelines needed for implementing the other provisions of the Paris Agreement.
  2. In short, it holds the operational details of the Paris Agreement.

What is in the Rulebook?

  1. Broadly, the Paris Agreement, which seeks to keep the global average temperatures “well below” 2°C from pre-industrial times, specifies what steps countries need to take in the fight against climate change.
  2. The rulebook prescribes how to do those things, and how each of them would be measured and verified.
  3. For example, the Paris Agreement says every country must have a climate action plan, and that this should be periodically updated and submitted to the UN climate body.
  4. The rulebook now specifies what actions can be included in the action plan, how and when to submit them.
  5. Further, the Paris Agreement asks every member nation to submit information about their greenhouse gas emissions every two years.
  6. The rulebook specifies which gases to measure, what methodologies and standards to apply while measuring them, and the kinds of information to be included in their submissions.

Climate Finance: A crucial element of Rulebook

  1. Again, under the Paris Agreement, developed countries are supposed to provide “climate finance” to developing countries to help them deal with climate change, and submit an account of this.
  2. The rulebook says what kinds of financial flows — loans, concessions, grants — can be classified as climate finance, how they should be accounted for, and the kind of information about them needed to be submitted.

Was Katowice only about the rulebook?

  1. It was primarily about the rulebook.
  2. But a few other discussions had also become important.
  3. The current level of climate actions was insufficient to hold the global average temperature within 2°C above pre-industrial levels.

Lack of Ambition & Spat over IPCC report

  1. The special report of the IPCC on the feasibility of attaining a 1.5°C target, which had come out weeks ahead of the Katowice meeting, had added urgency to the discussions.
  2. It was expected that the countries would give some indication of their willingness to do more that what they were currently committed to, and would agree to start a process towards that.
  3. But that did not happen.
  4. Instead, an ugly battle was fought over how to acknowledge the IPCC report, which had been requested by this same conference three years ago, in the final outcome.

Has the rulebook addressed all issues it was meant to look at?

  1. One important element could not be agreed upon and had to be deferred for until next year.
  2. This relates to Article 6 of the Paris Agreement which talks about setting up a market mechanism for trading of carbon emissions.
  3. An emission trading system already exists under the Kyoto Protocol, though it has become ineffective over the last few years and is meant to end with the end of Kyoto Protocol in 2020.
  4. A carbon market allows countries, or industries, to earn carbon credits for the emission reductions they make in excess of what is required of them.
  5. These carbon credits can be traded to the highest bidder in exchange of money. The buyers of carbon credits can show the emission reductions as their own and use them to meet their own reduction targets.

Unused Carbon Credits

  1. In the last few years, as several countries walked out of the Kyoto Protocol, and no country was feeling compelled to meet its 2020 emission reduction targets, there has been virtually no demand for carbon credits.
  2. As a result, developing countries like China, India and Brazil have accumulated huge amounts of unused carbon credits.
  3. Together, China and Brazil are estimated to account for about 70% of global unused carbon credits.
  4. When the rulebook was being discussed in Katowice, these countries argued that their unused carbon credits should be considered valid in the new market mechanism that was being created, something that the developed countries opposed strongly.

Negligence by Developed Countries

  1. The developed countries questioned the authenticity of the unused carbon credits, pointing to weak verification mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol that allowed dubious projects to claim carbon credits.
  2. The developed countries also argued that some of the proposals being put forward by Brazil for the carbon markets would lead to double-counting of emission reductions.

Procrastination: The ultimate Option

  1. With no side willing to concede ground, there was no option but to defer the discussion over carbon markets to next year, while allowing for the rest of the rulebook to be finalised.
  2. The fact that no side was ready for a compromise, and preferred to reengage at some other time, is an indication of the importance that countries are attaching to the new emission trading system, and their high stakes in that market.
  3. The reemergence of the carbon market could be the next big thing to watch out for in the climate space.

Hits & Misses: Takeaways from COP24

Article 4: Pledges
Article 4 of the 2015 Paris Agreement mandates nationally determined contributions (NDCs) by countries.

Article 6: Carbon markets
Article 6 covers voluntary carbon markets.

Article 9: Climate finance
Developed countries are supposed to provide climate finance to developing countries to help deal with climate change, and submit an account of this.

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[pib] Outcome of 24th Session of Conference of PartiesIOCR


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: COP 24

Mains level:  India fulfilling its ambitious climate actions


  • The 24th Session of the of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 24) was held in Katowice, Poland on 02nd– 15th December 2018.
  • During the COP, nations overcame divisions to agree global climate pact rules for limiting temperature rise to below 2°Celsius
  • However Indian participants are disappointed with the outcome.

Key issues under focus

  1. Finalization of guidelines/ modalities/ rules for the implementation of Paris Agreement
  2. The conclusion of 2018 Facilitative Talanoa Dialogue
  3. Stocktake of Pre-2020 actions implementation and ambition

Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR-RC)

  1. The guidance on Nationally Determined Contributions preserves the determined nature of NDCs and provides for Parties to submit different types of contributions including adaptation.
  2. The guidance on adaptation recognizes the needs of developing countries and is built on the overarching principle of CBDR-RC.

Enhanced Transparency Framework

  1. India has been in favor of a robust transparency regime, and the finalized Enhanced Transparency Framework builds upon the existing guidelines while providing flexibilities for developing countries.
  2. The guidance on finance provisions operationalize the obligation of developed countries in providing means of implementation to developing countries.
  3. It recognizes the need for climate finance to be new and additional and climate specific.
  4. The framework for technology recognizes the need for enhanced support towards operationalization of the framework and comprehensively covers all stages of technology development and transfer.

Outstanding issues

  1. Key questions on whether developed countries would come good on earlier commitments to make available $100 billion annually by 2020 remained unsolved.
  2. Moreover, a fundamental tenet — that developed countries and developing countries have ‘differentiated’ responsibilities towards addressing global greenhouse gas emissions — appeared to be threatened

Issue over Global Stocktake (GST)

  1. The GST refers to a periodic appraisal by countries on where the world stands vis-à-vis emissions and what more needs to be done.
  2. This would form the basis for countries taking the call on increasing their emission cuts.
  3. The global stocktake will provide countries with the basis for strengthening their actions and submitting new national climate commitments in the two years following each successive global stocktake.
  4. Equity is specifically mentioned in Article 14 of the Paris Agreement. It is the basic principle of the Convention and the Paris Agreement.
  5. The entire GST exercise is lopsided as the process of technical assessment does not fully address equity.

Carbon credits again ignored

  1. There is the outstanding issue of what happens to carbon credits.
  2. These are essentially carbon emissions that would normally have gone into the atmosphere but were prevented, due to alternate, cleaner alternatives adopted by developing countries.
  3. Developed countries are expected to pay for such credits via market-based trading mechanisms but these have been dismantled because of concerns over whether these reductions were real and measurable.
  4. The countries are not willing to find a solution to this as it has been postponed once again.

Agendas under COP-24

[pib] 24th meeting of Conference of Parties (COP-24) to begin

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Farming in a warming worldop-ed snap


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Climate change threat to Indian agriculture and moving towards climate resilient agri practices


Climate aberrations

  1. The pervasiveness of climatic aberrations and the associated socio-economic vulnerability are now widely recognised and experienced across the globe
  2. The Sixth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on “Global Warming at 1.5°C” distinctly propagates the need to strengthen and enhance existing coping capacity and to remain committed to the objectives of the Paris Agreement
  3. The report establishes that the world has become 1°C warmer because of human activities, causing a greater frequency of extremes and obstruction to the normal functioning of ecosystems
  4. India, with its diverse agro-climatic settings, is one of the most vulnerable countries

Impact on India’s agriculture & climate

  1. India’s s agriculture ecosystem, distinguished by high monsoon dependence, and with 85% small and marginal landholdings, is highly sensitive to weather abnormalities
  2. There has been less than normal rainfall during the last four years, with 2014 and 2015 declared as drought years
  3. Even the recent monsoon season (June-September) ended with a rainfall deficit of 9%, which was just short of drought conditions
  4. Research is also confirming an escalation in heat waves, in turn affecting crops, aquatic systems and livestock
  5. The Economic Survey 2017-18 has estimated farm income losses between 15% and 18% on average, which could rise to 20%-25% for unirrigated areas without any policy interventions

Moving towards climate resilient agriculture

There is a need to foster the process of climate adaptation in agriculture, which involves reshaping responses across both the micro- and macro-level decision-making culture

  • Micro-level interventions
  1. At the micro-level, traditional wisdom, religious epics and various age-old notions about weather variations still guide farmers’ responses, which could be less effective
  2. Corroborating these with climate assessments and effective extension and promoting climate resilient technologies will enhance their pragmatism
  3. Climate exposure can be reduced through agronomic management practices such as inter and multiple cropping and crop-rotation; shift to non-farm activities; insurance covers; up-scaling techniques such as solar pumps, drip irrigation and sprinklers
  4. There is an urgent need to educate farmers, reorient Krishi Vigyan Kendras and other grass-root organisations with specific and more funds about climate change and risk-coping measures
  • Macro-level interventions
  1. At the macro-level, climate adaptations are to be mainstreamed in the current developmental framework (which is still at a nascent stage, as acknowledged in the Economic Survey 2017-18)
  2. Though programmes of the government document the likely consequences of climate change, they lack systematic adaptation planning and resource conservation practices
  3. Mainstreaming adaptation into the policy apparatus has the potential to improve the resilience of several development outcomes
  4. The approach demands coherence across multiple policy scales as required for developing possible synergy between micro-macro levels and addressing several cross-cutting issues

Major interventions

  1. Expansion of extension facilities, improving irrigation efficiency, promotion of satellite-enabled agriculture risk management, creating micro-level agro-advisories, providing customised real-time data, and capacity building of stakeholders are some initiatives towards building greater resilience in agriculture
  2. Interventions such as the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, Soil Heath Card, Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana, National Agriculture Market, or e-NAM, and other rural development programmes are positive interventions that can address the vulnerability of farmers and rural households
  3. There are also exclusive climate and adaptation schemes being operationalised, such as the National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA), the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA), the National Adaptation Fund, and the State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC)
  4. It is desirable to have a cultural change wherein some of the components under these schemes can be converged with major rural developmental programmes, which will further enhance their effectiveness at the grass-root level

Way forward

  1. A convergence of climate actions with ongoing efforts and several Central schemes with similar mandates is a must
  2. Greater expertise and consultations are required for a systematic prioritisation of actions and fiscal prudence for building climate resilient agriculture
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Energy efficiency and climate changeop-ed snap


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Need of moving towards energy efficiency


Climate change concerns

  1. The impact of climate change is being felt by everybody and everywhere
  2. Extreme weather conditions, air pollution, crop failure, biodiversity losses, and much more are affecting both human health and natural wealth
  3. More than 70% of India’s population is exposed to outdoor air pollution, which has contributed to one in eight deaths and has reduced the average life expectancy of Indians by nearly two years
  4. The cost of not addressing global warming today would far exceed the expense of addressing it in the future

Role of energy sector & focus on the reduction of fossil fuel usage

  1. Energy production and consumption remains the largest contributor of global carbon emissions and greenhouse gas
  2. Although global investments in renewable energy has increased rapidly in recent years, its share in the global stock of energy is still very small
  3. Carbon pricing has attracted more attention in recent years, as it goes to the source of the problem and puts a price on carbon pollution as a means of bringing down emissions
  4. It shifts energy investments towards cleaner options by making fossil fuels more expensive relative to low-carbon fuels, and renewable energy
  5. Besides carbon-pricing reforms, a package of additional interventions is needed to internalize externalities that are much more significant in developing countries compared to advanced countries and play an import role in increasing energy efficiency

Need for energy efficiency

  1. It is estimated that nearly 70% of the global carbon emissions could be reduced by increasing energy efficiency
  2. Many quick wins on energy efficiency that have been overlooked in the past can be given a bigger seat at the table, including energy efficiency in the kitchen, residential buildings, industries, transport, utilities, and energy labelling
  3. Increasing energy efficiency is also a prerequisite for most developing countries for preparing them to move towards more expensive energy system needed to deal with carbon capture and storage, and other technology solutions

India’s performance in energy efficiency

  1. India’s energy intensity has declined during the last decade
  2. China’s energy intensity is roughly 1.5 times that of India
  3. Cities and urban settings increase energy efficiency and reduce the cost of electricity use per output level because of denser customer bases and more efficient plant sizes for local energy producers
  4. However, large industrial enterprises in India are moving away from cities and opening plants in rural areas to remain competitive
  5. Rising spatial disparities in energy efficiency within India is a worrying trend
  6. Developed states in India have improved energy efficiency. But electricity usage per unit of output is twice the level in lagging states compared to leading states
  7. There remains a huge potential for energy efficiency gains in most industries, ranging from 46-88% in the textile industry to 43-94% in paper and pulp industry, to 51-92% in the iron and steel industry

Measures required

  1. Energy efficiency gain policy will need to go beyond industries and enter our kitchen, buildings and transport
  2. Energy policy will also need to focus much more on rural regions that are the future drivers of growth
  3. Up to half of the global annual emissions could be reduced through more efficient use of energy in kitchens, residential buildings and transport

Way forward

  1. Improved energy efficiency is a win-win for everybody
  2. Energy-efficiency planning is prevalent globally, but the quality of targets and specifications could be improved
  3. There is a big market potential for scaling up energy efficiency through green mortgage, green bonds, tax incentives, credit lines with banks for energy efficiency activities, and public-private partnerships in energy sector investments
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Accounting methods of climate fund questionedIOCR


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not Much

Mains level:  Assessing developed countries ambitious climate actions


  • The Finance Ministry has issued a ‘discussion paper’ that has criticized the accounting methods used by developed countries to report how much money they have given, so far, to developing countries to address climate change.

Accounting methods under lens

  1. Accounting procedures, regarding the flow of climate finance, is one of the most controversial issues being debated at COP Katowice, Poland.
  2. Countries have gathered to agree upon a ‘Rule Book’ to implement the Paris Agreement of 2015, that commits countries to ensure the earth doesn’t warm 2C beyond pre-industrial levels.

Not delivering their Pledges

  1. In 2019, developed countries are expected to make available $100 billion annually to developing countries, according to a 2010 agreement in Cancun.
  2. In 2016, developed countries published a road map to $100 billion, which claimed that public climate finance levels had reached $41 billion per year in 2013-14.
  3. In 2015, India had disputed this figure arguing it was only $ 2.2 billion.
  4. The 2017 numbers also tell a similar story. Only around 12% of total pledges to climate funds have actually materialized into disbursements.

Discontent over meager Climate Funds

  1. India has argued that the definition of climate finance in the UNFCCC has remained “imprecise and incomplete.”
  2. There was no clarity on whether the developed countries’ commitment to ‘provide funds’ meant funds committed or those that made it to their intended recipients.
  3. The total pledges to the Green Climate Fund, the largest multilateral fund, were a “meagre” $10.3 billion.
  4. Further, most of the total climate finance has flowed into mitigation (a reference to preventing carbon dioxide from being emitted).
  5. The growth in the reported climate specific finance actually slowed down from 24% between 2014 and 2015 to 14% between 2015 and 2016, the paper notes, quoting a report by the finance committee of the UN that manages climate-affairs.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Act together and quickly on climate changeop-ed snap


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Indian Council of Agricultural Research, COP24, Paris Agreement

Mains level: Various reports highlighting the impact of climate change and need of urgent measures by all nations


India’s vulnerability to climate change

  1. A recent review by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, a wing of the agriculture ministry, predicts that crops, plantations and livestock in 151 districts (one-fifth of India’s districts) are susceptible to the impact of climate change
  2. In a recent report, the United Nations highlighted that people exposed to natural hazards in the poorest nations are seven times more likely to die than a similar person in the richest nations
  3. The “protection gap” between the rich and the poor is evidently wide enough
  4. It is little wonder then that India, and even China, want to set and meet “bold and ambitious targets” under a global agreement, despite the non-participation of the US, which is the world’s second-largest carbon emitter

Challenges in achieving climate change goals

  1. Even as India strives to meet its goals, the bigger challenge remains the lack of consensus on climate action among the developing and developed countries
  2. In November, India held two meetings with like-minded developing countries to collectively make a big issue of technology transfer and climate funding from the developed world
  3. While the issue of climate funding dates back to Cancun in 2010—when rich nations first made a commitment to creating a green corpus in order to help countries like India purchase new technology—there has been little money to show eight years down the line
  4. For India to meet its national targets, and for global human-caused CO2 emissions to reach “net zero” by 2050, advanced technology to capture carbon has to be more widely available
  5. While the Paris Agreement requires that developed countries “shall provide financial resources to assist developing countries with respect to both mitigation and adaptation”, there is a continuing lack of clarity on the release of these funds and the modalities regarding its accountability and use

Importance of COP24

  1. The exit of the US from the Paris Agreement; a slew of recent studies which bring the window of irretrievable planetary change much closer (to 2040); and the glacial pace in effecting substantial carbon emission cuts have cast a pall of gloom
  2. COP24 is significant as it is expected to finalize guidelines for implementation of the Paris Agreement adopted in 2016
  3. The rulebook negotiations would be central to the Katowice conference, in the background of differences prevailing between developing and developed countries over its contents

India’s firm commitments

  1. India’s self-declared national target is to achieve 40% electric power generation from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 and reduce the emission intensity of its gross domestic product by 33-35% from the 2005 level
  2. In the inaugural session of COP24 in Katowice, Poland, India reaffirmed that it is on track to meet these targets
  3. The country has also installed 72GW of renewable energy capacity
  4. The massive push towards renewable energy is a result of India’s leading role in promoting the International Solar Alliance (ISA), which pledged to generate 1,000GW of solar power capacity by 2030

Need of fulfilling UNFCCC targets

  1. If the world wants to save the poor and vulnerable who account for more than half of the world’s population, the global temperature rise has to be curtailed at 1.5 °C
  2. The next 15 years are critical for action on climate change and any delay would only render it impossible to limit the level of planetary warming to even 2°C
  3. Absolute economic losses might be concentrated in high-income countries, but the human costs of disasters would fall on low and lower-middle-income countries

Way forward

  1. The need of the hour is to strike a balance between the adaptation and mitigation, but in a manner that it does not put any additional burden on developing economies
  2. COP24 should be able to frame guidelines, which are pragmatic and gives due consideration to the challenges and priorities of developing countries—their vulnerabilities and challenges, including poverty, food security, energy access, and public health
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Climate Vulnerable ForumIOCR


Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional & global groupings & agreements involving India &/or affecting India’s interests

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: CVF, Jumemmej Declaration

Mains level: International collaboration against threats posed by Climate Change


  • Leaders at the Climate Vulnerable Forum called on world’s governments to raise the ambition of their climate targets by 2020 in order to save vulnerable nations threatened by warming beyond 1.5 degrees Celsius.

About Climate Vulnerable Forum

  1. The Climate Vulnerable Forum is an international cooperation group of developing countries tackling global climate change.
  2. The CVF was founded by the Maldives government before the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, which sought to increase awareness of countries considered vulnerable.
  3. United Nations agencies collaborate in implementing activities linked to the CVF with the UNDP, the lead organization supporting the forum’s work.
  4. The CVF was formed to increase the accountability of industrialized nations for the consequences of global climate change.
  5. Afghanistan, Nepal and Bhutan are its members, whereas India is one of the observer states.

World’s first Virtual Climate Summit

  1. The CVF is being held in Marshall Islands.
  2. Through the summit’s “Jumemmej Declaration”, the forum’s leaders committed to strengthening their national climate efforts by 2020 in order to pressure world governments to act.
  3. “Jumemmej” is a Marshallese word of seafaring origin calling for vigilance to keep a watch against threats.
  4. The carbon-free summit brought together leaders of the Climate Vulnerable Forum (CVF), which represents many of the countries most threatened by climate change.
  5. More than 40 heads of state, government and delegation also constituted the first global gathering of leaders of nations most threatened by climate change.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Scientists mull stratospheric barrier to curb global warmingIOCR


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Stratospheric Aerosol Injection (SAI)

Mains level: Artificial mitigations against Global Warming


Fencing Earth against Sunlight

  1. Spraying sun-dimming chemicals high above the earth to slow global warming could be remarkably inexpensive costing about $2.25 billion a year over a 15-year period, according to a study by U.S. scientists.
  2. Some researchers say the geo-engineering technique known as stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) could limit rising temperatures that are causing climate change.

What are Stratospheric Sulphur Aerosols?

  1. Stratospheric sulfur aerosols are sulfur-rich particles which exist in the stratosphere region of the Earth’s atmosphere.
  2. The layer of the atmosphere in which they exist is known as the Junge layer, or simply the stratospheric aerosol layer.
  3. These particles consist of a mixture of sulfuric acid and water.
  4. They are created naturally, such as by photochemical decomposition of sulfur-containing gases, e.g. carbonyl sulfide.
  5. Sulfur aerosols are common in the troposphere as a result of pollution with sulfur dioxide from burning coal, and from natural processes.
  6. Volcanoes are a major source of particles in the stratosphere as the force of the volcanic eruption propels sulfur-containing gases into the stratosphere.

Stratospheric Aerosol Injection (SAI)

  1. Under SAI delivery of precursor sulfide gases such as sulfuric acid, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) by artillery, aircraft and balloons has under study.
  2. This proposed method could counter most climatic changes, take effect rapidly, have very low direct implementation costs, and be reversible in its direct climatic effects.
  3. It would involve the use of huge hoses, cannons or specially designed aircraft to spray large quantities of sulphate particles into the upper layer of the atmosphere to act as a reflective barrier against sunlight.
  4. Total costs estimated to launch a hypothetical SAI effort 15 years from now would be $3.5 billion and average annual operating costs would be about $2.25 billion a year over 15 years.
  5. Discounting other methods of deployment because of cost and feasibility, the research assumes a special aircraft can be designed to fly at an altitude of about 20 km and carry a load of 25 tonnes.

Benefits of the SAI

  • Mimics a natural process
  • Technological feasibility
  • Economic and feasible Cost
  • Efficiency

Possible side effects

  • Tropospheric Ozone depletion
  • Whitening of the sky
  • Tropopause warming and the humidification of the stratosphere
  • Health effects
  • Stratospheric temperature and circulation change
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

BASIC nations push for ‘climate finance’IOCR


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: BASIC Countries

Mains level:  Importance of Finance for Green Initiatives


  • The 27th BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change in was held in New Delhi.

Reminder for Developed Countries NDCs

  1. Ahead of the United Nations Conference of Parties (COP) in December, Environment Ministers and top climate change negotiators from Brazil, South Africa, India and China (BASIC) convened in Delhi
  2. The countries as a group would continue to push for developed countries on their earlier commitment to providing $100 billion annually from 2020.
  3. So far only a fraction of these monies have actually been provided.

COP-24 ahead

  1. This year’s edition of the COP the 24th such meeting will see representatives from at least 190 countries, think-tanks, and activists in Katowice, Poland.
  2. Members will try to agree on a Rule Book that will specify how countries will agree to take forward commitments taken at the 21st COP in Paris in 2015.
  3. At Paris, countries had agreed to take steps to limit global warming to 2C below pre-industrial levels and “as far as possible” limit it to 1.5C before the end of the century.
  4. A key aspect to make this possible is climate finance, but countries so far aren’t agreed on what constitutes climate finance.

Importance of Finance

  1. Finance is one of the critical enablers of climate actions in developing countries along with technology development and transfer and capacity-building support.
  2. Any regression or slow progress on these will hamper the progress of developing countries towards achieving higher ambition in their actions.
  3. Public finance in the form of grants and concessional finance is required for climate actions.

Importance of Public Finance

  1. Developed countries have not fulfilled their climate finance commitments of mobilizing USD 100 billion per annum by 2020.
  2. BASIC meet encouraged developed countries to scale up their financial support and finalise a new collective finance goal to inform parties for future action through NDCs.
  3. China too said that claims on finances provided so far by the developed countries were disputable.

Way Forward

  1. In the run-up to the climate conference, India has had meetings with several countries to firm up a key plank of the forthcoming negotiations on transparency.
  2. There should be a mechanism in place for countries for reporting their emissions inventory, steps taken and how other countries could be certain that this was being done truthfully.
  3. The BASIC bats for agree-upon norms of quality and transparency.


BASIC countries

  1. The BASIC countries are a bloc of four large newly industrialized countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China – formed by an agreement on 28 November 2009.
  2. The four committed to act jointly at the Copenhagen climate summit, including a possible united walk-out if their common minimum position was not met by the developed nations.
  3. This emerging geopolitical alliance, initiated and led by China, then brokered the final Copenhagen Accord with the United States.
  4. The grouping is working to define a common position on emission reductions and climate aid money, and to try to convince other countries to sign up to the Copenhagen Accord.
  5. However, in January 2010, the grouping described the Accord as merely a political agreement and not legally binding, as is argued by the US and Europe.
  6. The four countries also said they will announce their plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 31 January 2010 as agreed in Copenhagen.
  7. This move was apparently intended to share richer nations into increasing their funding for climate mitigation in poorer nations.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Report sees climate risk from rise in Indian AC unitsDOMR


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Montreal Protocol, Kigali Agreement

Mains level: Prevention of use of Ozone Depleting Substances


  • By 2022, India is expected to have one-fourth of the world’s air conditioning units, and the risks to climate from this could be immense, according to a report.

Refrigerants are the most harmful

  1. The refrigerants (coolants) used for cooling are the major contributors to global warming.
  2. If left unchecked, they could cause global temperatures to rise by 0.5 degrees Celsius.
  3. A technology solution that could help to reduce the impact by one-fifth and ensure that air conditioning units use 75% less electricity is the need of hour.
  4. A technology solution would significantly reduce the burden on electricity grids and also save ₹109 trillion ($ 1.5 trillion).


  1. Hydrofluorocarbons are organic compounds containing hydrogen, Carbon, and fluorine.
  2. They are commonly used as substitutes for Ozone depleting substances like Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and are used in refrigerators and air-conditioners.

Phasing out HFCs

  1. In 2016, India was a signatory to Kigali Agreement with 107 countries to “substantially phase” out hydro fluorocarbons (HFC), by 2045.
  2. This move was aimed to prevent a potential 0.5 C rise in global temperature by 2050.
  3. HFCs are a family of gases that are largely used in refrigerants at home and in car air-conditioners.
  4. India, China, the United States and Europe have committed themselves to reducing the use of HFC by 85% by 2045.


Kigali Agreement

Please navigate to the page:

Kigali agreement: Prospects and Issues

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Oceans heating faster: studyIOCR


Mains Paper 1: Geography | Climate Change and changes in critical geographical features

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not Much

Mains level:  Oceanic Warming


More Absorption of Heat

  1. The world’s oceans have absorbed 60% more heat than previously thought over the last quarter of a century, leaving Earth more sensitive still to the effects of climate change.
  2. According to a recent assessment, scientists from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said that the world’s oceans have absorbed 90% of the temperature rise caused by man-made carbon emissions.

More accurate method to tally

  1. But new research published in the journal Nature used a novel method of measuring ocean temperature.
  2. It found that for each of the last 25 years, oceans had absorbed heat energy equivalent to 150 times the amount of electricity mankind produces annually.
  3. While those studies relied on tallying the excess heat produced by known man-made greenhouse gas emissions, scientists focussed on two gases found naturally in the atmosphere — Oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  4. Both gases are soluble in water, but the rate at which water absorbs them decreases as it warms.

Accurate estimates

  1. By measuring atmospheric oxygen and CO2 for each year, scientists were able to more accurately estimate how much heat oceans had absorbed on a global scale.
  2. IPCC data show that oceans have warmed by 6.5 degrees Celsius every decade since 1991.
  3. The IPCC warns that drastic measures need taking in order to limit global warming to 1.5 Celsius by the end of the century but the world produced a record amount of carbon emissions in 2017
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Odisha launches disaster alert system for its coastStates in News


Mains Paper 3: Disaster Management | Disaster & disaster management

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: EWDS

Mains level: Need for Weather forecasting precision and vulnerability mapping of Coastal States



  • The Odisha government has launched the Early Warning Dissemination System, the first-of-its-kind technology in India, to simultaneously warn coastal communities and fisherfolk about impending cyclone and tsunami through siren towers.

Early Warning Dissemination System (EWDS)

  1. The EWDS, a collaborative effort of the Central and State governments, has been implemented under the assistance of World Bank.
  2. It comprises technologies such as satellite-based mobile data voice terminals, digital mobile radio, mass messaging system and universal communication interface for interoperability.
  3. The innovative warning system would alert people about disasters such as floods and cyclone.
  4. Fishermen fishing in deep sea can also be reached via mass SMS on their mobile phones through EWDS.
  5. It is a part of the last-mile connectivity programme under National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project and aims to inform the last man living near the sea in case of an impending cyclone.
  6. Six coastal districts —Balasore, Bhadrak, Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapara, Puri and Ganjam — have been covered under the EWDS.
  7. Sirens will go off from 122 towers installed along the 480-km-long coast of the State if a button is pressed in the State emergency centre in Bhubaneshwar.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

GCF approves 43 $ million to boost climate resilience for India’s coastal communitiesIOCR


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: GCF

Mains level:  Utility of the GCF in tackling Climate Change


GCF Fund for India

  1. A Green Climate Fund has approved USD 43.4 million for enhancing climate resilience for millions of people living in India’s coastal communities as part of its efforts to combat extreme impacts of climate change.
  2. The new project will be supported through the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Importance of the Funding

  1. It is an essential step for India in reaching its goals outlined in the Paris Agreement and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  2. India’s coastal areas are quite vulnerable to climate change and this project focuses on selected vulnerable areas of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha states.
  3. The new project, with the GCF assistance, will not only help enhance resilience and adaptability, but also lead to emissions reduction while providing support to local communities for their livelihoods.
  4. The project is focused on providing tangible benefits for women, female-headed households, young people and the elderly, and members of Scheduled Castes and Tribes.

Protection against Threats

  1. India’s coastline is expected to be among the regions most affected by climate change globally.
  2. The Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are both predicted to be subject to extreme climate variability, with the frequency and intensity of cyclones and extreme weather events projected to increase.
  3. According to a report from the World Bank, an increase in global mean surface temperatures of 2ºC will make India’s monsoon highly unpredictable.
  4. It also says that a 4ºC increase would result in an extremely wet monsoon (which currently has a chance of occurring only once in 100 years) occurring every 10 years by the end of the century.
  5. India has about 6,740 km2 of mangroves, including some of the largest mangrove forests in the world.
  6. Mangrove cover along India’s coastline has decreased by 50 per cent in some areas, largely because of human pressures, is further predicted to be dangered by Sea level rise.

Projects to be undertaken with the Fund

  1. Over 3.5 million tonnes of CO2 will be sequestered through restored ecosystems over the next 30 years.
  2. To protect life on land and below water as outlined in the 2030 Agenda, project activities will focus on the restoration and conservation of over 15,000 hectares of mangroves, coral reefs, sea grasses and salt marshes.
  3. To strengthen climate risk-informed coastal management and infrastructure planning, the project will create an online decision-support tool available via mobile phone for use by government officers, academic institutions, community members and scientists.
  4. Communities, including local youth, will be trained to work with scientists in monitoring ecosystem health and coastal ecology.
  5. The project will also build local knowledge of climate change and the associated risks via training and public education programmes.


Green Climate Fund

  1. The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a fund established within the framework of the UNFCCC as an operating entity of the Financial Mechanism to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
  2. The GCF is based in the Incheon, South Korea.
  3. The objective of the Green Climate Fund is to “support projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing country Parties using thematic funding windows”.
  4. The Copenhagen Accord established during the 2009 COP-15 in Copenhagen mentioned the “Copenhagen Green Climate Fund”.
  5. The fund was formally established during the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Cancun as a fund within the UNFCCC framework.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

China’s melting glacier draws tourists amid climate worriesIOCRPriority 1


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Third pole, Rivers originating/connected to it

Mains level: Impact of global warming on Third pole and how it could affect Asia/India

Third pole under threat

  1. Third Pole is a region in Central Asia with the world’s third-largest store of ice
  2. The region encompasses the Himalaya-Hindu Kush mountain ranges and the Tibetan Plateau
  3. Scientists conducting research in the area have warned of disturbing global warming trends
  4. Temperatures there have increased by 1.5 degrees – more than double the global average
  5. The glacier has lost 60% of its mass and shrunk 250 m since 1982, according to a 2018 report in the Journal of Geophysical Research
  6. Since 2005, the rate at which the Third Pole’s glaciers are melting has almost doubled
  7. Research has also found that more than 500 small glaciers have disappeared altogether and the biggest ones are shrinking rapidly

Importance of the third pole

  1. If the present trends continue, they could affect the lives of 1.3 billion people
  2. 10 of Asia’s largest rivers begin here, including the Yellow River and Yangtze river in China, the Irrawaddy river in Myanmar, the Ganges, which flows through India and Bangladesh, and the trans-boundary Mekong river
  3. It is estimated that the water that flows from the Third Pole supports 120 million people directly through irrigation systems, and a total of 1.3 billion indirectly through river basins in China, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan
  4. The continuous glacier melting will be catastrophic for the 1.3 billion people who depend on its water
  5. While initially more water is expected to pour into river basins, causing flooding, eventually that will dry up, resulting in drought and desertification

Global warming is not the only cause

  1. Dust and pollution from car exhausts and coal burners is settling on the ice, causing it to absorb the rays of the sun, rather than reflect them away

With inputs from World Economic Forum article: There is a third pole on earth, and it’s melting quickly

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

India’s first ever National Environment Survey to start in Jan 2019Prelims OnlyPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: National Environment Survey

Mains level:  Utility of the survey in decision-making related to environmental concerns.



  • India’s first ever National Environment Survey (NES) will be kicked off from 55 districts across 24 states and three Union Territories in January, 2019.

National Environment Survey (NES)

  1. The Environmental Information System (ENVIS) will conduct the survey through its hubs and resource partners across the country.
  2. The NES will rank all the districts on their environmental performance and document their best green practices.
  3. The earliest the first set of complete green data from the survey will be available is 2020, providing an important tool in the hands of policy-makers for decision making at all levels – district, state and national.
  4. The survey will be done through a grid-based approach, using grids measuring 9×9 km.
  5. It will collect comprehensive data on various environmental parameters such as air, water, soil quality; emission inventory; solid, hazardous and e-waste; forest & wildlife; flora & fauna; wetlands, lakes, rivers and other water bodies.
  6. It will also assess carbon sequestration potential of all the districts across the country.

Utility of the Survey

  1. At present, the country has secondary data on most of these parameters.
  2. The NES for the first time will provide primary data on all the green heads in the same way that the National Sample Survey (NSS) periodically collects various socio-economic data.
  3. The first set of complete green data from the survey will be available is 2020 providing an important tool in the hands of policy-makers for decision making at all levels – district, state and national.

Other details

  1. The first set of data will be compiled in one year because it needs to cover seasonal cycles in terms of air pollution and flora & fauna.
  2. Presently the survey is planned for 55 districts across the country.
  3. All 716 districts in the country are expected to be surveyed in a period of three to four years.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Another warning on warmingop-ed snap


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: IPCC, Paris conference, NDCs

Mains level: Key recommendations of IPCC report on climate change


IPCC report on global warming

  1. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has just released a special report on global warming of 1.5°C over pre-industrial temperatures
  2. Produced speedily, it provides details on how the global response to climate change needs to be strengthened within the broader context of sustainable development and continuing efforts to eradicate poverty
  3. The impacts of 1.5°C of warming and the possible development pathways by which the world could get there are its main focus

Rising temperatures

  1. If nations do not mount a strenuous response against climate change, average global temperatures, which have already crossed 1°C, are likely to cross the 1.5°C mark around 2040
  2. It was in 2015, at the Paris climate conference, that the global community made a pact to pursue efforts to limit warming to within 1.5°C — half a degree below the previous target of 2°C
  3. For most people, the difference between 1.5°C and 2°C may seem trivial when daily temperatures fluctuate much more widely but the reference here is to global average temperatures

Effects of 0.5-degree increase in temperature

  1. Half a degree of warming makes a world of difference to many species whose chance of survival is significantly reduced at the higher temperature
  2. At 1.5°C warming, ocean acidification will be reduced (compared to 2°C warming), with better prospects for marine ecosystems
  3. There will likely be less intense and frequent hurricanes, not as intense droughts and heat waves with smaller effects on crops, and the reduced likelihood of an ice-free Arctic in summers
  4. Studies conservatively estimate sea levels to rise on average by about 50 cm by 2100 in a 2°C warmer world, 10 cm more than for 1.5°C warming
  5. The risks to food security, health, fresh water, human security, livelihoods and economic growth are already on the rise and will be worse in a 2°C world
  6. The number of people exposed to the complex and compounded risks from warming will also increase and the poorest — mostly in Asia and Africa — will suffer the worst impacts
  7. Adaptation, or the changes required to withstand the temperature rise, will also be lower at the lower temperature limit

Strategies to limit temperature rise

  • Limited overshoot
  1. To limit warming to around 1.5°C with no or limited overshoot, global net carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions need to decline by about 45% from 2010 levels by 2030 and reach net zero around mid-century
  2. In comparison, to limit warming to just below 2°C, the reductions needed are about 20% by 2030 and reach net zero around 2075
  • Permit temperatures to exceed 1.5°C temporarily before coming back down
  1. Emissions need to peak early within the next decade or so, and then drop
  2. To stay below 1.5°C, the transitions required by energy systems and human societies, in land use, transport, and infrastructure, would have to be rapid and on an unprecedented scale with deep emission reductions

Role of NDCs

  1. Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are commitments that each country made prior to the Paris conference
  2. Even if all the NDCs are implemented, the world is expected to warm by over 3°C
  3. Contributions from the U.S. and other rich countries to the Green Climate Fund and other funding mechanisms for the purpose of mitigation and adaptation are vital to reach the goals of the NDCs

Way forward

  1. Disputes over the implementation of the Paris Agreement at numerous meetings depict the deep divides among rich countries, emerging economies and least developed countries
  2. This special report poses options for the global community of nations
  3. Each will have to decide whether to play politics on a global scale for one’s own interests or to collaborate to protect the world and its ecosystems as a whole
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] A local approach to climate change


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, IPCC

Mains level: Threats posed by climate change and what can be done to reduce these threats


Recent IPCC report on climate change

  1. In the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change has reported that the world could hit the 1.5°C mark as early as 2030, with any further rise having far-reaching consequences
  2. The consequences of climate change—ranging from a rise in mean temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns to a rise in drought frequency, flood hazards and coastal risk—will hit the global south particularly hard
  3. Another recent study in Nature Climate Change quantified the domestic social costs of carbon emissions. At approximately $90/tonne, the cost to India is the highest in the world

Role of local governments

  1. The UN report notes that the different pathways to limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require rapid and far-reaching transitions in energy, land, urban and infrastructure (including transport and buildings), and industrial systems
  2. Much of that falls in the domain of state or urban policy
  3. National goals and policies are necessary, but the stark difference in pollution levels between industrialized states and forested states, for instance, demands a complementary localized approach
  4. Cities contribute a disproportionate share of greenhouse gas emissions
  5. Especially in India, they are also the most susceptible to climate change consequences, given that large segments of the urban population are concentrated along coastlines, rivers and floodplains

Other factors 

  1. The main culprits when it comes to emissions are the power and transport sectors
  2. Looking at the transport sector through the prisms of land-use planning and transit-oriented development would be useful here
  3. The water and sanitation sectors are other pressure points, responsible for vast amounts of methane emissions
  4. Methane has been observed to be 25 times more potent than CO2 as a greenhouse gas but is still dismissed as a temporary pollutant

Gaps in city planning

  1. Shoddy planning, tardy implementation and a paucity of qualified town planners have created cities with no mixed-use planning, lengthy daily commutes, energy-inefficient buildings, and unsustainable mobility and spatial development plans
  2. An increase in the stock of municipal corporation personnel specializing in environmental engineering, disaster management etc and their integration into policy-making and administrative processes is essential

Gaps in fiscal and administrative devolution

  1. Empowered city mayors and local councils around the world are playing influential roles in combating climate change
  2. Beijing and London are prime examples
  3. A number of US cities and states pledged to remain committed to the accord following Trump’s decision of pulling the country out of the Paris Accord

Way Forward

  1. Climate change is the tragedy of the commons
  2. This is particularly so in emerging economies like India where development imperatives can be overwhelming
  3. In the face of developed economies’ reluctance to respect it, the sort of intensive efforts outlined in the UN report will be difficult to pull off
  4. New Delhi is doing well to try and find the right mix for sustainable growth
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Explained: How to reach a 1.5-degree worldIOCRPrelims OnlyPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Highlights of the Report

Mains level:  Impacts of Global Warming


IPCC Report on Climate Change

  1. Preventing an extra single degree of heat could make a life-or-death difference in the next few decades for multitudes of people and ecosystems on this fast-warming planet.
  2. The Nobel Prize-winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued its gloomy report at a meeting in Incheon, South Korea.
  3. Global warming is likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052 if it continues to increase at the current rate, the report states.

Quick recap of IPCC

  1. IPCC  is a scientific government body under the UN established in 1988 by two UN organizations, the WMO and the UNEP and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly.
  2. The IPCC produces reports that support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is the main international treaty on climate change.
  3. IPCC reports cover the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.
  4. Membership of the IPCC is open to all members of the WMO and the UNEP.

Findings of the Report

  1. Half as many people would suffer from lack of water.
  2. There would be fewer deaths and illnesses from heat, smog and infectious diseases.
  3. Seas would rise nearly 4 inches (0.1 meters) less.
  4. Half as many animals with back bones and plants would lose the majority of their habitats.
  5. There would be substantially fewer heat waves, downpours and droughts.
  6. The West Antarctic ice sheet might not kick into irreversible melting.
  7. And it just may be enough to save most of the world’s coral reefs from dying.

The 1.5℃ Goal

  1. In 2010, international negotiators adopted a goal of limiting warming to 2°C since pre-industrial times. It’s called the 2° goal.
  2. In 2015, when the nations of the world agreed to the Paris climate agreement, they set dual goals — 2°C and a more demanding target of 1.5°C from pre-industrial times.
  3. The 1.5° was at the urging of vulnerable countries that called 2°C a death sentence.
  4. The world has already warmed 1°C since pre-industrial times, so the talk is really about the difference of another half-degree C from now.
  5. There is no definitive way to limit global temperature rise to 1.5 above pre-industrial levels.

Advantages of warming below 2

  1. The IPCC studies have looked at the physical impact on the land and ocean, as well as at the socio-economic impact, like health, malnutrition, food security and employment.
  2. Some examples:
  • Limiting global warming to 1.5°C could prevent around 3.3 million cases of dengue every year in Latin America and the Caribbean alone.
  • A World Bank report on Climate Change and Health, 2015 said that an additional 150 million people could be at risk from malaria if the temperature was allowed to increase beyond 2°C.
  • A study in the journal Climate Change in 2016 claimed that the world could have 25 million fewer undernourished people by the end of the century, if the 1.5°C goal was achieved.
  • A study published in PNAS in March 2017 said about 350 million additional people could be exposed to deadly heat waves if the warming increased to 2°C as compared to 1.5°C.
  • A study in Nature Climate Change in March 2018 said the 1.5°C could prevent 153 million premature deaths due to air pollution by 2100, as compared to the 2°C scenario.
  • A UNDP report in 2016 claimed that a 1.5°C strategy could create double the number of jobs in the energy sector by 2050.
  • Also, compared to the 1.5°C scenario, extreme weather events such as heavy rainfall and heat waves are likely to become more severe and frequent, and freshwater supply could fall sharply, in a 2°C world.

How to reach the 0.5 ℃ target?

  1. As of now, the world is striving to prevent the temperature rise beyond 2 degrees Celsius, in accordance with the stated objective of the Paris Agreement of 2015.
  2. To meet that target, the aim is to reduce greenhouse gases by only 20 per cent, from 2010 levels, by the year 2030 and achieve a net-zero emission level by the year 2075.
  3. Net-zero is achieved when the total emissions is balanced by the amount of absorption or removal of carbon dioxide through natural sinks or technological interventions.

Is the 1.5°C target attainable?

  1. The IPCC report suggests possible pathways to attain the 1.5°C objective.
  2. Any such path would involve much sharper and quicker emission cuts by big emitters like China, the US, the European Union and India, than what these countries currently plan to do.
  3. However, their publicly declared planned actions currently are not big enough to achieve even the 2°C target.
  4. In Paris in 2015, the countries had acknowledged that if they failed to do more, annual emissions of carbon dioxide could touch 55 billion tonnes in 2030.

Problem of CO2

  1. Carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas responsible for global warming, stays in the atmosphere for 100-150 years.
  2. That means even if all greenhouse gas emissions were to somehow miraculously stop all of a sudden, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would remain at the current levels for many years to come.
  3. That is why there is a significant interest these days in technologies that can physically remove the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and store it somewhere, either temporarily or permanently.
  4. Caron Dioxide Removal (CDR) would be used to compensate for residual emissions.
  5. CDR is a reference to physical removal of the stock of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to reduce its concentrations.
  6. But the technologies for CDR are still undeveloped and untested.

Way Forward: Nothing is Impossible

  1. Limiting warming to the lower goal is not impossible but will require unprecedented changes
  2. To limit warming to the lower temperature goal, the world needs “rapid and far-reaching” changes in energy systems, land use, city and industrial design, transportation and building use, the report said.
  3. Meeting the more ambitious goal would require immediate, draconian cuts in emissions of heat-trapping gases and dramatic changes in the energy field.
  4. It is up to governments to decide whether those unprecedented changes are acted upon.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

PM Modi gets UN’s ‘Champions of the Earth’ awardIOCRPrelims OnlyPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: ISA

Mains level: Achievements of ISA



‘Champions of the Earth’ Award

  1. Our PM Narendra Modi has been awarded with the UN’s highest environmental honour for his leadership of the International Solar Alliance and pledge to eliminate single use plastic in India by 2022.
  2. Six of the world’s most outstanding environmental changemakers have been recognised with the UN’s highest environmental honour.
  3. The laureates are recognised for a combination of bold, innovative, and tireless efforts to tackle some of the most urgent environmental issues of our times.

Pioneering Work

  1. French President Mr. Macron and PM Modi have been jointly recognised in the Policy Leadership category for their pioneering work in championing the International Solar Alliance.
  2. They have been promoting new areas of cooperation on environmental action, including Macron’s work on the Global Pact for the Environment and Modi’s unprecedented pledge to eliminate all single-use plastic in India by 2022.

Other details

  • Cochin International Airport has also been honoured this year with the award for Entrepreneurial Vision, for its leadership in the use of sustainable energy.


Champions of the Earth

  1. The United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment) established Champions of the Earth in 2005 as an annual awards programme to recognize outstanding environmental leaders from the public and private sectors, and from civil society.
  2. Typically, five to seven laureates are selected annually.
  3. Each laureate is invited to an award ceremony to receive a trophy, give an acceptance speech and take part in a press conference.
  4. No financial awards are conferred.
  5. This awards programme is a successor to UNEP’s Global 500 Roll of Honour.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[pib] India first country in the world to develop Cooling Action PlanPIBPrelims OnlyPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: ICAP and its provisions

Mains level: India’s efforts in phasing out Ozone Depleting Substances



On the eve of the World Ozone Day (17th Sept.), MoEFCC underlined the need to work consistently under the aegis of the Montreal Protocol to phase out Ozone Depleting Substances.

India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP)

  1. MoEFCC released the draft India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) and a booklet on ‘Montreal Protocol – India’s Success Story’.
  2. India is the first country in world to develop such a document (ICAP), which addresses cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which can help reduce the cooling demand.
  3. The overarching goal is to provide sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all while securing environmental and socio-economic benefits for the society.
  4. The goals emerging from the suggested interventions stated in ICAP are:
  • Reduction of cooling demand across sectors by 20% to 25 % by year 2037-38,
  • Reduction of refrigerant demand by 25% to 30% by year 2037-38,
  • Reduction of cooling energy requirements by 25% to 40% by year 2037-38, and
  • Training and certification of 100,000 servicing sector technicians by the year 2022-23, in synergy with Skill India Mission.

Long -term objectives of ICAP

  1. The broad objectives of the India Cooling Action Plan include –
  • Assessment of cooling requirements across sectors in next 20 years and the associated refrigerant demand and energy use,
  • Map the technologies available to cater the cooling requirement including passive interventions, refrigerant-based technologies and alternative technologies such as not-in-kind technologies,
  • Suggest interventions in each sector to provide for sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all,
  • Focus on skilling of RAC service technicians, and
  • Develop an R&D innovation ecosystem for indigenous development of alternative technologies.

Montreal Protocol

  1. It is the only environmental treaty which enjoys universal ratification of 197 UN numbers countries.
  2. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has been recognized as the most successful international environment treaty in history.
  3. Its implementation has not only led to the phase-out of around 98% of ozone depleting chemicals, but also averted more than 135 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions.
  4. Nearly 2 million cases of skin cancer per year have been averted globally.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Greenhouse gas emissions from Indian paddy fields Very High: NY based StudyIOCRPrelims OnlyPriority 1


Mains Paper 1: Environment | Climate Change

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Highlights of the Study, CO2 Equivalents, GHGs

Mains level: The article comprehensively shows how agriculture impacts climate change.



  1. Rice farming across the world could be responsible for up to twice the level of climate impact relative to what was previously estimated, according to a study conducted in India.
  2. The study, published in PNAS, found that intermittently flooded rice farms can emit 45 times more nitrous oxide as compared to the maximum from continuously flooded farms that predominantly emit methane.

Highlights of the Study

  1. According to a global analysis by Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) in the US, methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice farms could have the same long-term warming impact as about 600 coal plants.
  2. The full climate impact of rice farming has been underestimated because nitrous dioxide emissions from intermittently flooded farms have not been included.
  3. The researchers investigated GHGs emission from rice farms across southern India.
  4. They found that nitrous oxide emissions from rice can contribute up to 99 % of the total climate impact of rice cultivation at a variety of intermittently flooded farms.
  5. These contribute to global warming far more than the estimate of 10% previously suggested by multiple global rice research organizations.

Methane emissions

  1. The researchers found an inverse correlation between methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice farming.
  2. Water and organic matter management techniques that reduce methane emissions can increase nitrous oxide emissions.
  3. This is crucial because nitrous oxide is a long-lived greenhouse gas that traps several times more heat in the atmosphere than methane over both 20 and 100-year time frames.

Impact of Rice Cultivation

  1. Rice is a critical source of nutrition for the world’s rapidly growing population, providing more calories to humans than any other food.
  2. However, growing rice is also resource-intensive: rice cultivation covers 11 % of the Earth’s arable land, consumes one-third of irrigation water.
  3. The researchers found that carefully chosen farming techniques can reduce net GHG emissions by as much as 90% by integrating shallow (mild-intermittent) flooding with co-management of nitrogen and organic matter.
  4. If all irrigated rice farmers only used the proposed shallow flooding instead of intense forms of intermittent flooding, estimates shows that the rice farms with irrigation have the potential to reduce their global climate impact by 60%.


CO2 equivalents

  1. Each greenhouse gas (GHG) has a different global warming potential (GWP) and persists for a different length of time in the atmosphere.
  2. The three main greenhouse gases (along with water vapour) and their 100-year global warming potential (GWP) compared to carbon dioxide are:
  • 1 x – carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • 25 x – methane (CH4) – I.e. Releasing 1 kg of CH4into the atmosphere is about equivalent to releasing 25 kg of CO2
  • 298 x – nitrous oxide (N2O)
  1. Water vapour is not considered to be a cause of man-made global warming because it does not persist in the atmosphere for more than a few days.
  2. There are other greenhouse gases which have far greater global warming potential (GWP) but are much less prevalent. These are sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and perfluorocarbons (PFCs).
  3. There are a wide variety of uses for SF6, HFCs, and PFCs but they have been most commonly used as refrigerants and for fire suppression.
  4. Many of these compounds also have a depleting effect on ozone in the upper atmosphere.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

UN sees 70% chance of El Nino event this yearPIBPrelims OnlyPriority 1

Image Source


Mains Paper 1: Geography | Salient features of World’s Physical Geography

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: El Nino, La Nino and ENSO

Mains level: Impact of El-Nino



  1. The UN said an El Nino event that could disrupt global weather is likely by the end of this year.
  2. The World Meteorological Organisation forecast a 70% chance of an El Nino developing by the end of this year.


  1. ENSO is nothing but El Nino Southern Oscillation.
  2. It is an irregular periodic variation of wind and sea surface temperature that occurs over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.
  3. ENSO affects the tropics (the regions surrounding the equator) and the subtropics (the regions adjacent to or bordering the tropics).
  4. This warming phase of ENSO is called El Nino, while the cooling phase is known as La Nina.
  5. An El Nino or La Nina episode lasts nine to 12 months. Some may prolong for years.
  6. Its average frequency is every 2 to 7 years. El Nino is more frequent than La Nina.

What characterizes El-Nino?

  1. El Nino is a climatic cycle characterized by high air pressure in the Western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern.
  2. In normal conditions, strong trade winds travel from east to west across the tropical Pacific, pushing the warm surface waters towards the western Pacific.
  3. The surface temperature could witness an increase of 8 degrees Celsius in Asian waters.
  4. At the same time, cooler waters rise up towards the surface in the eastern Pacific on the coasts of Ecuador, Peru, and Chile. This process called upwelling aids in the development of a rich ecosystem.

What are its causes?

  1. El Nino sets in when there is anomaly in the pattern.
  2. The westward-blowing trade winds weaken along the Equator and due to changes in air pressure, the surface water moves eastwards to the coast of northern South America.
  3. The central and eastern Pacific regions warm up for over six months and result in an El Nino condition and the temperature of the water could rise up to 10 degrees Fahrenheit above normal.
  4. Warmer surface waters increase precipitation and bring above-normal rainfall in South America, and droughts to Indonesia and Australia.

Effects of El-Nino

  1. El Nino favors eastern Pacific hurricanes and tropical storms. Record and unusual rainfall in Peru, Chile and Ecuador are linked to the climate pattern.
  2. El Nino reduces upwelling of cold water, decreasing the uplift of nutrients from the bottom of the ocean. This affects marine life and sea birds. The fishing industry is also affected.
  3. Drought and warming caused by El Nino can be widespread, affecting southern Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands.
  4. A recent WHO report on the health consequences of El Nino forecasts a rise in vector-borne diseases, including those spread by mosquitoes, in Central and South America.
  5. Cycles of malaria in India are also linked to El Nino.

Why is it a concern?

  1. From the current study, we learn that El Nino can exacerbate global warming and hence the process could become a vicious circle.
  2. A recent study that analysed data collected by NASA’s satellite, found that the massive event resulted in the release of over 3 billion tonnes of carbon into the atmosphere.
  3. This in turn pushed the carbon-dioxide concentration in the atmosphere to record levels.

La Nina

  1. La Nina is a climate pattern that describes the cooling of surface ocean waters along the tropical west coast of South America. It is considered to have the opposite effect of El Nino.
  2. It brings greater than normal rainfall in Southeast Asia and Australia, and causes drier-than-normal conditions in South America and the Gulf Coast of the United States.
  3. La Nina events sometimes follow El Nino events.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Saving the world by capturing emissionsop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: New methodologies available for carbon capture and their usefulness in India


Reducing carbon emissions

  1. Despite the growth of carbon emissions in 2017, we can limit the increase in global temperature
  2. To do so, we must not only reduce carbon emissions but also find a way of capturing existing emissions

Need for reducing carbon emissions

  1. Even if we miraculously stop emitting any carbon today, the planet will still undergo an average temperature increase of 0.6 degree Celsius because of the sheer amount of carbon already present in the atmosphere and oceans
  2. The hottest year on record without an El Nino event was 2017, with the average global temperature being one degree Celsius higher than pre-industrial levels
  3. The aim of the Paris agreement to limit the increase in average temperatures to 2 degrees Celsius in the short term and 1.5 degrees Celsius, in the long run, is now under serious threat

Renewable energy a ray of hope

  1. Global renewables-based electricity generation increased by 6.3% in 2017, now meeting a quarter of the world’s energy demand growth
  2. At the same time, the cost of such resources is falling rapidly
  3. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) estimates suggest that the global average cost of electricity generated from new onshore wind and solar photovoltaic sources already matches the cost of fossil fuel-fired electricity
  4. Continuous technology improvements and competitive procurement practices mean that the cost of these renewables will become significantly cheaper than fossil fuel sources by 2020

Shifting from oil-based to electricity based logistics

  1. Steady progress is also being made to shift the oil-dependent transport sector towards renewable options
  2. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimated that the number of electric vehicles rose from 1.98 million in 2016 to 3.11 million in 2017, an increase of more than 54%
  3. If battery costs continue to fall and countries implement policies that spur investment and help manufacturers achieve economies of scale this figures may keep rising

Using carbon capture technologies

  1. The capturing and storage of CO2 from coal plants can capture emissions quickly and safely
  2. It has floundered in the past, despite the technology being available because there is no market for stored CO2
  3. It can be promoted by:
  • Actively promoting innovations and technologies that facilitate the safe re-utilization, rather than just the storage, of CO2, thereby creating incentives for private investment
  • Appropriately valuing the social benefit of decarbonization and reducing the costs borne by CO2 storage companies accordingly
  • Adopting best practices from successful global CO2 capture programmes to develop the expertise needed

Seweed farming also a good prospect

  1. Farmed seaweed, with its exceptional ability to capture CO2 from the oceans and produce bio-digested methane which can be substituted for natural gas, can play a substantive role in reducing carbon emissions
  2. The relatively low production cost, the speed at which seaweed grows, the vast potential of the Indian coastline and the subsidies and grants offered by the government, are strong incentives for private sector expansion into seaweed farming

Way Forward

  1. With our future hanging in the balance, 2018–2020 is a critical time for countries to peak and then flatten their emissions trajectory, while simultaneously implementing ambitious solutions for reducing them at a pace
  2. Setting ambitious goals, scaling up infant technologies and fostering markets for capturing emissions will be key to mitigate climate change
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[pib] Environment Minister Releases India’s National REDD+ StrategyPIBPrelims OnlyPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: REDD+

Mains level: The newscard discusses India’s initiative to fulfill its commitment towards Paris Agreement.


REDD+ Strategy

  1. In simple terms, REDD+ means “Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation”, conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries.
  2. REDD+ aims to achieve climate change mitigation by incentivizing forest conservation.
  3. The strategy seeks to address drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and also developing a roadmap for enhancement of forest carbon stocks and achieving sustainable management of forests through REDD+ actions.
  4. The National REDD+ Strategy will soon be communicated to the UNFCCC.

Involving Tribal Cooperation

  1. MoEFCC has emphasized that the cooperation and involvement of the tribals, other forest dwelling people and the society as a whole, is crucial for the implementation of the REDD+ strategy.
  2. India’s National REDD+ strategy is one of the tools to achieve   India’s commitment to Paris Agreement.
  3. The REDD+ strategy will help the country to fulfill its NDC commitments and will also contribute to the livelihood of the forest dependent population.

Governing under REDD+

  1. A National Governing Council of REDD+ chaired by the Union Environment Minister at  the national level and two technical committees are being established for supporting the REDD+ implementation in the country.
  2. The REDD+ actions at the State level will be coordinated by the committee headed by the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (PCCF) & Head of Forest Force (HOFF) of the States.
  3. Paris agreement on climate change also recognizes role of forests in climate change mitigation and calls upon country Parties to take action to implement and support REDD+.

India’s NDC

  1. India has communicated in its Nationally Determined Contribution under Paris Agreement, that it will capture 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of Carbon dioxide through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
  2. India’s first biennial update report to UNFCCC has revealed that forests in India capture about 12% of India’s total GHG emissions.
  3. Thus, forestry sector in India is making a positive cost effective contribution for climate change mitigation.
  4. Complying with the UNFCCC decisions on REDD+, India has prepared its National REDD+ Strategy.
  5. The strategy includes India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change, Green India Mission and India’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to UNFCCC.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

As carbon dioxide levels rise, India faces big crop nutrition deficiency: studyIOCRPriority 1


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Varying effects of climate change

Impact of CO2 levels rise on crops

  1. According to a study led by the Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, India could be the country worst hit by the falling crop quality the world over due to rising carbon dioxide levels
  2. The study estimates that 50 million more people in India — the largest number anywhere in the world — could face zinc, iron and protein deficiency due to dipping crop quality

Findings from the study

  1. The study estimated that the world over, 175 million people could become zinc-deficient and 122 million protein-deficient by 2050 due to rising levels of carbon dioxide from human activity, which is making staple crops such as rice and wheat less nutritious
  2. It also found that more than 1 billion women and children could lose a large amount of their dietary iron intake, putting them at increased risk of anemia and other diseases

Why these changes?

  1. Humans tend to get a majority of key nutrients from plants: 63 per cent of dietary protein comes from vegetable sources, as well as 81 per cent of iron and 68 per cent zinc
  2. It has been shown that higher atmospheric levels of CO2 result in less nutritious crop yields
  3. Concentrations of protein, iron, and zinc are 3 percent to 17 percent lower when crops are grown in environments where CO2 concentrations are 550 parts per million (ppm), compared with crops grown under current atmospheric conditions, in which CO2 levels are just above 400 ppm

Malnutrition in children still a challenge

  1. According to National Family Health Survey-4, 38.4 per cent Indian children are stunted (low height for age), 21 per cent are wasted (low weight for height), 7.5 percent are severely wasted, and 35.7 per cent underweight
  2. Despite significant progress in reducing the rate of underweight children since 1990, Indian children still have the fourth worst global weight-for-age scores (the standard measure for underweight)
  3. Nearly 35% of Indian children continue to meet the criteria for being underweight, far above the developing country average of 20%
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Pulling back from the brinkop-ed snap


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Hothouse earth theory and its findings


Hothouse earth report

  1. A group of scientists have published a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences deliberating on how the planet might move into a high temperature “hothouse earth” pathway from where there would be no return
  2. The paper identifies a threshold beyond which the earth’s systems are no longer able to stabilise at intermediate rises in temperature
  3. The authors point out that technology trends and decisions taken in the next decade or two will determine the path of the earth system over the next hundreds of thousands of years

Delicately balanced system of earth

  1.  The earth and its systems have shifted between alternative states through long-term processes over its geological history
  2. We are living in a precariously equilibrated earth where the temperature is just right for ecosystems to flourish
  3. The Holocene, which began about 12,000 years ago, is the stable epoch during which Homo sapiens settled and developed agriculture and other technological innovations
  4. These led to social and economic transformations, which have brought the world to this juncture
  5. The delicate equilibrium of the biosphere/earth system has to do with processes that amplify or dampen warming

Positive & negative feedback in the atmosphere

  1. The melting of Greenland ice increases open waters that absorb more sunlight and then increase warming and cause further melting. This is a positive feedback
  2. With the increase in carbon dioxide (CO2), chemical-weathering increases and removes CO2 from the atmosphere over geological time — an example of a negative feedback
  3. When positive feedbacks become stronger than the negative ones, the system may change abruptly and get pushed out of equilibrium

Crossing thresholds

  1. A geophysical tipping point is a threshold beyond which a system moves from one stable state to another
  2. This study indicates that crossing a threshold (roughly determined to be about 2º Celsius warmer than pre-industrial times) would lead to the tumbling of a series of tipping points, like a set of dominoes
  3. The destruction of the Amazon forest due to wildfires, the loss of permafrost with warming, the weakening of CO2 absorption by the oceans or the melting of polar ice caps, among many other slow-moving catastrophes, are examples
  4. If many tipping points tumble beyond 2ºC, it would irrevocably disrupt ecosystems and societies and there would be runaway climate change, taking us to a hothouse earth

What can be done?

  1. Technological solutions alone are insufficient. Fundamental shifts in social values and economic mores are essential
  2. The hothouse path could still be avoided and the earth could stabilise at a rise below 2º C through infrastructural, societal and institutional transformations
  3. Incremental changes along with increasing contributions from renewables and improvements in energy efficiencies would not be sufficient
  4. There should instead be major changes in technological innovation, behaviour, values and governance
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Rising temperature to cut living standards of 600 million IndiansPriority 1


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Actual impact of climate change on India in coming years

One-third Indians at risk

  1. Six hundred million Indians could see a dip in living standards by 2050 if temperatures continue to rise at their current pace
  2. India’s average annual temperatures are expected to rise by 1°C to 2°C by 2050, even if preventive measures are taken along the lines of those recommended by the Paris climate change agreement of 2015
  3. If no measures are taken, average temperatures in India are predicted to increase by 1.5°C to 3°C

Impact on states

  1. Seven of the 10 severest or most vulnerable ‘hotspots’ in India would be located in Maharashtra
  2. The rest would be in Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh
  3. In the absence of major climate mitigation, nearly 148 million Indians will be living in these severe hotspots in 2050

Basis for study

  1. Economists at the World Bank correlated these climate projections with household consumption data (a proxy for living standards) in Nepal, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and extrapolated it to 2050
  2. Using publicly available climate models that project how rising temperatures will affect rainfall and seasons, the researchers conclude that if emissions continued at the current pace, India could see a 1.5% decline in its GDP by 2030
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Sustaining earth for the futureop-ed snapPriority 1


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Anthropocene era, Half Earth project, India’s forest policy

Mains level: Changing biodiversity patterns in light of climate change and India’s efforts to deal with them


India’s rich fabric of biodiversity

  1. India is blessed with an extraordinary richness of life
  2. A myriad of unusual and exquisite species occur in the countless ecosystems spread across our vast lands, rivers, and oceans

Change in structure

  1. This unique bio-cultural tapestry has been resilient to change for centuries, but with the unleashing of unprecedented economic and environmental forces, it is now subject to increased wear and tear
  2. These forces could even destroy our tapestry of life, cultures and traditions — and in the process, ourselves
  3. Modern extinction rates are more than a thousand times greater than the rates of the geological past
  4. In recent decades, populations of more than 40% of large mammals have declined and insect biomass has decreased by more than 75%
  5. Natural habitats all over the world have shrunk

Start of Anthropocene era

  1. We have entered what scientists are calling the Anthropocene era
  2. It is a new period in earth’s history when humans have begun to impact our environment at the global scale

Half Earth project

  1. To protect life on earth, the famous American biologist E.O. Wilson has described an ambitious project he calls “Half-Earth”
  2. He calls for formally protecting 50% of the earth’s land surface in order to conserve our rapidly disappearing natural heritage

India’s efforts & policy interventions required

  1. India’s forest policy calls for forests to cover almost a third of the country, and if we include other natural systems such as grasslands and wetlands, the area to be protected could amount to almost 40%
  2. We need a massive new effort to catalog, map, and monitor life, using fundamentally different approaches
  3. This mapping effort would include not only all life, including cultures, ethnicities, and dialects but also the use of biodiversity and its vulnerability to changes in land use and climate
  4. Our institutions need to place far more emphasis on the scientific study of life at higher levels
  5. We also need a comprehensive inquiry into how our society is shaping as well as responding to changes in biodiversity

Way forward

  1. The India Biodiversity Portal has the ambitious goal of mapping India’s biodiversity with the engagement of civil society
  2. The government and private philanthropy need to bring together multiple stakeholders to develop a programme to document, map and monitor all life
  3. There is also a need to develop a new knowledge enterprise to fully explore various dimensions of biodiversity and ecosystem services and their critical link to our future
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Arctic sea route not possible even if it is ice free


Mains Paper 2: IR | Effect of policies & politics of developed & developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Arctic Council

Mains level: Untapped resources in arctic and their importance for India

Navigation in the Arctic not possible

  1. The Arctic would still not be an easily navigable route even after the fast melting ice
  2. It will not be practical for container traffic, it may be ok for bulk carriers carrying gas
  3. Despite no ice, the waters would be tough to navigate due to sub-zero temperatures and would pose serious challenges to ships

Why such talks?

  1. The Arctic region which has permanently frozen ice is melting at an increasing rate due to global warming and is expected to be ice free by 2060
  2. Already several countries have sent their ships and icebreakers in the summer months to demonstrate the navigability
  3. It is seen as an alternate shipping route to cut time and costs and also circumvent the global choke points

Impact on India

  1. China and Japan are investing in infrastructure development in the Arctic
  2. There is an increasing concern in India as China makes inroads in the strategically important Arctic region which has a large amount of untapped minerals and fossil fuels

Arctic Council meeting

  1. Finland is holding the Chairmanship of the Arctic Council from 2017-19
  2. It has called for a greater Indian role in the region as an observer in the Arctic Council


Arctic Council

  1. The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum which addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and people living in the Arctic region
  2. The first step towards the formation of the Council occurred in 1991 when eight Arctic countries signed the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS)
  3. The Ottawa Declaration of 1996 formally established the Arctic Council
  4. The Ottawa Declaration named eight members of the Arctic Council: Canada, Russia, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, the United States, Sweden, and Finland
  5. Observer states consist of the following (2017): Germany, Netherlands, Poland, United Kingdom, France, Spain, China, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Switzerland
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Is it possible to slow global warming?op-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: UNFCCC, SBI, SBSTA, etc.

Mains level: The roadblocks infront of the Paris Agreement.


UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting

  1. A two-week-long meeting was recently concluded in Bonn (April 30-May 10) where the operational guidelines for implementing the Paris Agreement were to be discussed and agreed upon by all parties
  2. This meeting was the 48th session of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) and Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), referred to as SB48
  3. With insufficient progress towards goals, another interim meeting has been proposed in Bangkok ahead of COP-24 in Katowice, Poland, in December 2018

 Roadblocks at the Bonn meeting

  1. On the issue of the NDCs, the question was the scope of the rulebook
  2. Developing countries want them to cover mitigation targets, adaptation and the means of implementation for the NDCs
  3. Developed or rich countries would like the rulebook to be limited to mitigation, the reduction of greenhouse gases
  4. But since most countries require adaptation programmes in a warming world and need support to implement their national targets, it is essential that these be included too

The issues related to loss and damage (L&D): Another roadblock

  1. L&D is a means to provide assistance to poor countries that experience severe impacts from climate change but have contributed very little to the greenhouse gases responsible for the warming and its effects
  2. This is a very important issue for the least developed countries and for small islands, which are already experiencing the brunt of sea level rise
  3. But there was little progress on the funds that could be used to support L&D

Participants could not come to an agreement(at the Bonn meeting) on any significant issue and thus have not produced a draft document to guide full implementation of the PA

The way forward

  1.  Even if the current NDCs were implemented, the world would be on track to be warmer by about 3°Celsius
  2. The UN is also expected to release the report on the impacts from a 1.5°C warming around the same time
    Responsibilities on the shoulders of the youth
  3. Unless the youth remind governments and the public of the responsibilities of their countries towards mitigation, adaptation and support for means of implementation, keeping global warming under reasonably safe levels for humankind could be impossible
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] At home and in exile: Internal Migration and Climate Changeop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the report given in the newscard

Mains level: The newscard discusses a special type of migration i.e. the internal migration. As Migration is an important issue these days, it is important from the UPSC perspective.


The issue of internal migration

  1. Most of the world’s migration is internal, i.e. within the same country
  2. Among the tens of millions displaced in 2015, 21.3 million were refugees, but 40.8 million were internally displaced
  3. The implications of internal migrations will be significant for development in the areas and for the lives of the people

Climate change is forcing people to migrate

  1. With climate change consequences like droughts, effects from sea level rise and water shortages will cause many more to leave their homes and move to safer places
  2. Such migration may be a choice in the initial stages; for instance, a young member may travel to a city close by during a drought to increase his or her family’s income
  3. But as the stress becomes more severe, the decision to move may be forced
  4. The gradual rise in sea levels wherein people are compelled to leave their island nations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and become climate exiles is one such ongoing process that will likely increase out-migration over time

“Groundswell: Preparing for Internal Climate Migration”: The World Bank report

  1. According to the report, it is estimated that in Latin America, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa over 143 million people would be forced to move within borders by 2050 as a result of slow onset climate events alone
  2. In the worst-case scenario, about 40 million of these migrants would be in South Asia, which is the most populous of the regions studied, with a number of climate change effects anticipated

Migration for better farming conditions

  1. South Asia is characterised by rain-fed farmland in large parts of the region
  2. With variability in the monsoons and warmer temperatures, crop failures will lead to migration from the Gangetic plains and from the rice-growing northeast of Bangladesh and the inundated coasts
  3. In the pessimistic scenario, the numbers forced to move internally in South Asia are expected to increase six-fold between 2020 and 2050

What have we learned so far?

  1. The implications of these internal migrations will be significant for development in the areas and for the lives of these people
  2. Therefore, understanding migration patterns, getting better socioeconomic data on migration and preparing in advance through appropriate planning become critical
  3. The scenarios used in the Bank report could be extended to cover other time periods and could also be more localised
  4. Current climate modelling methods are not accurate at high resolutions for local decision-making, but these are expected to improve over time

What should be done?

  1. First, reducing GHG emissions is of utmost urgency
  2. Second, integrating internal migration with ongoing development planning is vital
  3. The peri-urban areas, which are expected to be hot spots, already show problems of water shortage, waste management, nutritional deficiency, limited services such as health and education, and poor infrastructure
  4. Skill building, job training and other opportunities for education and jobs for locals and migrants would also have to become a focal point
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

NASA to study how tiny sea creatures affect Earth’s climate

Image source


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: NAAMES mission, CALIPSO satellite

Mains level: Various factors involved in climate change process and findings related to them

Study of the world’s largest phytoplankton bloom

  1. In a first, NASA is conducting a study of the world’s largest phytoplankton bloom in the North Atlantic to see how the tiny sea critters influence the climate in every season

NAAMES mission

  1. The North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) mission began its fourth and final deployment
  2. It is the first research mission to conduct an integrated study of all four distinct phases of the world’s largest phytoplankton bloom
  3. It will study how phytoplanktons give rise to small organic particles that leave the ocean and end up in the atmosphere, ultimately influencing clouds and climate

Seasonal study

  1. Satellites such as CALIPSO, a joint NASA and CNES mission, also help to study the ocean and the atmosphere
  2. Rates of phytoplankton accumulation are critical for understanding the ocean conditions that lead to phytoplankton growth and its timing, a key to unlocking the environmental drivers and controls of biological dynamics
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Scientists study ways to dim sunshine, slow global warming

Image source


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Solar geoengineering, Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative (SRMGI)

Mains level: Various initiatives to tackle climate change

Research into dimming sunshine

  1. Scientists in developing nations plan to step up research into dimming sunshine to curb climate change
  2. Research into “solar geoengineering”, which would mimic big volcanic eruptions that can cool the Earth by masking the sun with a veil of ash, is now dominated by rich nations

Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative (SRMGI)

  1. The solar geoengineering studies may be helped by a new $400,000 research project, the Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative (SRMGI)
  2. The fund could help scientists in developing nations study regional impacts of solar geoengineering such as on droughts, floods or monsoons
  3. Among proposed ideas, planes might spray clouds of reflective sulfur particles high in the Earth’s atmosphere
  4. The SRMGI is financed by the Open Philanthropy Project

Risks involved

  1. It might disrupt weather patterns
  2. The action could be hard to stop once started
  3. It might discourage countries from making a promised switch from fossil fuels to cleaner energies


Solar geoengineering

  1. Solar radiation management (SRM or solar geoengineering) is a theoretical approach to reducing some of the impacts of climate change by reflecting a small amount of inbound sunlight back out into space
  2. It is in the early stages of research
  3. SRM would not directly reduce concentrations greenhouse gases
  4. Different SRM techniques have been proposed such as- Stratospheric aerosol injection, Marine cloud brightening
  5. Stratospheric aerosols might delay the regeneration of the ozone layer
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

India2022 to combat environmental issues


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: India2022

Mains level: Indian efforts in combating climate change

Global private sector-led coalition

  1. Sanjiv Mehta, CEO and MD at Hindustan Unilever Ltd (HUL), and Osvald Bjelland, founder, chairman, and CEO at Xynteo AS, a Norway-based environmental advisory and think tank, are spearheading India2022
  2. It is a global private sector-led coalition to combat environmental issues, in addition to improving societal and economic conditions

About India2022

  1. It is a group of like-minded companies that have come together to find solutions to seemingly impractical problems
  2. The philosophy is that new business models should reduce the environmental impact and increase the societal impact
  3. Group has picked up four areas to start with—Energise (a project to promote the generation of clean energy), healthcare, waste and sanitation, and sustainable mining
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

32 Indians to contribute in report on Climate ChangeIOCR


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: IPCC, Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)

Mains level: India’s contribution in climate change research and mitigation

Indians in IPCC report preparation team

  1. Thirty-two Indians, including seven affiliated with foreign institutions, are among the more than 700 experts selected to contribute to the next assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
  2. Five similar reports of IPCC in the past have formed the basis for the global strategy to fight climate change

Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)

  1. The Sixth Assessment Report, or AR6, will be completed in 2021 and is likely to be published in 2022
  2. The IPCC does not produce its own scientific work
  3. The experts selected by it survey all the climate change-related scientific research published in peer-reviewed scientific journals across the world and predict the possible future scenarios from them


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  1. IPCC is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations set up at the request of member governments
  2. It is dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts
  3. It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly
  4. Membership of the IPCC is open to all members of the WMO and UNEP
  5. The IPCC produces reports that support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which is the main international treaty on climate change
  6. IPCC reports cover the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Speeding up plans to cut emissions may save 153 million lives, says study


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Finding of the study


Findings of the study

  1. The study by US-based Duke University was published in the journal, Nature Climate Change
  2. According to the study, at least 153 million premature deaths linked to air pollution could be avoided across major urban areas worldwide this century
  3. if governments across the world speed up their plans to cut fossil fuel emissions
  4. The report stressed that premature deaths would decline in cities on every inhabited continent with the greatest gains in saved lives occurring in Asia and Africa

Positive impact on India

  1. Kolkata and Delhi lead the list of cities that would benefit the most from accelerated emission cuts, with 8.8 million projected lives saved
  2. In India, according to the study, a total of 25.72 million premature deaths can be avoided across 18 cities, which includes Patna, Mumbai, Lucknow, Agra, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Bengaluru, Chennai and others
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Arctic permafrost may unleash carbon within decades: NASA

Image source


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Permafrost, Arctic, Global warming

Mains level: Effects of climate change

Permafrost thawing

  1. Permafrost in the coldest northern Arctic will thaw enough to become a permanent source of carbon to the atmosphere this century
  2. The peak transition could be occurring in 40 to 60 years
  3. The region was formerly thought to be at least temporarily shielded from global warming by its extreme environment


  1. Permafrost is soil that has remained frozen for years or centuries under the topsoil
  2. It contains carbon-rich organic material, such as leaves, that froze without decaying

How does the carbon release from permafrost?

  1. Rising Arctic air temperatures cause permafrost to thaw
  2. The organic material decomposes and releases its carbon to the atmosphere in the form of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane

How growing more plants help in reducing global warming?

  1. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the air during photosynthesis, so increased plant growth means less carbon in the atmosphere
  2. Increased photosynthesis will balance increased permafrost emissions until the late 2100s
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] High noon: dealing with above-normal temperaturesop-ed snap


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: India Meteorological Department, heat waves, La Niña, WHO

Mains level: Effects of climate change across India and world


High-temperature forecast

  1. India Meteorological Department has forecasted above-normal maximum and minimum temperatures across the country during the pre-monsoon March-May period

Public health challenge

  1. The summer of 2018 may pose a public health challenge
  2. There are distinct groups at particular risk for health-related problems during a heat wave
  3. These include  senior citizens and people with a pre-existing disease, mental illness or disability, which prevents them from being able to care for themselves
  4. A half-degree rise in average temperature in recent decades has resulted in a higher probability of extreme heat waves and caused a lot of deaths

Governments should be ready

  1. A heat event has serious implications for public health: it can lead to fatal heat stroke in a small percentage of people, while many more could encounter exhaustion, cramps, and fainting
  2. It is vital for governments to ensure that all stakeholders, including the health-care system, are prepared to deal with the heat event phenomenon
  3. The World Health Organisation recommends that countries adopt heat-health warning systems, including daily alerts to ensure that people are in a position to deal with adverse weather, starting with the reduction of exposure
  4. Water stress is a common and often chronic feature in many States and arrangements should be made to meet scarcity

Hope of a good monsoon

  1. There is some hope that the southwest monsoon this year will benefit from an expected moderate La Niña condition in the equatorial Pacific
  2. It is marked by cooler-than-average sea surface temperature
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

UN spotlight on Kerala’s energy-positive campusIOCR


Mains Paper 2: IR | Important International institutions, agencies & fora, their structure, mandate

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: UNEP Global Status Report 2017, Global Environment Fund

Mains level: India’s efforts in dealing with climate change

Recognition for energy efficiency

  1. The Energy Management Centre (EMC), an autonomous institution under the Kerala government, has grabbed the global spotlight for its energy-positive campus
  2. Energy Management Centre is the only Indian project to get recognition for energy efficiency in a UNEP report

Global Status Report 2017

  1. The ‘Global Status Report 2017: Towards a zero-emission, efficient, and resilient buildings and construction sector,’ is published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  2. It has listed the EMC campus as one of the recent achievements in the deployment of key technologies for energy-efficiency in buildings
  3. The EMC campus is the only LEED Gold certified building in the government sector in Kerala and is built with assistance from the Global Environment Fund


Global Environment Fund

  1. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems
  2. GEF is an international partnership of 183 countries, international institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector that addresses global environmental issues
  3. The GEF is a unique partnership of 18 agencies — including United Nations agencies, multilateral development banks, national entities and international NGOs
  4. It is the financial mechanism for for 5 major international environmental conventions: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD), the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and the Minamata Convention on Mercury
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

India gives $1 million for rehabilitation work in cyclone-hit Tonga


Mains Paper 1: Geography | Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: India-UN Development Partnership Fund, Sustainable Development Goals, cyclones, hurricanes

Mains level: Impact of climate change on small island nations

South-South cooperation

  1. India has contributed USD one million for the rehabilitation efforts in Tonga after the Tropical Cyclone Gita caused massive destruction in the Pacific island nation
  2. India has allocated USD 500,000 in the India-UN Development Partnership Fund for the rehabilitation efforts while USD 500,000 will be provided for immediate relief assistance
  3. This has been done by India in the spirit of South-South cooperation

Previous assistance

  1. Last year, following devastation caused by the hurricanes Irma and Maria, India provided a sum of USD 2 million for rehabilitation projects in Antigua and Barbuda and Dominica through the India-UN Development Partnership Fund

Comabting climate change

  1. The first project under the fund focuses on climate early warning systems in Pacific Island countries
  2. The project aims to increase resilience from natural disasters of these seven Pacific island countries and contribute toward the Sustainable Development Goal of Climate Action


India-UN Development Partnership Fund

  1. The India-UN Development Partnership Fund is supported and led by the Government of India and managed by the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation
  2. The Fund supports Southern-owned and led, demand-driven, transformational sustainable development projects across the developing world, with a focus on least developed countries and small island developing states
  3. The USD 100 million fund was established on June 8, 2017
  4. United Nations agencies implement the Funds projects in close collaboration with partnering governments
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Adapting better to climate changeop-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Global Adaptation Fund, Climate change targets

Mains level: Constraints in implementing climate change related policies


Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  1. There are ongoing efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and restrict global warming to below 2°C or even below 1.5°C
  2. These projects on adaptation have been funded or implemented in a number of countries, either by individual governments or with the help of external donor funds

Failures of adaptation projects

  1. A 2010 survey of over 1,700 projects concluded that adaptation projects were not helping the most vulnerable communities
  2. Many projects on adaptation begin by studying what climate impacts are expected, what kinds of vulnerabilities exist locally and how these can be addressed in a given local context
  3. When several projects from the Global Adaptation Fund, an international fund managed by the United Nations climate secretariat to help developing countries with climate change adaptation projects, were analyzed, they too were found not to take into account unequal power structures

New framework to assess failure in adaptation

It involves four main themes to show that failures in adaptation

  1. The first is enclosure, which is when private agents acquire public assets or expand their authority over them
  2. Exclusion is the second mode of failure, which is associated with some stakeholders getting excluded or marginalised, thus limiting their access to decision-making processes
  3. The third is encroachment, in which the adaptation actions undertaken during the project end up intervening in areas that are rich in biodiversity
  • These interfere with ecosystem services and often result in an increase in greenhouse gas emissions

4. The last is entrenchment, where the condition of those who are already disempowered or marginalised in the local social context, such as the poor, women or other minorities, worsens from the intervention

There are various examples of projects from both developing and advanced industrial countries that fail under these themes

What can be done to reduce such incidences?

  1. Politics and power struggles to control resources need to be acknowledged as being part and parcel of adaptation projects
  2. Mechanisms to anticipate and deal with them correctly should be incorporated well in advance
  3. Elite networks will capture prized outcomes of projects, such as land, water or other resources and privileges, should be accepted
  4. Measures to prevent or mitigate their actions need to be identified

Way forward

  1. Forces of political economy and ecology that are an integral part of our societies cannot be wished away when considering adaptation projects
  2. While considering and designing climate change adaptation projects, in addition to vulnerabilities and costs, issues around equity, justice, and social hierarchies must be equally considered
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Nasa says earth’s global surface temperature in 2017 second warmest since 1880


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Impact of global warming on India and world

Latest report by the NASA

  1. The report has said that Earth’s global surface temperature in 2017 ranked as the second warmest since 1880 when global estimates became feasible
  2. It also stressed that if the effects of the recent El Niño and La Niña patterns were statistically removed from the record, 2017 would have been the warmest year on record

Findings of the research

  1. As per the analysis, Earth’s average surface temperature has risen about 2 degrees Fahrenheit (a little more than 1 degree Celsius) during the last century or so
  2. It is a change driven largely by increased carbon dioxide and other human-made emissions into the atmosphere

Impact on India due to rising sea levels

  1. For a country like India which has a vast coastline of about 7500 km inhabited by millions, the rising sea level means trouble
  2. India’s major cities like Mumbai, which is called country’s financial capital, and Kolkata are among the top 10 megacities across the world that face a serious threat due to rising sea levels

Impact on South Asian monsoon

  1. A warming trend could also have a significant impact on the monsoon
  2. According to a study done at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, rainfall has been decreasing over central South Asia — from south of Pakistan through central India to Bangladesh
  3. The decrease is highly significant over central India where agriculture is still mostly rain-fed, with reduction of up to 10-20% in the mean rainfall
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

[op-ed snap] Can we still avoid the climate tipping point?op-ed snap


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Carbon profile, Paris agreement, World Meteorological Organization, etc.

Mains level: The article discusses serious upcoming challenges on climate front. It also discusses some possible solutions to minimize the effects of climate change.


The risks of climate change are greater than currently feared

  1. According to a British journal ‘Nature’, the rise in average global temperature by the end of the century is likely to be about 5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels
  2. This is off by a huge margin from 2 degrees Celsius scenario which has been considered by the global scientific community as the upper threshold that the Earth’s environment can withstand
  3. Beyond which irreversible changes in the global climate are likely to occur
  4. The World Meteorological Organization says that global emissions reached a record high of 403.3 parts per million (ppm) in 2016
  5. This level of pollution is highest in 800,000 years, and presents a scary picture of irreversible changes already happening in the global climate system

What can be done?

  1. While the 2 degrees Celsius threshold looks unlikely now, we, however, can still minimize its impact while simultaneously developing infrastructure to face the worst scenario
  2. Suggestions by the writer:

First: Model of development

  1. We need to fundamentally change our northern model of development which is based on the excessive resource consumption
  2. If the same model of development were to continue, it is going to be ecologically unsustainable for the planet

Second: Natural environment as a fundamental right

  1. We ought to treat the natural environment as a fundamental right and ask politicians to ensure it
  2. Political will flows from the people—when citizens care, politicians too act
  3. We as citizens have not demanded a measured action from our public representatives

Third: Regional, national and local strategies

  1. As the US has pulled out of the Paris agreement, it seems unlikely that there will be a global agreement now or in the near future
  2. Hence rather than a grand national or global strategy, we need to focus on regional, national and local strategies, e.g., cities
  3. The global urban population is likely to go up from 54% (3.9 billion) in 2014 to 66% (6.4 billion) in 2050
  4. Investing in energy-efficient appliances, powering homes with renewable energy, reducing water waste, using public transport and other measures can help in lowering the national, and ultimately the global, carbon profile

Fourth: Fossil-free energy future 

  1. The sharp fall in renewable energy cost had led to a record renewable capacity addition of 161 gigawatt (GW) in 2016, a 10% rise over 2015
  2. The falling price of renewable energy has made its cost comparable to fossil fuel in many parts of the world
  3. This is likely to accelerate the transition towards a fossil-free future

Finally: Developing countries need to focus more on adaptation than mitigation

  1. As the impact of climate change becomes increasingly visible, developing countries like India, need to focus more on adaptation than mitigation
  2. They need to develop infrastructure to rehabilitate people in their coastal areas, meet food demand with changing rain patterns and manage immigration caused by climate change


Carbon profiling

  1. Carbon profiling is a mathematical process that calculates how much carbon dioxide is put into the atmosphere per m2 of space in a building over one year
  2. The analysis is in two parts which are then added together to produce an overall figure which is termed the ‘Carbon Profile’: operational carbon emissions and embodied carbon emissions
  3. Embodied carbon emissions relate to the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from creating and maintaining the materials that form the building e.g. the carbon dioxide released from the baking of bricks or smelting or iron
  4. In the Carbon Profiling Model these emissions are measured as Embodied Carbon Efficiency (ECE), measured as kg of CO2/m2/year
  5. Occupational Carbon Emissions relate to the amount of Carbon Dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from the direct use of energy to run the building e.g. the heating or electricity used by the building over the year
  6. In the Carbon Profiling Model these emissions are measured in BER’s (Building Emission Rate) in kg of CO2/m2/year
  7. The BER is a United Kingdom government accepted unit of measurement that comes from an approved calculation process called sBEM (Simplified Building Emission Model)
  8. The purpose of Carbon Profiling is to provide a method of analyzing and comparing both operational and embodied carbon emissions at the same time
  9. With this information it is then possible to allocate a projects resources in such a way to minimize the total amount of Carbon Dioxide emitted into the atmosphere through the use of a given piece of space
  10. A secondary benefit is that having quantified the Carbon Profiling of different buildings it is then possible to make comparisons and rank buildings in term of their performance
  11. This allows investors and occupiers to identify which building are good and bad carbon investments
  12. Simon Sturgis and Gareth Roberts of Sturgis Associates in the United Kingdom originally developed ‘Carbon Profiling’ in December 2007
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Chemical ban helping ozone hole recover: Nasa


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Basics of Ozone Depletion

Mains level: One of the few positive outcomes of the efforts done against environmental pollution and degradation

NASA’s report on ozone depletion

  1. An international ban on chlorine-containing man-made chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), has resulted in about 20% less ozone depletion
  2. Chlorine from CFCs is going down in the ozone hole, and that less ozone depletion is occurring because of it

What are CFCs?

  1. CFCs are long-lived chemical compounds that eventually rise into the stratosphere, where they are broken apart by the sun’s ultraviolet radiation, releasing chlorine atoms that go on to destroy ozone molecules
  2. CFCs have lifetimes from 50 to 100 years, so they linger in the atmosphere for a very long time
  3. Stratospheric ozone protects life on the planet by absorbing potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation that can cause skin cancer and cataracts, suppress immune systems and damage plant life

Antarctic ozone hole

  1. The Antarctic ozone hole forms during September in the southern hemisphere’s winter as the returning sun’s rays catalyse ozone destruction cycles involving chlorine and bromine that come primarily from CFCs


Ozone Depeletion

  1. Ozone depletion describes two related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth’s stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s polar regions
  2. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. There are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events in addition to these stratospheric phenomena
  3. The main cause of ozone depletion and the ozone hole is man-made chemicals, especially man-made halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and foam-blowing agents (chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs), HCFCs, halons), referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS)
  4. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere by the winds after being emitted at the surface
  5. Once in the stratosphere, they release halogen atoms through photodissociation, which catalyze the breakdown of ozone (O3) into oxygen (O2). Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halocarbons increased
  6. Ozone depletion and the ozone hole generated worldwide concern over increased cancer risks and other negative effects
  7. The ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths of ultraviolet light (UV light) from passing through the Earth’s atmosphere
  8. These wavelengths cause skin cancer, sunburn, and cataracts, which were projected to increase dramatically as a result of thinning ozone, as well as harming plants and animals
  9. These concerns led to the adoption of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which bans the production of CFCs, halons, and other ozone-depleting chemicals
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Oceans losing oxygen, can damage marine life: study


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the study and importance of oxygen in the sea

Mains level: Ocean is an important part of earth’s ecosystems. Any damage to it will directly affect human beings.


A latest study published in journal ‘Science’

  1. The study said that in the past 50 years, the amount of water in the open ocean with zero oxygen has gone up more than fourfold and in coastal water bodies, including estuaries and seas
  2. And low-oxygen sites have increased more than 10-fold since 1950
  3. Scientists expect oxygen to continue dropping even outside these zones as Earth warms up

It can directly affect humans

  1. According to the study, the situation can cause serious damage to marine life, affect livelihoods of millions of people and trigger the release of dangerous greenhouse gases like nitrous oxide
  2. The danger due to low oxygen in oceans is manifold
  3. As per the study, even small oxygen declines can stunt growth in animals, hinder reproduction and lead to disease or even death

What should be done?

  1. To keep low oxygen in check, the scientists said the world needs to take on the issue from three angles—address the causes, nutrient pollution and climate change
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Ancient jumping genes may control coral bleaching in warming oceans


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Coral Bleaching, Symbiodinium, etc.

Mains level: Importance of the newly found gene


Why is the research in news?

  1. Scientists have identified a gene that improves the heat tolerance of the algae that live symbiotically with coral species, and could potentially help the corals adapt to some warming
  2. Name of the special gene: Retrotransposons

Importance of the Algae for Corals

  1. Algae: Symbiodinium is a unicellular alga that provides its coral host with photosynthetic products in return for nutrients and shelter
  2. However, high sea temperatures can cause the breakdown of this symbiotic relationship and lead to the widespread expulsion of Symbiodinium from host tissues, an event known as coral bleaching
  3. If bleached corals do not recover, they starve to death, leaving only their white, calcium-carbonate exoskeleton


It’s all about corals

Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

‘2017 may be among top 3 hottest years’


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: World Meteorological Organization, El Nino

Mains level: Global warming and its impacts

First 11 months of 2017 third warmest on record

  1. The year 2017 will likely be among the three warmest years on global record, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
  2. The first 11 months of 2017 were the third warmest on record, behind 2016 and 2015
  3. Much-warmer-than-average conditions engulfed much of the world’s land and ocean surfaces

Geographical impacts

  1. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice coverage remain at near record lows
  2. 2017 may also be the warmest year without an El Nino — a climate phenomenon that causes global temperatures to shoot up
  3. There is an overall, long-term trend of warming since the late 1970s, and especially this century


World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

  1. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories
  2. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873
  3. Established by the ratification of the WMO Convention on 23 March 1950, WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences
  4. Its supreme body is the World Meteorological Congress

El Nino

  1. El Niño is an oscillation of the ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe
  2. El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America
  3. El Niño is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific
  4. The cool phase of ENSO is called “La Niña” with SST in the eastern Pacific below average and air pressures high in the eastern and low in western Pacific
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

No lake formation near Gaumukh or along the course of river Bhagirathi: reports


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Gangotri glacier, Gaumukh, Bhagirathi river, landslide

Mains level: Early detection of disasters and prevention

No lake formation at Gaumukh

  1. A team of scientists and government officials who did an aerial survey of the Gangotri glacier dismissed claims of any lake formation at Gaumukh which could hinder the course of the Bhagirathi river
  2. This was done day after the Uttarakhand high court ordered the state government to clear the lake that had formed near Gaumukh
  3. The high court had instructed the state government to clear the lake near Gaumukh to prevent any future disasters like the one at Kedarnath in June 2013
  4. Gaumukh is the snout of the Gangotri glacier from where the Bhagirathi river originates

Reason behind “lake” formation

  1. The satellite data available with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) from November 2011 to October 2017 was analyzed by the expert agencies
  2. It was observed that in July 2017 a landslide had occurred due to which debris had been deposited “slightly away” from Gaumukh
  3. It showed “minor pondage” near the snout of the Gangotri glacier, but “no blockage” was observed in the Bhagirathi river

Is this anything to worry about?

  1. There was no imminent danger from the landslide that had occurred during the rainy season of 2017
  2. At present, there exists no lake along the course of the river and there isn’t any obstruction in the path of the river
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Winter may be warmer than 40-year normal


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Global warming, cold waves

Mains level: Effects of climate change in India as well as across the globe


Forecast by the India Meteorological Department

  1. Winter temperatures across the country are, are on the whole, expected to be cooler than last year
  2. In keeping with the trend in recent years, they are likely to be warmer than the 40-year ‘normal’ winter temperatures
  3. In general, maximum and minimum temperatures across most States are likely to elevated

Global warming showing effect

  1. The warming trends are part of a larger pattern stoked by global warming
  2. Last winter was, on an average, about a degree warmer than the historical normal
  3. Between March and May this year, mean temperature was also warmer than normal with an anomaly of +0.77C,
  4. This along with 2010 was the sixth warmest ever spring season since 1901

Cold waves

  1. Cold waves — a characteristic mark of winters in north India — too may see a dip
  2. There is a 40% chance that minimum temperatures will be above normal in the so-called “core cold wave zone” of North and middle India

Other reasons behind variability in cold waves

  1. Other than global warming, ocean conditions over the equatorial Indian and Pacific oceans also contribute to the year-to-year variability of cold waves over the country
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

World likely to cross 1.2°C global warming level this year

  1. Source: A preliminary assessment provided by the World Meteorological Organisation in its Status of the Global Climate in 2016 report
  2. Finding: The world is likely to cross 1.2° C of global warming above pre-industrial levels in 2016
  3. This is dangerously close to breaching the 1.5° C warming levels advised as an ambitious target to stay safe from the worst impacts of climate change
  4. Impact of warming: There were a number of major heat waves and droughts experienced during 2015-2016
  5. The year started with an extreme heat wave in southern Africa, exacerbated by the ongoing drought
  6. The report also mentions Phalodi in Rajasthan, India which set a new record for heat in India recording 51.0°C on May 19
  7. The Paris Agreement last year had adopted 2°C as the absolute threshold for staying within safe global warming levels
  8. However, 1.5°C was advised as an ambitious target, especially bearing in mind the fate of small island countries such as Haiti or Maldives
  9. These islands are threatened with submergence due to sea-level rise and extreme weather events
  10. In parts of Arctic Russia, temperatures were 6°C to 7°C above the long-term average
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Greenland sets record temperatures, ice melts early

  1. News: Temperature records are broken in Greenland this year after parts of the territory’s vast ice sheet began melting unusually early
  2. These new results give the new and robust evidence of the tendency of warmer temperatures in the Arctic continuing
  3. Record temperatures: The average summer temperature was 8.2 degrees Celsius (46.8 degrees Fahrenheit) in Tasiilaq on Greenland’s southeast coast
  4. This is the highest since records began in 1895 and 2.3 degrees Celsius above the average between 1981 and 2010
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Gangotri glacier retreated by 3 km in two centuries

  1. Retreat: The rate of retreating Gangotri glacier has increased sharply since 1971
  2. It is 22 metres per year
  3. Reasons: Lesser ice formation each year than its current rate of melting of ice
  4. Climate change and global warming are the main reasons
  5. Dwindling snowfall affects volume of water fed to the Bhagirathi, the main source of the Ganga
  6. Concern: Due to melting of ice, small lakes are forming on the top of glacier
  7. Earlier: The blast of one such glacial lake in Chorabari that led to the June 2013 flood disaster in Kedarnath
  8. Also the shape of the Gangotri glacier is changing from convex to concave
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Arctic regions getting greener due to climate change: NASA

  1. Context: A new NASA study on Arctic region
  2. Finding: Due to changing climate, Arctic regions of North America are getting greener, with almost a third of the land cover looking more like landscapes found in warmer ecosystems
  3. Temperatures are warming faster in the Arctic than elsewhere, which has led to longer seasons for plants to grow in and changes to the soils
  4. Observation: Grassy tundras changing to shrublands, and shrubs growing bigger and denser — changes that could have impacts on regional water, energy and carbon cycles
  5. The study was done using Landsat
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Role of tropical forests in reducing global warming

Tropical forests can achieve a below 2 C rise in global warming by 2050.

  1. As the transition from total reliance on fossil fuels to that on renewable sources of energy is expected to take place over the next 35 years.
  2. Enhancing carbon uptake and reducing emissions could account for as much as 50 per cent of total carbon emissions.
  3. To achieve a 75 per cent likelihood of avoiding warming in excess of 2 degrees C through changes in fossil fuel emissions alone.
  4. The landscape with shifting cultivation has 10 per cent of the land in crops, say, and 90 per cent of the land in fallows.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

2015 set to be ‘hottest year on record’, says UN

This is due to a combination of a strong El Niũo and human-induced global warming.

  1. This year is set to be the hottest on record and 2016 could be even hotter due to the current El Niũo weather pattern.
  2. The global average surface temperatures in 2015 were likely to reach what it called the “symbolic and significant milestone” of 1° Celsius above the pre-industrial era.
  3. The El Nino weather pattern, marked by warming sea-surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, causes extremes such as scorching weather and flooding.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

1 in 6 species can face extinction by end of century due to global warming

  1. 16 % of species in the world would face the risk of extinction because of climatic factors.
  2. The endemic plants and animals of Australia, South America and New Zealand are at risk as for they would not be able to go to other place when their only homeland becomes uninhabitable.
  3. While, the species in North American and European regions have the lowest extinction risk due to climate change.

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