Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Jun, 30, 2018

Rising temperature to cut living standards of 600 million Indians


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Actual impact of climate change on India in coming years


One-third Indians at risk

  1. Six hundred million Indians could see a dip in living standards by 2050 if temperatures continue to rise at their current pace
  2. India’s average annual temperatures are expected to rise by 1°C to 2°C by 2050, even if preventive measures are taken along the lines of those recommended by the Paris climate change agreement of 2015
  3. If no measures are taken, average temperatures in India are predicted to increase by 1.5°C to 3°C

Impact on states

  1. Seven of the 10 severest or most vulnerable ‘hotspots’ in India would be located in Maharashtra
  2. The rest would be in Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh
  3. In the absence of major climate mitigation, nearly 148 million Indians will be living in these severe hotspots in 2050

Basis for study

  1. Economists at the World Bank correlated these climate projections with household consumption data (a proxy for living standards) in Nepal, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and extrapolated it to 2050
  2. Using publicly available climate models that project how rising temperatures will affect rainfall and seasons, the researchers conclude that if emissions continued at the current pace, India could see a 1.5% decline in its GDP by 2030
Jun, 08, 2018

[op-ed snap] Sustaining earth for the future


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Anthropocene era, Half Earth project, India’s forest policy

Mains level: Changing biodiversity patterns in light of climate change and India’s efforts to deal with them


India’s rich fabric of biodiversity

  1. India is blessed with an extraordinary richness of life
  2. A myriad of unusual and exquisite species occur in the countless ecosystems spread across our vast lands, rivers, and oceans

Change in structure

  1. This unique bio-cultural tapestry has been resilient to change for centuries, but with the unleashing of unprecedented economic and environmental forces, it is now subject to increased wear and tear
  2. These forces could even destroy our tapestry of life, cultures and traditions — and in the process, ourselves
  3. Modern extinction rates are more than a thousand times greater than the rates of the geological past
  4. In recent decades, populations of more than 40% of large mammals have declined and insect biomass has decreased by more than 75%
  5. Natural habitats all over the world have shrunk

Start of Anthropocene era

  1. We have entered what scientists are calling the Anthropocene era
  2. It is a new period in earth’s history when humans have begun to impact our environment at the global scale

Half Earth project

  1. To protect life on earth, the famous American biologist E.O. Wilson has described an ambitious project he calls “Half-Earth”
  2. He calls for formally protecting 50% of the earth’s land surface in order to conserve our rapidly disappearing natural heritage

India’s efforts & policy interventions required

  1. India’s forest policy calls for forests to cover almost a third of the country, and if we include other natural systems such as grasslands and wetlands, the area to be protected could amount to almost 40%
  2. We need a massive new effort to catalog, map, and monitor life, using fundamentally different approaches
  3. This mapping effort would include not only all life, including cultures, ethnicities, and dialects but also the use of biodiversity and its vulnerability to changes in land use and climate
  4. Our institutions need to place far more emphasis on the scientific study of life at higher levels
  5. We also need a comprehensive inquiry into how our society is shaping as well as responding to changes in biodiversity

Way forward

  1. The India Biodiversity Portal has the ambitious goal of mapping India’s biodiversity with the engagement of civil society
  2. The government and private philanthropy need to bring together multiple stakeholders to develop a programme to document, map and monitor all life
  3. There is also a need to develop a new knowledge enterprise to fully explore various dimensions of biodiversity and ecosystem services and their critical link to our future
Jun, 04, 2018

Arctic sea route not possible even if it is ice free


Mains Paper 2: IR | Effect of policies & politics of developed & developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Arctic Council

Mains level: Untapped resources in arctic and their importance for India


Navigation in the Arctic not possible

  1. The Arctic would still not be an easily navigable route even after the fast melting ice
  2. It will not be practical for container traffic, it may be ok for bulk carriers carrying gas
  3. Despite no ice, the waters would be tough to navigate due to sub-zero temperatures and would pose serious challenges to ships

Why such talks?

  1. The Arctic region which has permanently frozen ice is melting at an increasing rate due to global warming and is expected to be ice free by 2060
  2. Already several countries have sent their ships and icebreakers in the summer months to demonstrate the navigability
  3. It is seen as an alternate shipping route to cut time and costs and also circumvent the global choke points

Impact on India

  1. China and Japan are investing in infrastructure development in the Arctic
  2. There is an increasing concern in India as China makes inroads in the strategically important Arctic region which has a large amount of untapped minerals and fossil fuels

Arctic Council meeting

  1. Finland is holding the Chairmanship of the Arctic Council from 2017-19
  2. It has called for a greater Indian role in the region as an observer in the Arctic Council


Arctic Council

  1. The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum which addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and people living in the Arctic region
  2. The first step towards the formation of the Council occurred in 1991 when eight Arctic countries signed the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS)
  3. The Ottawa Declaration of 1996 formally established the Arctic Council
  4. The Ottawa Declaration named eight members of the Arctic Council: Canada, Russia, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, the United States, Sweden, and Finland
  5. Observer states consist of the following (2017): Germany, Netherlands, Poland, United Kingdom, France, Spain, China, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Switzerland
May, 16, 2018

[op-ed snap] Is it possible to slow global warming?


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: UNFCCC, SBI, SBSTA, etc.

Mains level: The roadblocks infront of the Paris Agreement.


UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) meeting

  1. A two-week-long meeting was recently concluded in Bonn (April 30-May 10) where the operational guidelines for implementing the Paris Agreement were to be discussed and agreed upon by all parties
  2. This meeting was the 48th session of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) and Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), referred to as SB48
  3. With insufficient progress towards goals, another interim meeting has been proposed in Bangkok ahead of COP-24 in Katowice, Poland, in December 2018

 Roadblocks at the Bonn meeting

  1. On the issue of the NDCs, the question was the scope of the rulebook
  2. Developing countries want them to cover mitigation targets, adaptation and the means of implementation for the NDCs
  3. Developed or rich countries would like the rulebook to be limited to mitigation, the reduction of greenhouse gases
  4. But since most countries require adaptation programmes in a warming world and need support to implement their national targets, it is essential that these be included too

The issues related to loss and damage (L&D): Another roadblock

  1. L&D is a means to provide assistance to poor countries that experience severe impacts from climate change but have contributed very little to the greenhouse gases responsible for the warming and its effects
  2. This is a very important issue for the least developed countries and for small islands, which are already experiencing the brunt of sea level rise
  3. But there was little progress on the funds that could be used to support L&D

Participants could not come to an agreement(at the Bonn meeting) on any significant issue and thus have not produced a draft document to guide full implementation of the PA

The way forward

  1.  Even if the current NDCs were implemented, the world would be on track to be warmer by about 3°Celsius
  2. The UN is also expected to release the report on the impacts from a 1.5°C warming around the same time
    Responsibilities on the shoulders of the youth
  3. Unless the youth remind governments and the public of the responsibilities of their countries towards mitigation, adaptation and support for means of implementation, keeping global warming under reasonably safe levels for humankind could be impossible
Apr, 17, 2018

[op-ed snap] At home and in exile: Internal Migration and Climate Change


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the report given in the newscard

Mains level: The newscard discusses a special type of migration i.e. the internal migration. As Migration is an important issue these days, it is important from the UPSC perspective.


The issue of internal migration

  1. Most of the world’s migration is internal, i.e. within the same country
  2. Among the tens of millions displaced in 2015, 21.3 million were refugees, but 40.8 million were internally displaced
  3. The implications of internal migrations will be significant for development in the areas and for the lives of the people

Climate change is forcing people to migrate

  1. With climate change consequences like droughts, effects from sea level rise and water shortages will cause many more to leave their homes and move to safer places
  2. Such migration may be a choice in the initial stages; for instance, a young member may travel to a city close by during a drought to increase his or her family’s income
  3. But as the stress becomes more severe, the decision to move may be forced
  4. The gradual rise in sea levels wherein people are compelled to leave their island nations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and become climate exiles is one such ongoing process that will likely increase out-migration over time

“Groundswell: Preparing for Internal Climate Migration”: The World Bank report

  1. According to the report, it is estimated that in Latin America, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa over 143 million people would be forced to move within borders by 2050 as a result of slow onset climate events alone
  2. In the worst-case scenario, about 40 million of these migrants would be in South Asia, which is the most populous of the regions studied, with a number of climate change effects anticipated

Migration for better farming conditions

  1. South Asia is characterised by rain-fed farmland in large parts of the region
  2. With variability in the monsoons and warmer temperatures, crop failures will lead to migration from the Gangetic plains and from the rice-growing northeast of Bangladesh and the inundated coasts
  3. In the pessimistic scenario, the numbers forced to move internally in South Asia are expected to increase six-fold between 2020 and 2050

What have we learned so far?

  1. The implications of these internal migrations will be significant for development in the areas and for the lives of these people
  2. Therefore, understanding migration patterns, getting better socioeconomic data on migration and preparing in advance through appropriate planning become critical
  3. The scenarios used in the Bank report could be extended to cover other time periods and could also be more localised
  4. Current climate modelling methods are not accurate at high resolutions for local decision-making, but these are expected to improve over time

What should be done?

  1. First, reducing GHG emissions is of utmost urgency
  2. Second, integrating internal migration with ongoing development planning is vital
  3. The peri-urban areas, which are expected to be hot spots, already show problems of water shortage, waste management, nutritional deficiency, limited services such as health and education, and poor infrastructure
  4. Skill building, job training and other opportunities for education and jobs for locals and migrants would also have to become a focal point
Apr, 14, 2018

NASA to study how tiny sea creatures affect Earth’s climate

Image source


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: NAAMES mission, CALIPSO satellite

Mains level: Various factors involved in climate change process and findings related to them


Study of the world’s largest phytoplankton bloom

  1. In a first, NASA is conducting a study of the world’s largest phytoplankton bloom in the North Atlantic to see how the tiny sea critters influence the climate in every season

NAAMES mission

  1. The North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) mission began its fourth and final deployment
  2. It is the first research mission to conduct an integrated study of all four distinct phases of the world’s largest phytoplankton bloom
  3. It will study how phytoplanktons give rise to small organic particles that leave the ocean and end up in the atmosphere, ultimately influencing clouds and climate

Seasonal study

  1. Satellites such as CALIPSO, a joint NASA and CNES mission, also help to study the ocean and the atmosphere
  2. Rates of phytoplankton accumulation are critical for understanding the ocean conditions that lead to phytoplankton growth and its timing, a key to unlocking the environmental drivers and controls of biological dynamics
Apr, 11, 2018

Scientists study ways to dim sunshine, slow global warming

Image source


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Solar geoengineering, Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative (SRMGI)

Mains level: Various initiatives to tackle climate change


Research into dimming sunshine

  1. Scientists in developing nations plan to step up research into dimming sunshine to curb climate change
  2. Research into “solar geoengineering”, which would mimic big volcanic eruptions that can cool the Earth by masking the sun with a veil of ash, is now dominated by rich nations

Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative (SRMGI)

  1. The solar geoengineering studies may be helped by a new $400,000 research project, the Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative (SRMGI)
  2. The fund could help scientists in developing nations study regional impacts of solar geoengineering such as on droughts, floods or monsoons
  3. Among proposed ideas, planes might spray clouds of reflective sulfur particles high in the Earth’s atmosphere
  4. The SRMGI is financed by the Open Philanthropy Project

Risks involved

  1. It might disrupt weather patterns
  2. The action could be hard to stop once started
  3. It might discourage countries from making a promised switch from fossil fuels to cleaner energies


Solar geoengineering

  1. Solar radiation management (SRM or solar geoengineering) is a theoretical approach to reducing some of the impacts of climate change by reflecting a small amount of inbound sunlight back out into space
  2. It is in the early stages of research
  3. SRM would not directly reduce concentrations greenhouse gases
  4. Different SRM techniques have been proposed such as- Stratospheric aerosol injection, Marine cloud brightening
  5. Stratospheric aerosols might delay the regeneration of the ozone layer
Apr, 07, 2018

India2022 to combat environmental issues


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: India2022

Mains level: Indian efforts in combating climate change


Global private sector-led coalition

  1. Sanjiv Mehta, CEO and MD at Hindustan Unilever Ltd (HUL), and Osvald Bjelland, founder, chairman, and CEO at Xynteo AS, a Norway-based environmental advisory and think tank, are spearheading India2022
  2. It is a global private sector-led coalition to combat environmental issues, in addition to improving societal and economic conditions

About India2022

  1. It is a group of like-minded companies that have come together to find solutions to seemingly impractical problems
  2. The philosophy is that new business models should reduce the environmental impact and increase the societal impact
  3. Group has picked up four areas to start with—Energise (a project to promote the generation of clean energy), healthcare, waste and sanitation, and sustainable mining
Apr, 07, 2018

32 Indians to contribute in report on Climate Change


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: IPCC, Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)

Mains level: India’s contribution in climate change research and mitigation


Indians in IPCC report preparation team

  1. Thirty-two Indians, including seven affiliated with foreign institutions, are among the more than 700 experts selected to contribute to the next assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
  2. Five similar reports of IPCC in the past have formed the basis for the global strategy to fight climate change

Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)

  1. The Sixth Assessment Report, or AR6, will be completed in 2021 and is likely to be published in 2022
  2. The IPCC does not produce its own scientific work
  3. The experts selected by it survey all the climate change-related scientific research published in peer-reviewed scientific journals across the world and predict the possible future scenarios from them


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  1. IPCC is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations set up at the request of member governments
  2. It is dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts
  3. It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly
  4. Membership of the IPCC is open to all members of the WMO and UNEP
  5. The IPCC produces reports that support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which is the main international treaty on climate change
  6. IPCC reports cover the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation
Mar, 20, 2018

Speeding up plans to cut emissions may save 153 million lives, says study


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Finding of the study


Findings of the study

  1. The study by US-based Duke University was published in the journal, Nature Climate Change
  2. According to the study, at least 153 million premature deaths linked to air pollution could be avoided across major urban areas worldwide this century
  3. if governments across the world speed up their plans to cut fossil fuel emissions
  4. The report stressed that premature deaths would decline in cities on every inhabited continent with the greatest gains in saved lives occurring in Asia and Africa

Positive impact on India

  1. Kolkata and Delhi lead the list of cities that would benefit the most from accelerated emission cuts, with 8.8 million projected lives saved
  2. In India, according to the study, a total of 25.72 million premature deaths can be avoided across 18 cities, which includes Patna, Mumbai, Lucknow, Agra, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Bengaluru, Chennai and others
Mar, 07, 2018

Arctic permafrost may unleash carbon within decades: NASA

Image source


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Permafrost, Arctic, Global warming

Mains level: Effects of climate change


Permafrost thawing

  1. Permafrost in the coldest northern Arctic will thaw enough to become a permanent source of carbon to the atmosphere this century
  2. The peak transition could be occurring in 40 to 60 years
  3. The region was formerly thought to be at least temporarily shielded from global warming by its extreme environment


  1. Permafrost is soil that has remained frozen for years or centuries under the topsoil
  2. It contains carbon-rich organic material, such as leaves, that froze without decaying

How does the carbon release from permafrost?

  1. Rising Arctic air temperatures cause permafrost to thaw
  2. The organic material decomposes and releases its carbon to the atmosphere in the form of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane

How growing more plants help in reducing global warming?

  1. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the air during photosynthesis, so increased plant growth means less carbon in the atmosphere
  2. Increased photosynthesis will balance increased permafrost emissions until the late 2100s
Mar, 06, 2018

[op-ed snap] High noon: dealing with above-normal temperatures


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: India Meteorological Department, heat waves, La Niña, WHO

Mains level: Effects of climate change across India and world


High-temperature forecast

  1. India Meteorological Department has forecasted above-normal maximum and minimum temperatures across the country during the pre-monsoon March-May period

Public health challenge

  1. The summer of 2018 may pose a public health challenge
  2. There are distinct groups at particular risk for health-related problems during a heat wave
  3. These include  senior citizens and people with a pre-existing disease, mental illness or disability, which prevents them from being able to care for themselves
  4. A half-degree rise in average temperature in recent decades has resulted in a higher probability of extreme heat waves and caused a lot of deaths

Governments should be ready

  1. A heat event has serious implications for public health: it can lead to fatal heat stroke in a small percentage of people, while many more could encounter exhaustion, cramps, and fainting
  2. It is vital for governments to ensure that all stakeholders, including the health-care system, are prepared to deal with the heat event phenomenon
  3. The World Health Organisation recommends that countries adopt heat-health warning systems, including daily alerts to ensure that people are in a position to deal with adverse weather, starting with the reduction of exposure
  4. Water stress is a common and often chronic feature in many States and arrangements should be made to meet scarcity

Hope of a good monsoon

  1. There is some hope that the southwest monsoon this year will benefit from an expected moderate La Niña condition in the equatorial Pacific
  2. It is marked by cooler-than-average sea surface temperature
Mar, 03, 2018

UN spotlight on Kerala’s energy-positive campus


Mains Paper 2: IR | Important International institutions, agencies & fora, their structure, mandate

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: UNEP Global Status Report 2017, Global Environment Fund

Mains level: India’s efforts in dealing with climate change


Recognition for energy efficiency

  1. The Energy Management Centre (EMC), an autonomous institution under the Kerala government, has grabbed the global spotlight for its energy-positive campus
  2. Energy Management Centre is the only Indian project to get recognition for energy efficiency in a UNEP report

Global Status Report 2017

  1. The ‘Global Status Report 2017: Towards a zero-emission, efficient, and resilient buildings and construction sector,’ is published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  2. It has listed the EMC campus as one of the recent achievements in the deployment of key technologies for energy-efficiency in buildings
  3. The EMC campus is the only LEED Gold certified building in the government sector in Kerala and is built with assistance from the Global Environment Fund


Global Environment Fund

  1. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems
  2. GEF is an international partnership of 183 countries, international institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector that addresses global environmental issues
  3. The GEF is a unique partnership of 18 agencies — including United Nations agencies, multilateral development banks, national entities and international NGOs
  4. It is the financial mechanism for for 5 major international environmental conventions: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD), the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and the Minamata Convention on Mercury
Feb, 22, 2018

India gives $1 million for rehabilitation work in cyclone-hit Tonga


Mains Paper 1: Geography | Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: India-UN Development Partnership Fund, Sustainable Development Goals, cyclones, hurricanes

Mains level: Impact of climate change on small island nations


South-South cooperation

  1. India has contributed USD one million for the rehabilitation efforts in Tonga after the Tropical Cyclone Gita caused massive destruction in the Pacific island nation
  2. India has allocated USD 500,000 in the India-UN Development Partnership Fund for the rehabilitation efforts while USD 500,000 will be provided for immediate relief assistance
  3. This has been done by India in the spirit of South-South cooperation

Previous assistance

  1. Last year, following devastation caused by the hurricanes Irma and Maria, India provided a sum of USD 2 million for rehabilitation projects in Antigua and Barbuda and Dominica through the India-UN Development Partnership Fund

Comabting climate change

  1. The first project under the fund focuses on climate early warning systems in Pacific Island countries
  2. The project aims to increase resilience from natural disasters of these seven Pacific island countries and contribute toward the Sustainable Development Goal of Climate Action


India-UN Development Partnership Fund

  1. The India-UN Development Partnership Fund is supported and led by the Government of India and managed by the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation
  2. The Fund supports Southern-owned and led, demand-driven, transformational sustainable development projects across the developing world, with a focus on least developed countries and small island developing states
  3. The USD 100 million fund was established on June 8, 2017
  4. United Nations agencies implement the Funds projects in close collaboration with partnering governments
Feb, 13, 2018

[op-ed snap] Adapting better to climate change


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Global Adaptation Fund, Climate change targets

Mains level: Constraints in implementing climate change related policies


Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  1. There are ongoing efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and restrict global warming to below 2°C or even below 1.5°C
  2. These projects on adaptation have been funded or implemented in a number of countries, either by individual governments or with the help of external donor funds

Failures of adaptation projects

  1. A 2010 survey of over 1,700 projects concluded that adaptation projects were not helping the most vulnerable communities
  2. Many projects on adaptation begin by studying what climate impacts are expected, what kinds of vulnerabilities exist locally and how these can be addressed in a given local context
  3. When several projects from the Global Adaptation Fund, an international fund managed by the United Nations climate secretariat to help developing countries with climate change adaptation projects, were analyzed, they too were found not to take into account unequal power structures

New framework to assess failure in adaptation

It involves four main themes to show that failures in adaptation

  1. The first is enclosure, which is when private agents acquire public assets or expand their authority over them
  2. Exclusion is the second mode of failure, which is associated with some stakeholders getting excluded or marginalised, thus limiting their access to decision-making processes
  3. The third is encroachment, in which the adaptation actions undertaken during the project end up intervening in areas that are rich in biodiversity
  • These interfere with ecosystem services and often result in an increase in greenhouse gas emissions

4. The last is entrenchment, where the condition of those who are already disempowered or marginalised in the local social context, such as the poor, women or other minorities, worsens from the intervention

There are various examples of projects from both developing and advanced industrial countries that fail under these themes

What can be done to reduce such incidences?

  1. Politics and power struggles to control resources need to be acknowledged as being part and parcel of adaptation projects
  2. Mechanisms to anticipate and deal with them correctly should be incorporated well in advance
  3. Elite networks will capture prized outcomes of projects, such as land, water or other resources and privileges, should be accepted
  4. Measures to prevent or mitigate their actions need to be identified

Way forward

  1. Forces of political economy and ecology that are an integral part of our societies cannot be wished away when considering adaptation projects
  2. While considering and designing climate change adaptation projects, in addition to vulnerabilities and costs, issues around equity, justice, and social hierarchies must be equally considered
Jan, 24, 2018

Nasa says earth’s global surface temperature in 2017 second warmest since 1880


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Impact of global warming on India and world


Latest report by the NASA

  1. The report has said that Earth’s global surface temperature in 2017 ranked as the second warmest since 1880 when global estimates became feasible
  2. It also stressed that if the effects of the recent El Niño and La Niña patterns were statistically removed from the record, 2017 would have been the warmest year on record

Findings of the research

  1. As per the analysis, Earth’s average surface temperature has risen about 2 degrees Fahrenheit (a little more than 1 degree Celsius) during the last century or so
  2. It is a change driven largely by increased carbon dioxide and other human-made emissions into the atmosphere

Impact on India due to rising sea levels

  1. For a country like India which has a vast coastline of about 7500 km inhabited by millions, the rising sea level means trouble
  2. India’s major cities like Mumbai, which is called country’s financial capital, and Kolkata are among the top 10 megacities across the world that face a serious threat due to rising sea levels

Impact on South Asian monsoon

  1. A warming trend could also have a significant impact on the monsoon
  2. According to a study done at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, rainfall has been decreasing over central South Asia — from south of Pakistan through central India to Bangladesh
  3. The decrease is highly significant over central India where agriculture is still mostly rain-fed, with reduction of up to 10-20% in the mean rainfall
Jan, 17, 2018

[op-ed snap] Can we still avoid the climate tipping point?


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Carbon profile, Paris agreement, World Meteorological Organization, etc.

Mains level: The article discusses serious upcoming challenges on climate front. It also discusses some possible solutions to minimize the effects of climate change.


The risks of climate change are greater than currently feared

  1. According to a British journal ‘Nature’, the rise in average global temperature by the end of the century is likely to be about 5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels
  2. This is off by a huge margin from 2 degrees Celsius scenario which has been considered by the global scientific community as the upper threshold that the Earth’s environment can withstand
  3. Beyond which irreversible changes in the global climate are likely to occur
  4. The World Meteorological Organization says that global emissions reached a record high of 403.3 parts per million (ppm) in 2016
  5. This level of pollution is highest in 800,000 years, and presents a scary picture of irreversible changes already happening in the global climate system

What can be done?

  1. While the 2 degrees Celsius threshold looks unlikely now, we, however, can still minimize its impact while simultaneously developing infrastructure to face the worst scenario
  2. Suggestions by the writer:

First: Model of development

  1. We need to fundamentally change our northern model of development which is based on the excessive resource consumption
  2. If the same model of development were to continue, it is going to be ecologically unsustainable for the planet

Second: Natural environment as a fundamental right

  1. We ought to treat the natural environment as a fundamental right and ask politicians to ensure it
  2. Political will flows from the people—when citizens care, politicians too act
  3. We as citizens have not demanded a measured action from our public representatives

Third: Regional, national and local strategies

  1. As the US has pulled out of the Paris agreement, it seems unlikely that there will be a global agreement now or in the near future
  2. Hence rather than a grand national or global strategy, we need to focus on regional, national and local strategies, e.g., cities
  3. The global urban population is likely to go up from 54% (3.9 billion) in 2014 to 66% (6.4 billion) in 2050
  4. Investing in energy-efficient appliances, powering homes with renewable energy, reducing water waste, using public transport and other measures can help in lowering the national, and ultimately the global, carbon profile

Fourth: Fossil-free energy future 

  1. The sharp fall in renewable energy cost had led to a record renewable capacity addition of 161 gigawatt (GW) in 2016, a 10% rise over 2015
  2. The falling price of renewable energy has made its cost comparable to fossil fuel in many parts of the world
  3. This is likely to accelerate the transition towards a fossil-free future

Finally: Developing countries need to focus more on adaptation than mitigation

  1. As the impact of climate change becomes increasingly visible, developing countries like India, need to focus more on adaptation than mitigation
  2. They need to develop infrastructure to rehabilitate people in their coastal areas, meet food demand with changing rain patterns and manage immigration caused by climate change


Carbon profiling

  1. Carbon profiling is a mathematical process that calculates how much carbon dioxide is put into the atmosphere per m2 of space in a building over one year
  2. The analysis is in two parts which are then added together to produce an overall figure which is termed the ‘Carbon Profile’: operational carbon emissions and embodied carbon emissions
  3. Embodied carbon emissions relate to the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from creating and maintaining the materials that form the building e.g. the carbon dioxide released from the baking of bricks or smelting or iron
  4. In the Carbon Profiling Model these emissions are measured as Embodied Carbon Efficiency (ECE), measured as kg of CO2/m2/year
  5. Occupational Carbon Emissions relate to the amount of Carbon Dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from the direct use of energy to run the building e.g. the heating or electricity used by the building over the year
  6. In the Carbon Profiling Model these emissions are measured in BER’s (Building Emission Rate) in kg of CO2/m2/year
  7. The BER is a United Kingdom government accepted unit of measurement that comes from an approved calculation process called sBEM (Simplified Building Emission Model)
  8. The purpose of Carbon Profiling is to provide a method of analyzing and comparing both operational and embodied carbon emissions at the same time
  9. With this information it is then possible to allocate a projects resources in such a way to minimize the total amount of Carbon Dioxide emitted into the atmosphere through the use of a given piece of space
  10. A secondary benefit is that having quantified the Carbon Profiling of different buildings it is then possible to make comparisons and rank buildings in term of their performance
  11. This allows investors and occupiers to identify which building are good and bad carbon investments
  12. Simon Sturgis and Gareth Roberts of Sturgis Associates in the United Kingdom originally developed ‘Carbon Profiling’ in December 2007
Jan, 08, 2018

Chemical ban helping ozone hole recover: Nasa


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Basics of Ozone Depletion

Mains level: One of the few positive outcomes of the efforts done against environmental pollution and degradation


NASA’s report on ozone depletion

  1. An international ban on chlorine-containing man-made chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), has resulted in about 20% less ozone depletion
  2. Chlorine from CFCs is going down in the ozone hole, and that less ozone depletion is occurring because of it

What are CFCs?

  1. CFCs are long-lived chemical compounds that eventually rise into the stratosphere, where they are broken apart by the sun’s ultraviolet radiation, releasing chlorine atoms that go on to destroy ozone molecules
  2. CFCs have lifetimes from 50 to 100 years, so they linger in the atmosphere for a very long time
  3. Stratospheric ozone protects life on the planet by absorbing potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation that can cause skin cancer and cataracts, suppress immune systems and damage plant life

Antarctic ozone hole

  1. The Antarctic ozone hole forms during September in the southern hemisphere’s winter as the returning sun’s rays catalyse ozone destruction cycles involving chlorine and bromine that come primarily from CFCs


Ozone Depeletion

  1. Ozone depletion describes two related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth’s stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s polar regions
  2. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. There are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events in addition to these stratospheric phenomena
  3. The main cause of ozone depletion and the ozone hole is man-made chemicals, especially man-made halocarbon refrigerants, solvents, propellants, and foam-blowing agents (chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs), HCFCs, halons), referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS)
  4. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere by the winds after being emitted at the surface
  5. Once in the stratosphere, they release halogen atoms through photodissociation, which catalyze the breakdown of ozone (O3) into oxygen (O2). Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halocarbons increased
  6. Ozone depletion and the ozone hole generated worldwide concern over increased cancer risks and other negative effects
  7. The ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths of ultraviolet light (UV light) from passing through the Earth’s atmosphere
  8. These wavelengths cause skin cancer, sunburn, and cataracts, which were projected to increase dramatically as a result of thinning ozone, as well as harming plants and animals
  9. These concerns led to the adoption of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which bans the production of CFCs, halons, and other ozone-depleting chemicals
Jan, 06, 2018

Oceans losing oxygen, can damage marine life: study


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the study and importance of oxygen in the sea

Mains level: Ocean is an important part of earth’s ecosystems. Any damage to it will directly affect human beings.


A latest study published in journal ‘Science’

  1. The study said that in the past 50 years, the amount of water in the open ocean with zero oxygen has gone up more than fourfold and in coastal water bodies, including estuaries and seas
  2. And low-oxygen sites have increased more than 10-fold since 1950
  3. Scientists expect oxygen to continue dropping even outside these zones as Earth warms up

It can directly affect humans

  1. According to the study, the situation can cause serious damage to marine life, affect livelihoods of millions of people and trigger the release of dangerous greenhouse gases like nitrous oxide
  2. The danger due to low oxygen in oceans is manifold
  3. As per the study, even small oxygen declines can stunt growth in animals, hinder reproduction and lead to disease or even death

What should be done?

  1. To keep low oxygen in check, the scientists said the world needs to take on the issue from three angles—address the causes, nutrient pollution and climate change
Jan, 02, 2018

Ancient jumping genes may control coral bleaching in warming oceans


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Coral Bleaching, Symbiodinium, etc.

Mains level: Importance of the newly found gene


Why is the research in news?

  1. Scientists have identified a gene that improves the heat tolerance of the algae that live symbiotically with coral species, and could potentially help the corals adapt to some warming
  2. Name of the special gene: Retrotransposons

Importance of the Algae for Corals

  1. Algae: Symbiodinium is a unicellular alga that provides its coral host with photosynthetic products in return for nutrients and shelter
  2. However, high sea temperatures can cause the breakdown of this symbiotic relationship and lead to the widespread expulsion of Symbiodinium from host tissues, an event known as coral bleaching
  3. If bleached corals do not recover, they starve to death, leaving only their white, calcium-carbonate exoskeleton


It’s all about corals

Dec, 21, 2017

‘2017 may be among top 3 hottest years’


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: World Meteorological Organization, El Nino

Mains level: Global warming and its impacts

First 11 months of 2017 third warmest on record

  1. The year 2017 will likely be among the three warmest years on global record, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
  2. The first 11 months of 2017 were the third warmest on record, behind 2016 and 2015
  3. Much-warmer-than-average conditions engulfed much of the world’s land and ocean surfaces

Geographical impacts

  1. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice coverage remain at near record lows
  2. 2017 may also be the warmest year without an El Nino — a climate phenomenon that causes global temperatures to shoot up
  3. There is an overall, long-term trend of warming since the late 1970s, and especially this century


World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

  1. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories
  2. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873
  3. Established by the ratification of the WMO Convention on 23 March 1950, WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences
  4. Its supreme body is the World Meteorological Congress

El Nino

  1. El Niño is an oscillation of the ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe
  2. El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America
  3. El Niño is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific
  4. The cool phase of ENSO is called “La Niña” with SST in the eastern Pacific below average and air pressures high in the eastern and low in western Pacific
Dec, 15, 2017

No lake formation near Gaumukh or along the course of river Bhagirathi: reports


Mains Paper 1: Geography | changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies & ice-caps) & in flora & fauna & the effects of such changes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Gangotri glacier, Gaumukh, Bhagirathi river, landslide

Mains level: Early detection of disasters and prevention


No lake formation at Gaumukh

  1. A team of scientists and government officials who did an aerial survey of the Gangotri glacier dismissed claims of any lake formation at Gaumukh which could hinder the course of the Bhagirathi river
  2. This was done day after the Uttarakhand high court ordered the state government to clear the lake that had formed near Gaumukh
  3. The high court had instructed the state government to clear the lake near Gaumukh to prevent any future disasters like the one at Kedarnath in June 2013
  4. Gaumukh is the snout of the Gangotri glacier from where the Bhagirathi river originates

Reason behind “lake” formation

  1. The satellite data available with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) from November 2011 to October 2017 was analyzed by the expert agencies
  2. It was observed that in July 2017 a landslide had occurred due to which debris had been deposited “slightly away” from Gaumukh
  3. It showed “minor pondage” near the snout of the Gangotri glacier, but “no blockage” was observed in the Bhagirathi river

Is this anything to worry about?

  1. There was no imminent danger from the landslide that had occurred during the rainy season of 2017
  2. At present, there exists no lake along the course of the river and there isn’t any obstruction in the path of the river
Dec, 01, 2017

Winter may be warmer than 40-year normal


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Global warming, cold waves

Mains level: Effects of climate change in India as well as across the globe


Forecast by the India Meteorological Department

  1. Winter temperatures across the country are, are on the whole, expected to be cooler than last year
  2. In keeping with the trend in recent years, they are likely to be warmer than the 40-year ‘normal’ winter temperatures
  3. In general, maximum and minimum temperatures across most States are likely to elevated

Global warming showing effect

  1. The warming trends are part of a larger pattern stoked by global warming
  2. Last winter was, on an average, about a degree warmer than the historical normal
  3. Between March and May this year, mean temperature was also warmer than normal with an anomaly of +0.77C,
  4. This along with 2010 was the sixth warmest ever spring season since 1901

Cold waves

  1. Cold waves — a characteristic mark of winters in north India — too may see a dip
  2. There is a 40% chance that minimum temperatures will be above normal in the so-called “core cold wave zone” of North and middle India

Other reasons behind variability in cold waves

  1. Other than global warming, ocean conditions over the equatorial Indian and Pacific oceans also contribute to the year-to-year variability of cold waves over the country
Nov, 15, 2016

World likely to cross 1.2°C global warming level this year

  1. Source: A preliminary assessment provided by the World Meteorological Organisation in its Status of the Global Climate in 2016 report
  2. Finding: The world is likely to cross 1.2° C of global warming above pre-industrial levels in 2016
  3. This is dangerously close to breaching the 1.5° C warming levels advised as an ambitious target to stay safe from the worst impacts of climate change
  4. Impact of warming: There were a number of major heat waves and droughts experienced during 2015-2016
  5. The year started with an extreme heat wave in southern Africa, exacerbated by the ongoing drought
  6. The report also mentions Phalodi in Rajasthan, India which set a new record for heat in India recording 51.0°C on May 19
  7. The Paris Agreement last year had adopted 2°C as the absolute threshold for staying within safe global warming levels
  8. However, 1.5°C was advised as an ambitious target, especially bearing in mind the fate of small island countries such as Haiti or Maldives
  9. These islands are threatened with submergence due to sea-level rise and extreme weather events
  10. In parts of Arctic Russia, temperatures were 6°C to 7°C above the long-term average
Sep, 15, 2016

Greenland sets record temperatures, ice melts early

  1. News: Temperature records are broken in Greenland this year after parts of the territory’s vast ice sheet began melting unusually early
  2. These new results give the new and robust evidence of the tendency of warmer temperatures in the Arctic continuing
  3. Record temperatures: The average summer temperature was 8.2 degrees Celsius (46.8 degrees Fahrenheit) in Tasiilaq on Greenland’s southeast coast
  4. This is the highest since records began in 1895 and 2.3 degrees Celsius above the average between 1981 and 2010
Jun, 08, 2016

Gangotri glacier retreated by 3 km in two centuries

  1. Retreat: The rate of retreating Gangotri glacier has increased sharply since 1971
  2. It is 22 metres per year
  3. Reasons: Lesser ice formation each year than its current rate of melting of ice
  4. Climate change and global warming are the main reasons
  5. Dwindling snowfall affects volume of water fed to the Bhagirathi, the main source of the Ganga
  6. Concern: Due to melting of ice, small lakes are forming on the top of glacier
  7. Earlier: The blast of one such glacial lake in Chorabari that led to the June 2013 flood disaster in Kedarnath
  8. Also the shape of the Gangotri glacier is changing from convex to concave
Jun, 07, 2016

Arctic regions getting greener due to climate change: NASA

  1. Context: A new NASA study on Arctic region
  2. Finding: Due to changing climate, Arctic regions of North America are getting greener, with almost a third of the land cover looking more like landscapes found in warmer ecosystems
  3. Temperatures are warming faster in the Arctic than elsewhere, which has led to longer seasons for plants to grow in and changes to the soils
  4. Observation: Grassy tundras changing to shrublands, and shrubs growing bigger and denser — changes that could have impacts on regional water, energy and carbon cycles
  5. The study was done using Landsat
Dec, 21, 2015

Role of tropical forests in reducing global warming

Tropical forests can achieve a below 2 C rise in global warming by 2050.

  1. As the transition from total reliance on fossil fuels to that on renewable sources of energy is expected to take place over the next 35 years.
  2. Enhancing carbon uptake and reducing emissions could account for as much as 50 per cent of total carbon emissions.
  3. To achieve a 75 per cent likelihood of avoiding warming in excess of 2 degrees C through changes in fossil fuel emissions alone.
  4. The landscape with shifting cultivation has 10 per cent of the land in crops, say, and 90 per cent of the land in fallows.
Nov, 26, 2015

2015 set to be 'hottest year on record', says UN

This is due to a combination of a strong El Niũo and human-induced global warming.

  1. This year is set to be the hottest on record and 2016 could be even hotter due to the current El Niũo weather pattern.
  2. The global average surface temperatures in 2015 were likely to reach what it called the “symbolic and significant milestone” of 1° Celsius above the pre-industrial era.
  3. The El Nino weather pattern, marked by warming sea-surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, causes extremes such as scorching weather and flooding.
May, 04, 2015

1 in 6 species can face extinction by end of century due to global warming

  1. 16 % of species in the world would face the risk of extinction because of climatic factors.
  2. The endemic plants and animals of Australia, South America and New Zealand are at risk as for they would not be able to go to other place when their only homeland becomes uninhabitable.
  3. While, the species in North American and European regions have the lowest extinction risk due to climate change.
Feb, 02, 2015

Mangroves extending polewards

Mangroves are tropical forests and cannot tolerate extreme cold events but due to the global warming, there has been a reduction in the frequency of frosts in Florida and hence they are extending polewards.

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