From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Not Much
Mains level : India-China border disputes
As tensions remain high between Indian and Chinese soldiers, the number of recorded Chinese transgressions across the disputed India-China border surged by 75 per cent in Ladakh in 2019, and the Chinese forays into Indian Territory in the first four months of the current year have also witnessed an increase compared to the same period last year.
- The border between India and China is not fully demarcated and the Line of Actual Control (LAC) is neither clarified nor confirmed by the two countries.
- This leads to different perceptions of the LAC for the two sides while soldiers from either side try to patrol the area.
- Observation Methods: Use of surveillance equipment, face-offs by patrols, reliable indications by locals, or evidence left by the Chinese in the form of wrappers, biscuit packets etc. in an unmanned area.
- Official data shows that 80% of Chinese transgressions across the LAC since 2015 have taken place in four locations of which three are in eastern Ladakh in the western sector.
- These areas of eastern Ladakh are Pangong Tso, Trig Heights and Burtse.
- The fourth area is the Dichu Area/Madan Ridge area (Arunachal Pradesh) of the Eastern sector.
Implications of Increased Number of Transgressions:
- It is an indicator of increased Chinese assertiveness.
- Even if there are no major incidents, it should not be taken lightly.
- So far, there has been no major standoff between the two sides after the 73-day Doklam standoff on Sikkim-Bhutan border in 2017.
- India is worried about the tensions at Naku La in Sikkim and at Galwan river and Pangong Tso in Ladakh.
- The increased transgressions lead to more tensions between both countries which are already struggling to contain the Covid-19 pandemic.
- Nepal’s recent behaviour on the Mansarovar Link Road raising the border map issue also raises Indian concerns.
- The constant accusations on each other also cause tensions and disrupt the peace on borders.
- Recently, Chinese media accused India of building defence facilities in the Galwan Valley region of the contested Aksai Chin area.
- India and China are both nuclear-armed countries with strong militaries and the constant border conflicts are not a desirable thing.
- In the Wuhan and Mahabalipuram summits, both China and India had reaffirmed that they will make efforts to ensure peace and tranquility in the border areas.
- On 1st April, 2020 India and China completed their 70 years of diplomatic relations.
- Both countries have resolved border issues peacefully in the past four decades which gives the hope that the tensions will subside soon.
- Establishment of peace between the two big powers of such an important geopolitical region is essential for their own growth and development as well as for maintenance of global peace.
Practice question for mains:
Q. Clear demarcation of the national borders is the need of the hour. Discuss.