From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Not much
Mains level : Population control measures
On World Population Day, Uttar Pradesh CM has released the state’s new population policy, which aims to reduce its growth rate to 2.1 per cent over the next 10 years.
Why UP needs such policy?
- Uttar Pradesh, India’s most populous state, has a population of around 220 million.
- In Uttar Pradesh, there are limited ecological and economic resources at hand.
- It was necessary that the provision of basic necessities of human life, economic/livelihood opportunities and a secure living is accessible to all citizens.
Provisions of UP Population Policy
The provision of this legislation shall apply to a married couple where the boy is not less than 21 years of age and the girl is not less than 18.
[A] Contraception and Abortion
- The state population policy will focus on efforts to increase the accessibility of contraceptive measures issued under the Family Planning Programme.
- It would provide a proper system for safe abortion
- Focus area to include reducing the newborns and maternal mortality rate.
- Care of the elderly, and better management of education, health, and nutrition of adolescents between 11 to 19 years has also been ensured in the policy, according to the state government
[B] Two-child policy
- The state government will give promotions, increments, concessions in housing schemes and others perks to employees who adhere to population control norms, and have two or less children
- “Public servants who adopt the two-child norm will get two additional increments during the entire service, maternity or as the case may be.
- There shall be paternity leave of 12 months, with full salary and allowances and three percent increase in the employer’s contribution fund under the National Pension Scheme.
- Those who aren’t government employees and still adhere to two-child policy will get benefits in rebates in taxes on water, housing, home loans etc.
- It also states that maternity centres will be set up at all primary health centres.
Incentives for sterilization
- As per the draft, several incentives have been provided to people, including public servants, if they adopt the norm by undergoing voluntary sterilization.
- The incentives include a 3% increase in the employer’s contribution fund under national pension; two additional increments during the entire service; subsidy towards purchase of plot or house site or build house etc.
- A couple living below the poverty line who have only one child and undergoes voluntary sterilisation, shall be eligible for payment of a one-time ₹80,000 if the single child is a boy and ₹1 lakh if it is a girl.
Who will not benefit from the law?
- According to the bill, people having more than two children in UP will be debarred from benefits of all government-sponsored welfare schemes, cannot contest local polls.
- They shall be ineligible to apply for government jobs under the state or receiving any kind of subsidy, cannot get a promotion in a government job and his or her ration card would be limited to four members.
How will the state implement measures?
- The UP government plans to set up a state population fund to implement the measures.
- The draft bill also asks the state government to introduce population control as a compulsory subject in all secondary schools.
Back2Basics: Fertility Rate
- Fertility rate may be defined as the number of children that would be born of a woman during her reproductive years.
- For a country’s population to remain stable, it is the total fertility rate should be 2.1.
- Studies suggest that India’s national fertility rate is 2.2 at the moment.