Nikaalo Prelims Spotlight || Information and Communication Technology

Dear Aspirants,

This Spotlight is a part of our Mission Nikaalo Prelims-2023.

You can check the broad timetable of Nikaalo Prelims here

Session Details

YouTube LIVE with Parth sir – 1 PM  – Prelims Spotlight Session

Evening 04 PM  – Daily Mini Tests

Join our Official telegram channel for Study material and Daily Sessions Here

31st Mar 2023


  • Mobile communication involves transmitting voice or data using wireless radio transmission.
  • Mobile generations refer to change like mobile wireless communication network speed, technology, data capacity, frequency, latency etc.


  • 5G is the next-generation cellular technology that will provide faster and more reliable communication with ultra-low latency.
  • Latency is a measure of delay. In a network, latency measures the time it takes for some data to get to its destination across the network.


  • 4G mobile technology provides wireless mobile broadband internet access in addition to voice and other services of 3G.
  • Applications include improved web access, Internet Protocol (IP) telephony, Video Conferencing, Cloud Computing, Gaming Services, High-Definition Mobile TV etc.
  • 4G uses LTE (Long Term Evolution) technology, which allows voice & data-communication simultaneously.
Long Term Evolution Voice over Long-Term Evolution
While accessing Data it uses 4G & voice calls routed to 2G / 3G network Enables both data & voice over the same 4G network


  • Wi-Fi 6 is the sixth generation of WIFI, working on the same principal as other wireless devices- It uses radio frequencies to send signals between devices.
  • Wi-Fi is just a type of WLAN.

Key benefits of Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6 technology:

1. Higher data rates

2. Increased capacity

3. Performance in environments with many connected devices

4. Improved power efficiency

Wi-Fi 6 caters the need of improved network connection and speed which is required for the Internet of Things (IoT).


  • Recently the Indian government approved to provide inflight Wi-Fi service.
  • It works based on any one of the following two methods:
    1. Air-to-ground Wi-Fi System: Similar to cell phone connectivity.
    2. Satellite-based Wi-Fi System


  • It is a wireless technology standard used to exchange data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using Radio waves.
  • Bluetooth 2 is the latest version.


  • A hotspot is a physical location where people can access the Internet, via a wireless local area network (WLAN) with a router connected to an Internet service provider.


  • These are smart electronic devices designed to be worn on the user’s body.
  • Ex: Smart jewelry, Wristbands, watches etc.
  • These devices detect, analyze, and transmit information.
  • Wearable technology is evolving into an important category of the Internet of things, with life-changing applications in medicine and other fields.


  • NFC is a short-range contactless communicationtechnology based on a Radio Frequency (RF) field using a base frequency of 13.56 MHz
  • NFC-enabled devices must be either physically touching or within a few centimeters of each other for data transfer to occur.


  • RFID technology uses radio waves to passively identify a tagged object.
  • An RFID tag consists of a tiny radio transponder; a radio receiver and transmitter.
  • Unlike a barcode, the tag doesn’t need to be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object.
Aspect NFC RFID Bluetooth Wi-Fi
Maximum Coverage 10 cm 3 m 100 m 100 m
Frequency of operation 13.56MHz Varies 2.4GHz 2.4 – 5 GHz
Communication Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional Bidirectional
Applications Card payments Toll pass, Items tracking Communication, Data transfer Wireless Internet


  • IoT is the interlinking of digital devices, people, machines, appliances, & other objects with one another through wireless networks.
  • It allows machines & people to be connected and communicate as well.
  • IoT Applications are many including works of daily life, Industry, Agriculture, Healthcare, Transportation, Governance etc.

IoT and India

  • IoT is part of Digital India mission.
  • The National Digital Communications Policy, 2018 to aid its development.
  • 100% FDI is allowed in the Telecom sector.
  • The government has set a target of USD 15 billion for the IoT market by the year 2020. This would be 5 to 6% of the global IoT industry.


  • AI refers to the simulation of human intelligencein machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions.
  • AI is a self, adaptive learning
  • Applications: Industrial automation, Space science, self-driven cars, Healthcare sector, weather forecasting etc.


· According to the ‘Global AI Report’ 2019, AI will add 957 billion dollars to India’s GDP by the year 2035 boosting India’s annual growth by 1.3% points.

· India stood at the 9th position in terms of the number of AI specialists working.

· The US, China & the UK topped the list.

Steps were taken by the Government

· In 2018-19 budget, the government-mandated NITI Aayog to establish the National Program on AI

· AIRAWAT – Artificial Intelligence Research, Analytics and Knowledge Assimilation Platform by NITI Aayog.

· National Strategy for AI, 2018 focuses on 5 sectors:

1. Healthcare

2. Agriculture

3. Education

4. Smart Cities & Infrastructure

5. Smart Mobility and Transportation.

National Artificial Intelligence Portal

· A joint initiative of National e-Governance Division of Ministry of Electronics and IT and NASSCOM.

· It will work as a one-stop digital platform for AI-related developments in India

RAISE (Responsible AI for Social Empowerment) 2020 · Organized by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) to use AI for Social Empowerment.


  • Theseare large systems that are specifically designed to solve complex scientific & industrial challenges.
  • The performance of a supercomputer is measured in Floating-Point Operations per Second (FLOPS).
  • The top five Supercomputers in the world:
    1. Fugaku (Japan)
    2. Summit (USA)
    3. Sierra (USA)
    4. Sunway Taihu Light (China)
    5. Tianhe-2 (China)
  • India has 4 supercomputers in the list of world’s top 500 supercomputers with Pratyush Mihir being the fastest super-computers in India.
  • Application areas: Climate Modeling, Computational Biology, Atomic Energy Simulations, National Defence, Disaster management etc.


  • Launched in 2015
  • NSM is jointly steered by the MeitY and Department of S&T (DST) &
  • Implemented by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Pune & the IISc, Bengaluru.
  • Objective: to connect national academic and R&D institutions with a grid of over 70 high-performance computing facilities.
  • These will be networked on the ‘National Supercomputing Grid’ over theNational Knowledge Network (NKN).


· ParamShivay: India’s first supercomputer was installed in IIT (BHU), followed by Param Shakti and Param Brahma at IIT-Kharagpur& IISER, Pune, respectively.

· Rudra: an indigenous server.

· SHAKTI: India’s first indigenously developed microprocessor (by, IIT Madras)


  • Quantum computersare machines that use the properties of quantum physics to store data and perform computations.
  • classical computer performs operations using classical bits, which can be either 0 or 1.
  • Quantum computer uses quantum bits or Qubits, which can be both 0 and 1 at the same time.
  • Major advantages: Faster, Accurate, & Energy efficient.


  • There are no quantum computers in India yet.
  • In 2018, the Department of Science & Technology unveiled a programme called Quantum-Enabled Science & Technology (QuST) to accelerate research on Quantum computing.
  • SYCAMORE: is Google’s Quantum Computer, which recently claimed Quantum Supremacy.
  • It reportedly did a task in 200 seconds that would have taken a supercomputer 10,000 years to complete.
  • Quantum Supremacy: refers to quantum computers being able to solve a problem that a classical computer cannot.

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