[Prelims Spotlight] Festivals , Dances, Music

Indian Festivals

Kumbha Mela
  • Held at all 4 places every 3 years by rotation (Allahabad, Haridwar, Nashik, Ujjain)
  • Associated rivers : Ganga at Haridwar, the Sangam of the Ganga, Yamuna and the mythical Saraswati at Allahabad,  Godawari at Nashik, and Shipra at Ujjain
  • Ardha Kumbh Mela  : Haridwar and Prayag every 6 years
  • Purna Kumbh Mela  : Prayag every 12 years
  • Maha Kumbh Mela  : Prayag every 144 years
Holi
  • last full moon day of  Phalguna
Maha Shivaratri
  • 13th night in Krishna Paksha of Phalguna
Navaratri
  • 9 forms of Shakti are worshipped on 9 nights
Vinayaga Chaturthi
  • On occasion of birth of Ganesha
Vasant Panchami
  • Worshiping Saraswati –  the goddess of knowledge, music and art
  • Children are taught to write their first words; Brahmins are fed ; ancestral worship is performed; the god of love- Kamadeva is worshipped
  • People usually wear yellow garments
Ramzan
  • Muslims refrain from eating, drinking and sexual relations from dawn until sunset
  • Intended to teach Muslims about patience, humility & spirituality
Guru Purnima
  • Buddhists in the honor of lord Buddha who gave his first sermon on this day at Sarnath
  • Hindus on this day offer Puja or pay respect to their Guru
Buddha Poornima
  • Birth anniversary of Lord Buddha
Christmas
  • Commemorate the birth of Jesus
Easter
  • Oldest and holiest Christian festival – the day when Jesus Christ was crucified
  • On this day Jesus Christ rose from the dead and ascended into heaven
Thai Pongal
  • Harvest festival celebrated in Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Sri Lanka
  • To thank the Sun God and farmstead livestock
  • Boiling of milk in clay pot symbolize material abundance for household
Muharram
  • Celebrated on the 1st  month of the Islamic calendar
  • unlawful to fight during this month
Dree Festival
  • an agricultural rite, which is observed by Apatanis in Arunachal Pradesh
  • involves sacrifice of fowls, eggs and animals to the sun & moon god to appease these Gods to avoid feminine

Indian Dances

Indian Folk Music

 

    • Baul : It is a type of Bengali music and a religious sect. The lyrics carry influence from Bhakti movement as well as sufi movement.
    • Wanawan : Folk music from kashmir which is sung during wedding ceremonies.
    • Padwani : This music is based on Mahabharata and uses both singing and playing instruments.
    • Alha : Song is from Madhya Pradesh and is a heroic ballad song.
    • Paani hari : Song is from the state of Rajasthan and is thematically related to water. Songs are generally about women fetching water from nearby well.
    • Ovi : Maharashtra and Goan women sing such songs during leisure time.
    • Pai song : Songs are mostly from Madhya Pradesh sung during festivals.
    • Lavani : Popular folk song from Maharashtra. Music has powerful rhythm and beats and is suitable for dancing.
    • Maand : Developed in the royal circles
    • Dandiya raas : Performed in Gujarat and is associated with holi and lila of Krishna and Radha at Vrindavan
    • Powada : Folk type emerging from Maharashtra
    • Khongjom Parva : Important folk music from state of Manipur.
  • Bhagwati : Popular amongst masses of Karnataka and Maharashtra. Musically they are close to ghazals and are sung on a slower pitch.

Classical Dances

The classical dance forms recognised by the Sangeet Natak Akademi and the Ministry of Culture are

  • Bharatanatyam, from Tamil Nadu
  • Kathak, from Uttar Pradesh and western India
  • Kathakali, from Kerala
  • Kuchipudi, from Andhra Pradesh
  • Odissi, from Odisha
  • Sattriya, from Assam
  • Manipuri, from Manipur
  • Mohiniyattam, from Kerala

Indian Music

MUSIC OF INDIA

The two main traditions of classical music in India are Carnatic music and Hindustani Music. Carnatic Music are found predominantaly in the peninsular regions and Hindustani music are found in the northern and central regions.

Hindustani Music

Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions but also enriched by the Persian performance practices of the Mughals.

Dhrupad is an old style of Hindustani singing, traditionally performed by male singers. The great Indian musician Tansen sang in the Dhrupad style. Dhrupad was the main form of northern Indian classical music but has now given way to Khyal.

Khyal is a form of vocal music in Hindustani music. It was adopted from medieval Persian music It is special as it is based on improvising and expressing emotion.

Another vocal form Tarana are medium to fast pa ced songs that ar e usual ly per formed towards the end of the concert. They consist of  a few lines of poetry with rhythmic syllables.

Tappa is a from of Indian semi- classical vocal music. It originated from the folk songs of the camel riders of Punjab and was developed as a form of classical music by Mian Ghulam Nabi Shori.

Thumri is a semi classical vocal form said to have begun in Uttar Pradesh. The lyrics are typically in Brij Bhasha and are usually romantic.

Ghazal is an originally Persian form of Poetry. In India, Ghazal became the most common form of poetry in the  Urdu language.

Although Hindustani music clearly is focused on the vocal   performance, recently instrumental Hindustani music is very popular than vocal music especially outside South Asia.

Carnatic Music

Carnatic  music is a system  of music commonly associated with the southern part of  India especially. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Carnatic music is completely melodic with improvised variations. Purandara Dasa is credited with having founded today’s Carnatic music.He is credited with having elevated Carnatic music from religious and devotional music into the realm of a performing art. Carnatic music is usually performed by a small ens embl e  of mus i cia ns consi s t ing of a principa l per former (vocalist ) a viol in, mridanga ,and a tamburu. Today carnatic music is presented by musicians in concerts or recordings either vocally or through instruments.

Indian Folk Music

 

    • Baul : It is a type of Bengali music and a religious sect. The lyrics carry influence from Bhakti movement as well as sufi movement.

 

    • Wanawan : Folk music from kashmir which is sung during wedding ceremonies.

 

    • Padwani : This music is based on Mahabharata and uses both singing and playing instruments.

 

    • Alha : Song is from Madhya Pradesh and is a heroic ballad song.

 

    • Paani hari : Song is from the state of Rajasthan and is thematically related to water. Songs are generally about women fetching water from nearby well.

 

    • Ovi : Maharashtra and Goan women sing such songs during leisure time.

 

    • Pai song : Songs are mostly from Madhya Pradesh sung during festivals.

 

    • Lavani : Popular folk song from Maharashtra. Music has powerful rhythm and beats and is suitable for dancing.

 

    • Maand : Developed in the royal circles

 

    • Dandiya raas : Performed in Gujarat and is associated with holi and lila of Krishna and Radha at Vrindavan

 

    • Powada : Folk type emerging from Maharashtra

 

    • Khongjom Parva : Important folk music from state of Manipur.

 

  •  Bhagwati : Popular amongst masses of Karnataka and Maharashtra. Musically they are close to ghazals and are sung on a slower pitch.

 

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