18th June 2021
Samanvaya: Free 1-to-1 mentorship for UPSC IAS
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Travellers Visited India
Period: (320-273 BC)
Who: Greek Ambassador
Came India in the reign of Bindusara.
Period: (302-298 B.C.)
Who: Greek ethnographer & ambassador.
Ambassador of Seleucus Nicator, who visited in the court of Chandragupta Maurya.
Wrote an interesting book Indica.
Period: 130 A.D.
Who: From Greece and Geographer.
Wrote “Geography of India” which gives the description of Ancient India.
Period: (405-411 A.D.)
Who: Chinese Buddhist Monk
Came to India in the reign of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya.
– Visited the birth place of Buddha, Lumbini.
– His Travelogue “Records of Buddhist Kingdoms”.
– Wrote Fo-Kyo-Ki.
Period: (630-645 A.D.)
Who: Chinese Buddhist Monk
Visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana.
– Came through Tashkent and Swat Valley.
– Book is “Si-Yu-Ki or the records of western world”.
Period: ( 671- 695 A.D.)
Who: Chinese traveller
Visited India in connection with Buddhism.
– His works are Biographies of Eminent Monks.
– Gives useful information about the social, religious and cultural life of the people of this country.
Period: (957 A.D.)
Who: Arab Traveller
Gives an extensive account of India in his work “Muruj-ul-Zahab”.
Al- Beruni or Abu Rehan Mahamud
Period: (1024-1030 A.D.)
Who: Muslim Scholar and Polymath
Came along with Mahmud Ghazni during one of his Indian raids.
– First Muslim Scholar to study India also known as founder of Indology.
– Wrote “ Tahqiq-i-Hind/Kitab-ul-Hind.
Period: (1292-1294 AD)
Who: Venetian Traveller
Visited South India in 1294 A.D during the reign of Pandyan ruler of Madurai, Madverman, Kulshekhara (1272-1311)
His work “The Book of Sir Marco Polo” which gives an invaluable account of the economic history of India.
Period: (1333-1347 A.D.)
Who: Morrish traveller
Visited India during the reign of Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq.
His book “ Rehla” (the travelogue)
Period: (1348 A.D.)
Who: Came from Damascus
He gives a vivid account of India in his book “ Masalik albsar fi-mamalik al-amsar”
Period: (1420-1421 A.D.)
Who: Venetian traveller
Came during the rule of Devraya I of Sangam Dynasty of Vijayanagar empire.
Given a graphic account of Vijayanagaras capital.
Period: (1443-1444 A.D.)
Who: Persian traveller, Ambassador of Shahrukh of Timurid dynasty.
– Came during the rule of Devraya II of Sangam dynasty of Vijaynagar Empire.
– Came in India at Zamorin’s Calicut.
Given a brief account of this countryside, in his Matla us Saddin wa Majuma ul Baharain.
Period: (1470- 1474 A.D.)
Who: Russian merchant
Visited South India in 1470.
-He describes the condition of the Bahmani kingdom under Muhammad III (1463-82).
– His narrative “ The journey beyond 3 seas”
Period: (1500-1516 A.D.)
Who: Portuguese traveller
He has given a brief description of the government and the people of Vijayanagar Empire.
Period: (1520-1522 A.D.)
Who: Portuguese traveller
Visited the court of Krishnadeva Raya of Vijayanagar Empire.
Period: (1535-1537 A.D.)
Who: Portuguese merchant
Came during the rule of Achyutdeva Raya of Tuluv dynasty of vijayanagar Empire.
Wrote history of the empire from its earliest times of the closing years of Achyutdeva Raya’s reign.
John Hughen Von Linschotten
Period: (1583 A.D.)
Who: Dutch traveller
Given a valuable account of the social and economic life of South India.
Period: (1608-1611 A.D.)
Who: Ambassador of James I, king of England.
Came in India at the reign of Jahangir,the great Mughal Emperor. William finch came with him.
Sir Thomas Roe
Period: (1615-1619 A.D.)
Who: Ambassador of James I, king of England.
Came in India at the reign of Jahangir,the great Mughal Emperor.
Period: (1616 A.D.)
Who: Ambassador of Thomas Roe.
Describe about Indian social (Gujarat) behaviour.
Period: (1620-1627 A.D.)
Who: Dutch traveller stayed at Agra.
Gave a vivid account of the flourishing trade at Surat, Ahmadabad, Broach, Cambay, Lahore, Multan etc.
Period: (1630-34 A.D.)
Who: Italian traveller
Came in the reign of the Mughal Emperor, Shahjahan.
Gives valuable information about the living standard of the common people in the Mughal Empire.
John Albert de Mandesto
Period: (1638 A.D.)
Who: German traveller
Reached Surat in 1638 A.D.
Jeen Baptiste Tavernier
Period: (1638-1663 A.D.)
Who: French traveller
Visited India 6 times in the reign of Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
Period: (1653-1708 A.D.)
Who: Italian traveller
He got service at the court of Dara Shikoh.
Period: (1656- 1717 A.D.)
Who: French physician and Philosopher.
Danishamand Khan, a noble of Aurangzeb was his patron.
Jean de Thevenot
Period: (1666 A.D.)
Who: French traveller
Given an account of cities like Ahmadabad, Cambay, Aurangabad and Golconda.
Period: (1672-1681 A.D.)
Who: English traveller
Given a vivid account of Surat and Bombay.
Period: (1695 A.D.)
Who: Italian traveller who landed at Daman.
His remarks on the Mughal emperor’s military organisation and administration are important.
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Habitable-zone Planet Finder
What are the new missions?
This aims to explore Neptune’s icy moon, Triton, so that scientists can understand the development of habitable worlds in the Solar System.
Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy will aim to map Venus’s surface to find out why Venus developed so differently from Earth.
Pale Blue Dot
About Voyager 1
The Family Portrait of the Solar System
Spitzer Space Telescope
Thirty Metre Telescope
About New Horizons mission
Ionospheric Connection Explorer
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)
Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA)
Parker Solar Probe
About Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)
About PUNCH Mission
Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) Telescope
About the mission
BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)
1.1 Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana
● To achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level.
● To enhance the recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices.
● To explore the feasibility of reusing treated municipal wastewater for peri-urban agriculture.
● To attract greater private investments in irrigation.
● To promote extension activities relating to water harvesting, water management and crop alignment for farmers and grass root level field
● Decentralized State level planning and projectized execution’ structure, in order to allow States to draw up a District Irrigation Plan (DIP) and a State Irrigation Plan (SIP). These plans need to be prepared in order to access
the PMKSY fund.
● It will be supervised and monitored by the Inter-Ministerial National Steering Committee (NSC) under PM with Union Ministers of all concerned Ministries. A National Executive Committee (NEC) is to be constituted under the Chairmanship of the Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog to oversee programme implementation.
● PMKSY has been formulated amalgamation ongoing schemes viz. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP); Integrated
Watershed Management Programme (IWMP); and On-Farm Water Management (OFWM) component of National Mission on Sustainable
● Water budgeting is done for all sectors namely, household, agriculture and industries.
● Investments will happen at farm level. So, farmers know what is happening and can provide valuable feedback.
● Recently, the Long Term Irrigation Fund has been instituted under PMKSY in NABARD for funding and fast-tracking the implementation
of incomplete major and medium irrigation projects.
1.2 RASHTRIYA KRISHI VIKAS YOJANA – RAFTAAR (RKVY-RAFTAAR)
● To make farming a remunerative economic activity through strengthening the farmer’s efforts, risk mitigation and promoting
● To attend national priorities through several sub-schemes.
● To empower youth through skill development, innovation and agri entrepreneurship based business models.
● RKVY, initiated in 2007 as an umbrella scheme for holistic development of agriculture and allied sectors, has been recently revamped as
RKVY-RAFTAAR – Remunerative Approaches for Agriculture and Allied sector Rejuvenation for 2017-19 and 2019-20.
● It provided states with considerable flexibility and autonomy for planning and executing Programs.
● The decentralised planning for agriculture and allied sectors is initiated by the states through District Agriculture Plan and State Agriculture
Plan based on agro-climatic conditions, availability of appropriate technology and natural priorities.
● It will incentivize states to increase allocations for agriculture and allied sectors and help in creation of post-harvest infrastructure and
promotion of private investment in the farm sector across the country.
● Fund Allocation – 60:40 grants between Centre
and States in states and 90:10 for North Eastern States and Himalayan States through following streams – o Infrastructure & Assets and Production Growth o RKVY-RAFTAAR special sub-schemes of National Priorities o Innovation
and agri-entrepreneur development.
● Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India
● Crop Diversification Program – It is being implemented in the Original Green Revolution States of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh to diversify area from water-guzzling crop
● Reclamation of Problem Soil ● Foot & Mouth Disease – Control Program
● Saffron Mission
● Accelerated Fodder Development Programme (AFDP)
1.3 NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY MISSION
● Increasing production of rice, wheat, pulses, coarse cereals and commercial crops through area expansion and productivity enhancement
in a sustainable manner.
● Restore soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level.
● Enhancing farm level economy.
● It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme which was launched in 2007.
● The approach of the scheme is to bridge the yield gap in respect of these crops through dissemination of improved technologies and farm management practices while focusing on districts which have high potential but relatively low level of productivity at present.
● Major Components – National Food Security Mission – Rice, National Food Security Mission – Wheat, National Food Security Mission – Pulses,
National Food Security Mission – Coarse Cereals and National Food Security Mission –Commercial Crops.
1.4 National Horticulture Mission
1. To provide holistic growth of the horticulture sector through an area based regionally differentiated strategies, to enhance horticulture production, improve nutritional security and income support to farm households
2. To establish convergence and synergy among multiple ongoing and planned programmes for horticulture development
3. To promote, develop and disseminate technologies, through a seamless blend of traditional wisdom and modern scientific knowledge
4. To create opportunities for employment generation for skilled and unskilled persons, especially unemployed youth.
A National Horticulture Mission was launched in 2005-06 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme to promote holistic growth of the horticulture sector
through an area based regionally differentiated strategies. The scheme has been subsumed as a part of Mission for Integration Development of
Horticulture (MIDH) during 2014-15.
What is the National Horticulture Mission?
The National Horticulture Mission is a government mission to support horticultural production in the country. NHM is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme in which the Government of India contributes 85%, and 15% is met by the State Governments.
● India ranks second in the global production of fruits and vegetables next to China.
● Started in 2005-06.
1.5 SOIL HEALTH CARD SCHEME
● To issue soil health cards every 3 years, to all farmers of the country, so as to provide a basis to address nutrient deficiencies in fertilization practices.
● To strengthen the functioning of Soil Testing Laboratories (STLs) through capacity building, the involvement of agriculture students and
effective linkage with Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) / State Agricultural Universities (SAUs).
● To diagnose soil fertility related constraints with standardized procedures for sampling uniformly across states.
● To build capacities of district and state level staff and of progressive farmers for promotion of nutrient management practices.
● It is a centrally sponsored scheme launched by the Government of India in 2015.
● It is being implemented through the Department of Agriculture of all the State and Union Territory Governments.
● Assistance is provided to the State Government to issue Soil Health Card and also develop a database to improve service delivery.
● Soil Health Card issued to farmers carry crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilizers required for the individual farms.
● The experts will analyze the strength and weaknesses (micronutrients deficiency) of the soil collected from farms and suggest measures
to deal with it.
● It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macronutrients); S (Secondary nutrient); Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro – nutrients); and pH, EC, OC (Physical parameters).
1.6 PM FASAL BIMA YOJANA
● To provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of natural calamities, pests & diseases.
● To stabilise the income of farmers to ensure
their continuance in farming. ● To encourage farmers to adopt innovative and
modern agricultural practices.
● To ensure flow of credit to the agriculture sector.
● All farmers including sharecroppers and tenant farmers growing notified crops in a notified area during the season who have insurable interest in the crop are eligible.
● It replaced all other existing insurance schemes except the Restructured Weather-Based Crop Insurance Scheme (uses weather parameters as
proxy for crop yield in compensating the cultivators for deemed crop loses) .
● A uniform premium of only 2% to be paid by farmers for all Kharif crops and 1.5% for all Rabi crops.
● In case of annual commercial and horticultural crops, the premium to be paid by farmers will be only 5%.
● There is no upper limit on Government subsidy so farmers will get claim against full sum insured without any reduction.
● The difference between the premium paid by farmers and the actuarial premium charged was paid by the Centre and state government in
the ratio of 50:50.
● It is compulsory for loanee farmers availing crop loans for notified crops in notified areas and voluntary for non-loanee farmers.
● Yield Losses: due to non-preventable risks, such as Natural Fire and Lightning, Storm, Hailstorm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Hurricane, Tornado.
Risks due to Flood, Inundation and Landslide, Drought, Dry spells, Pests/ Diseases also will be covered.
● Post-harvest losses are also covered.
● Mandatory use of technology: Smart phones, drones etc., will be used to capture and upload data of crop cutting to reduce the delays in claim payment to farmers. Remote sensing will be used to reduce the number of crop cutting
● The Scheme shall be implemented on an ‘Area Approach basis’. Defined Area (i.e., unit area of insurance) is Village or above. It can be a
Geo-Fenced/Geo-mapped region having homogenous Risk Profile for the notified crop.
● Presently, 5 public sector insurers (Agriculture
Insurance Company of India, United India Insurance Company etc.) and 13 private insurance companies are empanelled for implementation of the scheme.
● Recently, states have been allowed to set up their own insurance companies for implementing the scheme.
1.7 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and
synergizing resource conservation.
● To make agriculture more productive, sustainable, remunerative and climate resilient by promoting location specific Integrated/Composite Farming Systems
● To conserve natural resources through appropriate soil and moisture conservation measures
● To adopt comprehensive soil health management practices based on soil fertility maps, soil test based application of macro & micro nutrients, judicious use of fertilizers etc.
● To optimize utilization of water resources through efficient water management to expand coverage for achieving ‘more crop per drop’.
● To develop capacity of farmers & stakeholders, in conjunction with other on going missions e.g. National Mission on Agriculture Extension &
Technology, National Food Security Mission, National Initiative for Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) etc., in the domain of
climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.
● To pilot models in select blocks for improving productivity of rainfed farming by mainstreaming rainfed technologies refined through NICRA and by leveraging resources from other schemes/Missions like Mahatma
Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), RKVY etc.;
● To establish an effective inter and intra Departmental/Ministerial coordination for accomplishing key deliverables of National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture under the aegis of National Action Plan on Climate
1.8 PARAMPARAGAT KRISHI VIKAS YOJANA
● Promotion of commercial organic production through certified organic farming.
● pesticide residue free produce and improved health of consumer
● Raise farmer’s income and create potential markets for traders.
● Motivate the farmers for natural resource mobilization for input production.
● Increase domestic production and certification of organic produce by involving farmers.
● Farmers doing organic farming
● Farmers from NE India such as Sikkim
● Food processing industries
● Organic foods – export industry
● “Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana” is an elaborated component of Soil Health Management (SHM) under National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
● Cluster Approach: Fifty or more farmers form a cluster having 50 acre land to take organic farming. Each farmer will be provided Rs. 20000
per acre in three years for seed to harvesting crops and to transport them to market.
● Government plans to form around 10 thousand clusters in three years and cover an area of 5 Lakh hectares under organic farming.
● Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) certification through cluster approach – mobilization of farmers, form clusters, identification of land resources and training on organic farming and PGS Certification and
● Adoption of organic village for manure management and biological nitrogen harvesting through cluster approach –action plan for Organic Farming, Integrated Manure Management, Packing, Labelling and Branding
of organic products of cluster.
1.9 NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL MARKET
● To promote genuine price discovery
● Increases farmers’ options for sale and access to markets
● Liberal licensing of traders / buyers and commission agents. One license for a trader valid across all markets in the State
● Harmonisation of quality standards of agricultural produce
● Single point levy of market fees, i.e on the first wholesale purchase from the farmer.
● Provision of Soil Testing Laboratories in/ or near the selected mandi to facilitate visiting farmers to access this facility in the mandi itself
● 585 regulated wholesale markets in states/union territories (UTs).
● Local traders
● Bulk buyers, processors
● Farm produce exporters
● Overall economy of the nation
● NAM is a pan-India electronic trading portal which seeks to network the existing APMCs and other market yards to create a unified national
market for agricultural commodities.
● Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) has been selected as the lead agency to implement it.
● Central government will provide the software free of cost to the states and in addition, a grant of up to Rs. 30 lakhs per mandi or market or
private mandis will be given for related equipment and infrastructure requirements.
● New Features added to the scheme such as E-NAM Mobile App, BHIM Payment facility, MIS dashboard for better analysis and insights,
grievance redressal mechanism for Mandi Secretaries and integration with Farmer Database to ease the registration and identification process will further strengthen e-NAM.
● Fund Allocation – The Scheme is being funded through AgriTech Infrastructure Fund (AITF).
1.10 KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRAS
● To be a frontline extension in agriculture, and to serve as a single window mechanism for addressing the technology needs of farmers
● To demonstrate location specific technologies and build capacity of farmers
● To serve as links between research and extension and also with farmers
● Rural youth, farm women and Farmers (skill development training)
● Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)has created a network of 645 Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) in the country and 106 more
KVKs will be established.
● Directorate of Extension in State Agriculture Universities also helps KVKs in its activities.
● KVKs lay strong emphasis on skill development training of rural youth, farm women and farmers
● Provide latest technological inputs like seeds,planting materials and bio-products.
● Advise farmers on timely crop/enterprise related recommendations, including climate resilient technologies.
● Diagnose and solve problems emerging from district agro-ecosystems and lead in adoption of innovations.
1.11 MERA GAON-MERA GAURAV
● To promote direct interface of scientists withthe farmers and hasten the land to lab process.
● To imbibe a sense of ownership among the agricultural scientists
● To provide farmers with required information, knowledge and advisories on regular basis by adopting villages.
● Scientists with ground level experience
● This scheme involves scientists of the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) and state agricultural universities.
● Groups of four multidisciplinary scientists each will be constituted at these institutes and universities. Each group will “adopt” five villages within a radius of maximum 100 km.
1.12 Price Stabilization Fund
Objective: to safeguard the interest of the growers and provide them financial relief when prices fall below a specified level.
● Central Sector Scheme.
● To support market interventions for price control of perishable agri-horticultural commodities.
● PSF will be used to advance interest free loan to State Governments and Central agencies to support their working capital and other expenses on procurement and distribution interventions for such commodities.
● Procurement of the commodities will be undertaken directly from farmers or farmers’ organizations at farm gate/mandi and made available at a more reasonable price to the consumers.
● Initially the fund is proposed to be used for onion and potato only. Losses incurred, if any, in the operations will be shared between the Centre and the States.
Framework and Funding:
● States will set up a revolving fund to which theCentre and State will contribute equally, i.e. 50:50.
● The ratio of Centre-State contribution to the State-level corpus in respect of Northeast States will, however, be 75:25.
1.13 Mission Fingerling
● It is a programme to enable holistic development and management of the fisheries sector in India.
● The mission aims to achieve the target to enhance fisheries production from 10.79 mmt (2014-15) to 15 mmt by 2020-21 under the Blue Revolution.
● Government has identified 20 States based ontheir potential and other relevant factors to strengthen the Fish Fingerling production and Fish Seed infrastructure in the country.
● This program will facilitate the establishment of Fingerling rearing pond and hatcheries.
● This will converge in the production of 20 lakh tonnes of fish annually, which will in turn benefit about 4 million families.
● The implementation of this program will supplement the requirement of stocking materials in the country up to a large extent, which is a much needed input to achieve the enhanced fish production.
1.14 Umbrella Scheme Green Revolution — Krishonnati Yojana
These schemes look to develop the agriculture and allied sector in a holistic and scientific manner to increase the income of farmers by enhancing
production, productivity and better returns on produce.
The Schemes that are part of the Umbrella Schemes are :-
i. Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)
ii. National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
iii. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
iv. Submission on Agriculture Extension (SMAE)
v. Sub-Mission on Seeds and Planting Material (SMSP)
vi. Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanisation (SMAM)
vii. Sub Mission on Plant Protection and Plan Quarantine (SMPPQ)
viii. Integrated Scheme on Agriculture Census, Economics and Statistics (ISACES)
ix. Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Cooperation (ISAC)
x. Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Marketing (ISAM)
xi. National e-Governance Plan (NeGP-A) The Schemes/Missions focus on
creating/strengthening of infrastructure of production, reducing production cost and marketing of agriculture and allied produce.
1.15 Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan (PM-AASHA)
1. The Scheme is aimed at ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their produce as announced in the Union Budget for 2018.
2. It is expected that the increase in MSP will be translated to farmers’ income by way of robust procurement mechanism in coordination with
the State Governments.
The three schemes that are part of AASHA are:
1. the Price Support Scheme (PSS)
2. the Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS)
3. the Pilot of Private Procurement and Stockist Scheme (PPPS)
● These three components will complement the existing schemes of the Department of Food and Public Distribution.
● They relate to paddy, wheat and other cereals and coarse grains where procurement is at MSP now.
● PSS – Under the PSS, physical procurement of pulses, oilseeds and copra will be done by Central Nodal Agencies.
● Besides, NAFED and Food Corporation of India will also take up procurement of crops under PSS.
● The expenditure and losses due to procurement will be borne by the Centre.
● PDPS – Under the PDPS, the Centre proposes to cover all oilseeds.
● The difference between the MSP and actual selling/modal price will be directly paid into the farmer’s bank account.
● Farmers who sell their crops in recognised mandis within the notified period can benefit from it.
● PPSS – In the case of oilseeds, States will have the option to roll out PPSS in select districts.
● Under this, a private player can procure crops at MSP when market prices drop below MSP.
● The private player will then be compensated through a service charge up to a maximum of 15% of the MSP.
1.16 Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)
What is the news: The Central Government notified a decision to extend the benefit of ₹6,000 per year under the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi
scheme to all 14.5 crore farmers in the country, irrespective of the size of their landholding.
● Central sector scheme
○ To provide income support to all farmer families having cultivable land.
○ To supplement the financial needs of the farmers in procuring various inputs to ensure proper crop health and appropriate yields, commensurate with the anticipated farm income.
● The revised Scheme is expected to coveraround 2 crore more farmers, increasing the coverage of PM-KISAN to around 14.5 crore
● Responsibility of identifying the landholder farmer family eligible for benefit under the scheme shall be of the State/UT Government.
● The lists of eligible beneficiaries would be published at the village level to ensure transparency.
● Exclusions: Certain categories of beneficiaries of higher economic status such as institutional landholders, former and present holder of constitutional posts, persons who paid income tax in the last assessment year etc. shall not be eligible for benefit under the scheme.
■ Professionals like doctors, engineers and lawyers as well as retired pensioners with a monthly pension of over ₹10,000 and those who paid income tax in the last assessment year are also not eligible for the benefits.
■ For the purpose of exclusion State/UT Government can certify the eligibility of the beneficiary based on self-declaration by the beneficiaries.
● A dedicated PM Kisan Portal will be launched for the implementation of the scheme.
● This is a Central Sector Scheme and will be funded fully by the Government of India
Charles Wood Despatch – 1854
Hunter Commission – 1882
Hunter Commission of 1882 on Primary Education :
Raleigh Commission – 1902
Sadler Commission – 1917
Hartog Commission – 1929
Sargent Plan – 1944
Mansfield Commission by Dufferin in 1886
Other Commissions on Currency:
Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
European Central Bank (ECB)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Objectives of IMF:
IMF Quota & Voting Rights
Special Drawing Rights
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Functions of UNCTAD
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP)
UN-ESCAP providing results-oriented projects, technical assistance and capacity building to member States in the following areas:
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA)
ECA’s thematic areas of focus are as follows:
Regional Integration and Trade
Innovation and Technology
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
World Bank Group
The World Bank (IBRD)
Origins: IBRD, as the name suggests, was created in 1944 to help Europe reconstruct/ rebuild after World War II. To be a member of IBRD, a country has t join IMF first.
Other functions of IBRD Bank –
International Development Association
Largest global development institution focused exclusively on the private sector in developing countries established in 1956
Objectives of the IFC
IFC and India
Focus Areas –
Facilitating renewable energy generation
Promoting cleaner production, energy and water efficiency
Supporting agriculture for improved food security
Creating growth opportunities for small businesses
Helping reform investment climate
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)
|IBRD (WB)||Infrastructure loan to poor middle income but credit worthy countries at just below market rates||India founder member, largest recipient of loan|
|IDA||Soft loan at virtually zero rate for poverty eradication to poorest countries||India founder largest recipient, has crossed the per capita threshold for funding but will continue to receive IDA funds|
|IFC||Private sector arm of WB group, supports private enterprises in developing countries||India founder, IFC launched India’s offshore masala bond|
|MIGA||Provide a guarantee to investors against non-commercial political risk||India not a founding member|
|ICSID||Resolve disputes through arbitration and conciliation||India not a member|
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Functions of WTO
Various Defence Exercises in News
The defence is a major part of any country. Thus, every country tries and devotes half of its budget in defence. So, there are joint military exercises happening which benefits both the participating nations. Thus, in this article, we will discuss some of the important joint exercises in India like Indra and Maitree. Also, these exercises are important from learning as well as the strategic point of view for both the nations.
|India + XYZ||Army||Navy||Air Force|
|ASEAN +||Force 18|
|Australia||AUSTRA HIND||AUSINDEX / KAKADU|
|China||Hand in hand||Chang Thang|
|Indonesia||GARUDA SHAKTI||IND-INDO CORPAT
|Japan||Dharma Guardian||Malabar (India, Japan, and the USA), Sahyog-Kaijin||SHINYUU MAITRI|
|Kazakhstan||Prabal Dostyk and KAZIND|
|Mongolia||Nomadic Elephant / KHAN QUEST|
|Nepal||Surya Kiran (BIANNUAL)|
|Oman||AL NAGAH (SUCCESS)||Naseem Al Bahr||Eastern Bridge-IV|
|Singapore||Ex AGNI WARRIOR and Ex BOLD KURUKSHETRA||SIMBEX||JOINT MILITARY TRAINING|
|South Africa, Brazil||IBSAMAR|
|Sri Lanka||Mitra Shakti||SLINEX|
|Thailand||Maitree / COBRA GOLD (Observer Plus)||INDO-THAI CORPAT (Bi-annual)||SIAM BHARAT|
|UK||Ajeya Warrior||Konkan||IndraDhanush -IV|
|Malabar RIMPAC (Multilateral)||Red Flag|
|Brunei||ADMM+ Exercise (Multilateral)|
|Qatar||Za’ir-Al-Bahr (Roar of the Sea)|
Other Important Exercise
|Exercise TSENTR 2019||China, Tajikistan, India, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan||Russia(Host)|
Note: In the southern and eastern parts of the country where rainfall is heavy, black soils often occur in close proximity to red soils. Black soils occupy valleys and low-level areas whereas the red soils occur on higher slopes and hilltops. Mixed black and red soils occur in Coimbatore, Madurai, Tirunelveli (Tamil Nadu) and Bundelkhand region.
We discussed in detail alluvial, black, red and laterite soils. Let’s continue the discussion and move on to the next soil types!
Now that we are done with all the soil types, expand the following image for a quick revision!
Back to Basics: Cropping Pattern mean the proportion of area under different crops at a point of time, changes in this distribution overtime and factors determining these changes.
Cropping pattern in India is determined mainly by rainfall, climate, temperature and soil type.
Technology also plays a pivotal role in determining crop pattern. Example, the adoption of High Yield Varieties Seeds along with fertilisers in the mid 1960’s in the regions of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh increased wheat production significantly.
The multiplicity of cropping systems has been one of the main features of Indian agriculture. This may be attributed to following two major factors:
Different types of cropping systems are adopted on farms depending on the resources and technology available. The different & basic types of cropping System is explained below:
Mono-cropping: If only one crop is grown in the land season after season, it is referred to as Monocropping. Example: Wheat will be planted year after year in the same field.
Crop Rotation: In this method, the type of crops grown in the field is changed each season or each year. farmers also change from crops to fallow. Example: Maize will be planted in the first year and beans in the second year. This Crop rotation system is a key principle of agriculture conservation as it improves the soil structure and fertility. It also helps to control weeds, pests, and diseases.
Sequential Cropping: This system involves growing two crops in the same field, one after the other in the same year. Example: Planting maize during long rains, then beans during the short rains.
Inter-cropping: Growing two or more crops in the same field at the same time is called Intercropping. Examples: Planting alternating rows of maize and beans, or growing a cover crop in between the rows.
Mixed Intercropping: In this method, seeds of two crops are distributed or dibbling the seeds without any row arrangement. This method is called mixed intercropping. This method is easy to sow but makes weeding, fertilization, and harvesting difficult.
Multiple-Cropping: In this cropping system, farmers grow two or more crops on farmland in one year with intensive input management practices. It includes inter-cropping, mixed-cropping, and sequence cropping.
Row Intercropping: In this method, both the main crop and the intercrop in rows are planted. The row intercropping makes weeding and harvesting easier than with mixed intercropping.
Stir Cropping: This type of cropping involves planting broad strips of several crops in the field. Each strip will be 3–9 m wide. On slopes, the strips are laid out along the contour to prevent erosion. The farmer can rotate crops by planting each strip with a different crop in the next year. Example: Alternating strips of maize, soybean, and finger millet are planted.
Relay Cropping: In this method, one crop is planted and another crop, usually a cover crop, is planted in the same field before harvesting the first. It avoids competition between the main crop and the intercrop. Relay cropping uses the field for a long time since the cover crop usually continues to grow after the main crop is harvested.
In Indian agriculture, three types of Cropping System is used. They are:
Factors Determining Cropping Pattern in India
Cropping Pattern in India
30 most important cropping patterns in India
Specific Issues Related to the Cropping Pattern
|Crop Pattern||Region/State||Issues Related to Crop Pattern|
|Rice-Wheat||UP, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh.||Over the years there is stagnation in the production and productivity loses.
The main reasons for stagnation are:
Over Mining of Nutrients from the soil.
Declining Ground Water Table.
Increase Pest Attacks and Diseases.
Shortages of Labour.
Inappropriate use of Fertilizers.
|Rice-Rice||Irrigated and Humid coastal system of Orrisa, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala.||The major issues in sustaining the productivity of rice-rice system are:
Deterioration in soil physical conditions.
Poor efficiency of nitrogen use. Imbalance in use of nutrients. Non-availability of appropriate trans planter to mitigate labour shortage during the critical period of transplanting.
|Rice- Groundnut||Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orrisa and Maharashtra.||The major issues in the pattern are:
Excessive Rainfall and Water Logging.
Non-availability of quality seeds.
Limited expansion of Rabi Groundnut in Rice grown areas.
|Rice-Pulses||Chhattisgarh, Orrisa and Bihar.||Factors limiting Productivity are:
Droughts and Erratic Rainfall distribution.
Lack of Irrigation.
Low coverage under HYV Seeds.
Little attention to pest attacks and diseases.
Marginalisation of land and Removal of Tribal from their own land.
|Maize-Wheat||UP, Rajasthan, MP and Bihar||The Reason for Poor Yields are:
Poor Weed Management.
Poor Plant Varieties.
Poor use of organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Large area under Rain Fed Agriculture.
|Sugarcane-Wheat||UP, Punjab and Haryana accounts for 68% of the area under sugarcane.
The other states which cover the crops are; Karnataka and MP.
|Problems in Sugarcane-Wheat system are:
Imbalance and inadequate use of nutrients.
Poor nitrogen use efficiency in sugarcane.
Build-up of Trianthema partu lacastrum and Cyprus rotundus in sugarcane.
The stubble of sugarcane pose tillage problem for succeeding crops and need to be managed properly.
|Cotton-Wheat||Punjab, Haryana, West UP, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.||Problems in Cotton-Wheat system are:
Stubbles of cotton create the problem of tillage operations and poor tilth for wheat.
Cotton Pest like Boll Worm and White Fly.
Poor nitrogen use efficiency in cotton.
|Soya bean-Wheat||Maharashtra, MP and Rajasthan||Constraints limiting the soybean production and productivity are:
A relatively recent introduction of soybean as a crop.
Limited genetic diversity.
Short growing period available in Indian latitudes.
Hindered agronomy/availability of inputs at the farm level.
Rainfed nature of crop and water scarcity at critical stage of plant growth.
Insect pests and diseases, Quality improvement problems.
Inadequate mechanization and partial adoption of technology by farmers have been identified.
|Legume Based Cropping Systems (Pulses-Oilseeds)||MP, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.||The major issues in Legume based system are:
Lack of technological advancement.
Loses due to erratic weather and waterlogging.
Diseases and Pests.
Low harvest index, flower drop, indeterminate growth habit and very poor response to fertilizers and water in most of the grain legumes.
Nutrient needs of the system have to be worked out considering N-fixation capacity of legume crops.
Horticulture Crops in India
India has made a good place for itself on the Horticulture Map of the World with a total annual production of horticultural crops touching over 1490 million tones during 1999-00.
The horticultural crops cover about 9 percent of the total area contributing about 24.5 percent of the gross agricultural output in the country. However, the productivity of fruits and vegetables grown in the country is low as compared to developed countries.
Vegetable crops in India are grown from the sea level to the snowline. The entire country can broadly be divided into six vegetable growing zones:
Low productivity is the main feature of vegetable cultivation in India as farm yields of most of the vegetables in India are much lower than the average yield of the world and developed countries.
The productivity gap is more conspicuous in tomato, cabbage, onion, chilli and peas. The preponderance of hybrid varieties and protected cultivation are mainly responsible for high productivity in the developed countries.
Constraints in vegetable production:
1. Lack of planning in Production
2. Non-availability of seeds of improved varieties.
3. High cost of basic production elements
4. Inadequate plant protection measures and non-availability of resistant varieties.
5. Weak marketing facilities
6. Transportation limits
7. Post-harvest losses
8. Abiotic stresses.
1.ASEAN ( Association of South-East Asian Nations)
Current members are:
9. Myanmar (Burma)
2.APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)
3. BBIN ( Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal)
4. BCIM Bangladesh-China-Inida-Myanmar
5.BIMSTEC ( Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation)
Present members :
4. Sri Lanka
6.BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa )
8.IBSA (for India-Brazil-South Africa )
10.The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)
11.The Mekong-Ganga Cooperation
12.Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)
13.Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
LIST OF MEMBER COUNTRIES
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a proposed free trade agreement (FTA) between the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Vietnam and the six states with which ASEAN has existing free trade agreements:
(Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand).
RCEP negotiations were formally launched in November 2012 at the ASEAN Summit in Cambodia. The agreement is scheduled to be finalized by the end of 2017. RCEP is viewed as an alternative to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a proposed trade agreement which includes several Asian and American nations but excludes China and India.
20. Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
21. Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR):
22. Australia Group
23. WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT
24. International Organization for Migration (IOM)
25. International Economic Association (IEA)
26. INDIA-BRAZIL-SOUTH AFRICA (IBSA)
27. International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)
28. International Energy Forum (IEF)
29. International Energy Agency (IEA)
30. Financial Action Task Force (FATF):
What are Regional Trading Blocs?
A regional trading bloc (RTB) is a co-operative union or group of countries within a specific geographical boundary. RTB protects its member nations within that region from imports from the non-members. Trading blocs are a special type of economic integration. There are four types of trading blocs −
Preferential Trade Area − Preferential Trade Areas (PTAs), the first step towards making a full-fledged RTB, exist when countries of a particular geographical region agree to decrease or eliminate tariffs on selected goods and services imported from other members of the area.
Free Trade Area − Free Trade Areas (FTAs) are like PTAs but in FTAs, the participating countries agree to remove or reduce barriers to trade on all goods coming from the participating members.
Customs Union − A customs union has no tariff barriers between members, plus they agree to a common (unified) external tariff against non-members. Effectively, the members are allowed to negotiate as a single bloc with third parties, including other trading blocs, or with the WTO.
Common Market − A ‘common market’ is an exclusive economic integration. The member countries trade freely all types of economic resources – not just tangible goods. All barriers to trade in goods, services, capital, and labour are removed in common markets. In addition to tariffs, non-tariff barriers are also diminished or removed in common markets.
Established When and by Whom: Developed under the auspices of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change. It started in January 2009.
Headquarter: The Earth System Governance Project Office is hosted at Lund University, Sweden.
The Earth System Governance Project aims to contribute to science on the large, complex challenges of governance in an era of rapid and large-scale environmental change.
The project seeks to create a better understanding of the role of institutions, organizations and governance mechanisms by which humans regulate their relationship with the natural environment
The Earth System Governance Project aims to integrate governance research at all levels. The project aims to examine problems of the ‘global commons’, but also local problems from air pollution to the preservation of waters, waste treatment or desertification and soil degradation
However, due to natural interdependencies local environmental pollution can be transformed into changes of the global system that affect other localities. Therefore, the Earth System Governance Project looks at institutions and governance processes both local and globally
The Earth System Governance Project is a scientific effort, but also aims to assist policy responses to the pressing problems of earth system transformation
Established When and by Whom: The Global Environment Facility was established in October 1991 as a $1 billion pilot program in the World Bank to assist in the protection of the global environment and to promote environmental sustainable development.
Headquarter: Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) unites 183 countries in partnership with international institutions, civil society organizations (CSOs), and the private sector to address global environmental issues while supporting national sustainable development initiatives.
Today the GEF is the largest public funder of projects to improve the global environment.
An independently operating financial organization, the GEF provides grants for projects related to biodiversity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, the ozone layer, and persistent organic pollutants.
Funding: The GEF also serves as the financial mechanism for the following conventions:
India specific trivia:
*India has formed a permanent Constituency in the Executive Council of the GEF together with Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal and Maldives.
The Council Meetings are held semi-annually or as frequently necessary. At each meeting, the Council elects a Chairperson from among its members for the duration of that meeting. India’s Executive Director in the World Bank represents the GEF Council from our Constituency.
India is both a donor and a recipient of GEF. It has been a leading developing country participant in the GEF since its inception in 1991 and has played a major role in shaping the restructuring of the GEF. It had contributed US $ 6.0 million to the core fund in the GEF Pilot Phase.
India has pledged an amount of US $ 9.0 million towards the resources of each of the Five GEF replenishments. The total funds pledged so far amounts to US$ 51 million and an amount of US$ 48.75 million has been paid by December 2012 towards GEF replenishments.
Ministry of Finance is the political focal point while Ministry of Environment & Forests is the Operational Focal Point for the GEF Projects.
Established When and by Whom: GGGI was first launched as a think tank in 2010 by Korean President Lee Myung-bak, and was later converted into an international treaty-based organization in 2012 at the Rio+20 Summit in Brazil.
Headquarter: It is headquartered in Seoul, Republic of Korea
Key Functions: GGGI works to produce three major outcomes: adoption and implementation of green growth plans; provision of research for policymakers; and private sector engagement in the implementation of the national green growth plans. The organization uses three approaches to achieve these outcomes: Green Growth Planning & Implementation (GGP&I), Knowledge Development & Management (KDM), and Public-Private Cooperation (PPC).
Funding: Funds are given by Contributing members. Contributing members are defined as Member countries that make a multi-year financial contribution of core funding of no less than USD 15 million over three years. Participating members are defined as Member countries that are not contributing members.
India specific trivia:
GGGI has been working in India to promote green growth and sustainable development since 2013.
GGGI has worked at national, state, and city levels to develop and implement green growth strategies that reconcile short-term priorities with long-term vision of higher economic growth, environmental sustainability, and social inclusion
At the state level, GGGI worked closely with the governments of Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh (HP), and Punjab to develop comprehensive green growth strategies together with each.
GGGI also supported each of the three state governments in adopting integrated analytical approaches to assess green growth challenges and prioritize opportunities across key sectors, including energy, water, agriculture, and forestry
Building on these strategies, in 2015, GGGI supported the state governments in implementing specific green growth opportunities by formulating detailed project proposals, policy implementation roadmaps, and capacity building initiatives.
Established When and by Whom: KIMO was founded in August 1990 by four municipalities and from this modest start has grown in size to represent over 70 members in Belgium, Denmark, The Faroe Islands, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Headquarter: Esbjerg, Denmark
Established When and by Whom: It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly.
Headquarter: Geneva, Switzerland
The aims of the IPCC are to assess scientific information relevant to:
Funding: The IPCC receives funding through the IPCC Trust Fund, established in 1989 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
India specific trivia: India will have its own climate change models to project the impact of global warming over the decades and these will form part of the forthcoming Sixth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Reports that is expected to be available in 2020.
Established When and by Whom: The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world’s oldest and largest global environmental organisation.
Founded in 1948, today IUCN the largest professional global conservation network. IUCN has more than 1,200 member organizations including 200+ government and 900+ non-government organizations.
Headquarter: The Union’s headquarters are located in Gland, near Geneva, in Switzerland.
Key Functions: Conserving biodiversity is central to the mission of IUCN. The main areas of function are:
Funding: Funded by governments, bilateral and multilateral agencies, foundations, member organisations and corporations.
More about the IUCN
Governance by a Council elected by member organizations every four years at the IUCN World Conservation Congress.
Observer Status at the United Nations General Assembly.
India specific trivia:
Established When and by Whom: It was founded as a result of the UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference) in 1972
Headquarter: Nairobi, Kenya
Funding: The three main sources of funding of UN Environment are the UN Regular Budget, the Environment Fund, the core funding that enables UN Environment to implement its global and regional work, and Earmarked Contributions.
India specific trivia: UN Environment has sponsored the development of solar loan programs, with attractive return rates, to buffer the initial deployment costs and entice consumers to consider and purchase solar PV systems.
The most famous example is the solar loan program sponsored by UN Environment helped 100,000 people finance solar power systems in India.
Success in India’s solar program has led to similar projects in other parts of the developing world like Tunisia, Morocco, Indonesia and Mexico.
Established When and by Whom: WNO initiative was born in 2010 by states which are threatened by rising sea levels. The WNO Treaty officially entered into force on 1st May 2014.
Location : Geneva
India specific trivia: India is not a member
Established When and by Whom: The WFP was formally established in 1963 by the FAO and the United Nations General Assembly.
Funding: The WFP operations are funded by voluntary donations from world governments, corporations and private donors
India specific trivia: The World Food Programme has been working in India for over 50 years. In line with the developments in India, WFP has realigned its focus from a food aid provider to a catalytic partner to the Government of India, strengthening food-based social safety nets.
Established When and by Whom: The IWC was set up under the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling which was signed in Washington DC on 2nd December 1946.
Funding: Financial contributions from member governments form the IWC’s core income, but additional voluntary donations to support particular work programmes are generously made by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), industry bodies, and also by member governments.
India specific trivia: India is a Member
Established When and by Whom: The BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) is a multilateral fund, supported by donor governments and managed by the World Bank. It is has been operational from 2013.
Funding: Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States together committed $280 million – up to $135 million from Norway, $120 million from the U.K, and $25 million from the U.S. – as part of their efforts to slow climate change.
Established When and by Whom: The Arctic Council was founded on the initiative of the Government of Finland in September 1989 where officials from the 8 Arctic Countries met in Rovaniemi, Finland, to discuss cooperative measures to protect the Arctic environment.
Headquarter: The location of the Secretariat was rotated biennially with the Chairmanship of the Arctic Council.
The Arctic Council is an intergovernmental forum promoting cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic States, Arctic indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants on common Arctic issues, in particular on issues of sustainable development and environmental protection in the Arctic.
The main focus areas of the Arctic Council are:
Funding: By member states
India specific trivia: India is an Observer State
Geographical Indications in India
Two well-known products from Tamil Nadu — Dindigul lock and Kandangi Saree — have been given the Geographical Indication (GI) tag by The Geographical Indications Registry in Chennai.
The Kandangi sarees
Tirur betel vine
Panchamirtham’ of Palani temple gets GI tag
About the Panchamirtham
About Kodaikanal’s malai poondu Garlic
GI Tag for 5 Indian Coffee varieties
Coorg Arabica coffee
Wayanaad Robusta coffee
Chikmagalur Arabica coffee
Araku Valley Arabica coffee
Bababudangiris Arabica coffee
King of Mangoes gets GI tag
GI Tag for Telangana
Specialty of carpets
MP gets GI tag for a chicken breed
Leaders of the session
Year and Place
W C Bonnerjee
This was the first session. 72 delegates attended it.
National Congress and National Conference were merged.
Syed Badruddin Tyabji
607 delegates attended this.
An appeal made to Muslims to join hands with other national leaders
Rahimtullah M. Sayani
National song ‘Vande Mataram’ was sung for the first time
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Resentment was shown against the partition of Bengal
The word ‘swaraj’ was mentioned for the first time.
Rash Behari Ghosh
The ‘Surat Split’- Party splits into extremists and moderates
Madan Mohan Malaviya
Disapproval was expressed over the separate electorates on basis of religion as given in Indian Councils Act, 1909.
Bishan Narayan Dar
National anthem ‘Jana Gana Mana’ was sung for the first time
Ambica Charan Mazumdar
Lucknow Pact was signed.
The extremists and moderates reunited.
She was the first woman president of the INC
The Jallianwalla Bagh massacre was condemned.
Khilafat Movement was boosted
M K Gandhi
This was an iconic session.
Resolution for ‘Poorna Swaraj’ was passed.
Civil Disobedience movement was launched.
Gandhi- Irwin pact was endorsed.
The Congress adopted a resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy
Subhas Chandra Bose
National Planning Committed set-up under J.L Nehru
Subhas Chandra Bose
Bose had to resign due to differences with Gandhi
Last session before independence