[Prelims Spotlight] System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), Indian mission on the Antarctic, Denotified, Semi-Nomadic and Nomadic Tribes, Swadhar Grehs

Here are  Back2Basics collections from today’s news items

B2B #1: From news- [pib] New SAFAR system with Air Quality Early Warning System

System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR)

  1. Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Govt. of India, has introduced a major national initiative “SAFAR” for greater metropolitan cities of India to provide location-specific information on air quality in near real time and its forecast 1-3 days in advance for the first time in India
  2. It was started under the plan scheme “Metropolitan Advisories for Cities for Sports, Tourism (Metropolitan Air Quality and Weather Services)
  3. The SAFAR system is developed by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, along with ESSO partner institutions namely India Meteorological Department (IMD) and National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF)
  4. The implementation of SAFAR is done with an active collaboration with local municipal corporations and various local educational institutions and governmental agencies in that Metro city.
  5. It was started on a Pilot basis in the cities of Pune, Ahmadabad, New Delhi and Mumbai

B2B #2: From news- India to expand polar research to Arctic as well

Indian mission on the Antarctic

  1. The Indian Antarctic Program is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional program under the control of the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India.
  2. It was initiated in 1981 with the first Indian expedition to Antarctica.
  3. The program gained global acceptance with India’s signing of the Antarctic Treaty and subsequent construction of the Dakshin Gangotri Antarctic research base in 1983, superseded by the Maitri base from 1990.
  4. The newest base commissioned in 2015 is Bharati, constructed out of 134 shipping containers.

Indian mission on the Arctic

  1. Himadri Station is India’s first Arctic research station located at Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway. It is located at the International Arctic Research base, Ny-Ålesund.
  2. It was inaugurated on the 1st of July, 2008 by the Minister of Earth Sciences. It is followed by IndARC.
  3. The United States Geological Survey estimates that 22% of the world’s oil and natural gas could be located beneath the Arctic.
  4.  ONGC Videsh has signed joint-venture with Russia for oil exploration there.

Arctic Council

  1. It is an advisory body that promotes cooperation among member nations and indigenous groups as per the Ottawa Declaration of 1996.
  2. Its focus is on sustainable development and environmental protection of the Arctic,
  3. The Arctic Council consists of the eight Arctic States: Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States.
  4. India and China are one of the observer countries since 2013.

B2B #3: From news- Niti Aayog nod to panel for denotified, semi-nomadic, nomadic tribes

Denotified, Semi-Nomadic and Nomadic Tribes

  1. Denotified tribes are those that were labelled as criminals through a legislation by the British government and were denotified post-independence
  2. The Nomadic tribes maintain constant geographical mobility
  3. Semi-nomads are those who are on the move but return to fixed habitation once a year, mainly for occupational reasons
  4. The DNT, NT, SNT communities have been identified as the most marginalised by several commissions set up since Independence
  5. From these communities 90 percent or more members are landless

Here’s a Factoid to brush up your concepts

Name of the scheme : Swadhar Grehs

Objectives : Homes for relief and rehabilitation of women in difficult circumstances including survivors of rape/assault etc. Provision for food clothing, councelling. training, clinical and legal aid ; long term

Nodal Ministry : Ministry of Women & Child

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