Cotton textile industry in India is highly decentralized. Analyze the factors for this decentralization? (15 Marks)

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  • The question expects us to explain what do we mean by decentralised cotton textile industry in India. Next, we need to explain the reasons why the cotton textile industry in India is decentralised in India
  • In the Introduction, mention that at present, the cotton textile industry is the largest organised modem industry of India. There has been a phenomenal growth in this industry during the last four decades. About 16 per cent of the industrial capital and over 20 per cent of the industrial labour of the country is engaged in this industry.
  • In the main body, explain that initially, the textile industry developed in certain major centres such as Mumbai, Surat etc which had all the factors that are responsible for the location of textile industries. Mention factors such as easy transportation, cheap labour, closer to market etc.
  • Next, discuss the reasons for decentralization of cotton textile industry such as – Dispersal of the industry from the old nuclei started after 1921 with railway lines penetrating into the peninsular region. New centres like Coimbatore, Madurai, Bangalore, Nagpur, Indore, Solapur and Vadodara were favourably located in respect to raw material, market and labour than places of original locations.
  • This industry also reached some places with some additional advantages, such as nearness to coal (Nagpur), financial facilities (Kanpur) and wide market with port facilities (Kolkata); Dispersal of cotton textile industry was further boosted with the development of hydroelectricity. The growth of this industry in Coimbatore, Madurai and Tirunelveli is largely due to the availability of hydroelectricity from Pykara dam. The industry also tended to shift from areas of high labour cost to those with low labour cost. The labour cost factor played a crucial role in establishing this industry at Madurai, Tirunelveli, and Coimbatore etc.

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