[Burning Issue] Storm of ChatGPT

Context

ChatGPT, which was only released a few months ago, is gaining popularity online as users marvel at its incredible powers. The latest artificial intelligence tool is creating a buzz among computer scientists and programmers due to its creative capabilities.

In this context, this edition of the burning issue will elaborate on this latest buzz in the technology sector- ChatGPT

What is ChatGPT?

  • About ChatGPT: ChatGPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) is a chatbot launched by OpenAI in November 2022. It is built on top of OpenAI’s GPT-3 family of large language models and is fine-tuned with both supervised and reinforcement learning techniques.
  • OpenAI: ChatGPT has been developed by OpenAI, which is a research institute and company that focuses on developing artificial intelligence technology responsibly and safely. It was founded in 2015 by a group of entrepreneurs and researchers, including Elon Musk, Sam Altman, and Greg Brockman.
  • A human-like language model: ChatGPT is built on a large-scale transformer-based language model that is trained on a diverse dataset of text and is capable of generating human-like responses to prompts. It is based on GPT-3.5, a language model that uses deep learning to produce human-like text.
  • It is more engaging with details: However, while the older GPT-3 model only took text prompts and tried to continue on that with its own generated text, ChatGPT is more engaging. It’s much better at generating detailed text and can even come up with poems.
  • Keeps the memory of the conversations: Another unique characteristic is memory. The bot can remember earlier comments in a conversation and recount them to the user.
  • Human-like resemblance: A conversation with ChatGPT is like talking to a computer, a smart one, which appears to have some semblance of human-like intelligence.

The evolution of ChatGPT

  • Generative Pre-Training (GPT) language model: ChatGPT follows a generation of language models that were released by OpenAI in 2018. In 2018, OpenAI released the Generative Pre-Training (GPT) language model. Here, generative means that it is a type of neural network that can create new content based on input content called Training Data. This technology makes it suitable for creative tasks like writing a new story.
  • Transformer technique: With the transformer technique mentioned above, GPT was improved and “Generative Pre-trained Transformer 2” or GPT-2 was released in 2019. GPT-3 with even more sophisticated neural networks was launched in 2020.
  • GPT3.5: In early 2022, GPT3.5 was released and ChatGPT is a successor to GPT3.5. Each successive generation is more advanced than its predecessor. For example, GPT-3 was trained with 175 billion parameters. These large language models have looked at almost all text available on the internet and many other text documents, thereby making them highly informed. Finally, ChatGPT was launched in November 2022.

About Chatbots and AI

What is a ChatBot?

  • A chatbot (coined from the term “chat robot”) is a computer program that simulates human conversation either by voice or text communication, and is designed to help solve a problem.
  • Organizations use chatbots to engage with customers alongside classic customer service channels like phone, email, and social media.

What is Artificial intelligence?

  • AI is a constellation of technologies that enable machines to act with higher levels of intelligence and emulate the human capabilities of sense, comprehend and act. Thus, computer vision and audio processing can actively perceive the world around them by acquiring and processing images, sound and speech.
  • Natural language processing and inference engines can enable AI systems to analyze and understand the information collected.
  • An AI system can also take action through technologies such as expert systems and inference engines or undertake actions in the physical world.
  • These human-like capabilities are augmented by the ability to learn from experience and keep adapting over time.

Working of ChatGPT

  • ChatGPT is what is called a Language Model, rather than a chatbot. A language model is a software that prints out a sequence of words as output that are related to some words given as input with appropriate semantic relation;
  • in practical terms, it means that it can perform tasks like answering questions and carrying on a conversation with humans. It is often used in natural language processing (NLP) applications, such as speech recognition, automatic translation, and text generation.
  • It is also a neural network. A neural network can be thought of as a large network of computers that can fine-tune its output of words based on the feedback given to it during stages of training: this training process and the technology together are called Reinforcement Learning.
  • With a further refining technique called “Transformer”, a neural network can accurately “understand” the context of a sentence or a paragraph. This “comprehension” can be used for multiple purposes like answering a question, summarising a paragraph or an article, translating documents and so on.

Applications of ChatGPT

  • A virtual study mate: ChatGPT could be used to generate practice questions or prompts for students to use when studying or preparing for exams. Input a prompt into ChatGPT that relates to the topic you are studying. For example, you might write ‘generate practice questions from Indian Polity on fundamental rights’. ChatGPT will then generate a series of practice questions that could range from multiple choice, true/false, or short answers.
  • A writing assistant: ChatGPT can be used to generate text in a variety of styles and formats, such as stories, news articles, poems, and more. This could be useful for creative writing, or for generating content for websites and social media.
  • A human-like search engine: One of the most used applications of ChatGPT is to answer specific questions and get answers in human talking style-dialogue format. It can also simplify complex theories. Microsoft is planning to integrate OpenAI’s ChatGPT chatbot into its Bing search engine in order to take advantage of its ability to respond to a wide range of questions while mimicking human conversation styles.
  • For language translation: ChatGPT could be used to automatically translate text from one language to another, making it easier for people to communicate with each other across language barriers.
  • A customizable chatbot: You could use the ChatGPT model to create a chatbot that can answer questions or have a conversation with a user. ChatGPT could answer customer questions or provide assistance in online chatbots or virtual assistants, allowing businesses to provide 24/7 support to their customers. It is trainable with specific data to create a virtual customer service bot that can converse and respond to queries.

Advantages

  • Available for customers 24/7: ChatGPT could answer customer questions at any hour, day or night. Now, the customer can ask a query to the chatbot and get an instant reply or get sent to the page with the right product. 
  • Offers Better personalization: Personalization is important for customers. In fact, about 44% of buyers become repeat customers after receiving a personalized experience. It pays off to customize your messages to clients and provide more personalized customer service. 
  • Faster response time: About 96% of shoppers expect a response within five minutes. And chatbots like ChatGPT can provide instant responses to help customers with simple questions right there and then. This helps to decrease the waiting time for customer support to a couple of seconds. 
  • Increase sales: Chatbots can bring more sales for businesses. Bots turn first-time website visitors into new customers by showing off your new products and offering discounts to tempt potential clients.
  • Save costs: Cost saving is another essential benefit. It can automate day-to-day tasks that include everything from answering FAQs to booking appointments. This allows the customer support team to concentrate on more complex queries. 

Concerns and Limitations

  • Implications for cybersecurity: Check Point Research and others noted that ChatGPT was capable of writing phishing emails and malware, especially when combined with OpenAI Codex.
  • May involve in unethical use: ChatGPT attempts to reject prompts that may violate its content policy. However, some users managed to jailbreak ChatGPT by using various prompt engineering techniques to bypass these restrictions in early December 2022 and successfully tricked ChatGPT into giving instructions for how to create a Molotov cocktail or a nuclear bomb, or into generating arguments in the style of a Neo-Nazi.
  • ChatGPT is not entirely accurate: It is not entirely accurate, something even OpenAI has admitted. It is also evident that some of the essays written by ChatGPT lack the depth that a real human expert might showcase when writing on the same subject.
  • ChatGPT lacks depth like the human mind: It doesn’t quite have the nuance that a human would often be able to provide. For example, when asked ChatGPT how one should cope with a cancer diagnosis. The responses were kind but generic. The type of responses you would find in any general self-help guide.
  • It lacks the same experiences as humans: AI has a long way to go. After all, it doesn’t have the same experiences as a human.
  • ChatGPT does not excel in code: ChatGPT is writing basic code. As several reports have shown, ChatGPT doesn’t quite excel at this yet. But a future where basic code is written using AI doesn’t seem so incredible right now.
  • ChatGPT is still prone to Misinformation: Despite of abilities of the bot, there are some limitations. ChatGPT is still prone to misinformation and biases, which is something that plagued previous versions of GPT as well. The model can give incorrect answers to, say, algebraic problems.
  • ChatGPT can write incorrect answers: OpenAI understands some flaws and has noted them down on its announcement blog that “ChatGPT sometimes writes plausible-sounding but the incorrect or nonsensical answer

Conclusion

  • OpenAI’s ChatGPT turned that simple experience into something entirely different. ChatGPT is a path-breaking example of an AI chatbot and what the technology could achieve when applied at scale.
  • Limitations aside, ChatGPT still makes for a fun little bot to interact with. However, there are some challenges that need to be addressed before it becomes an unavoidable part of human life.

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