Hybrid electric vehicle



This article is related to many important topics of the mains syllabus viz Environment, Automobile Industry, Government Policies, etc. Hybrid Vehicle is an effective solution against rising pollution and environmental issues.Given the Push the Current Government is giving to Electric Vehicles and number of times op-ed have come on this issue in recent times. CD considers this topic as very important for mains 2017.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles

  1. Conventional cars use an internal combustion engine for power.
  2. Battery electric vehicles only use an electric motor and battery, eschewing conventional engines altogether.
  3. Hybrid cars have the advantage of both of above type of vehicle. They have, in addition to internal combustion engine, also an electric motor and a battery.
  4. If we had better batteries with greater power storage capacity, we would need hybrid cars.
  5. The most advanced hybrids have larger batteries and can recharge their batteries from an outlet. These are known as “plug-in hybrids” and can cover long distances.


  1. Fuel Efficiency: It greatly increases fuel efficiency by increasing mileage, turning off combustion engine while driving at lower speeds and when the car is stopped, battery provides power for air conditioning.
  2. While accelerating or at higher speeds, combustion engine can be used, thus not compromising with the power of vehicles.
  3. Global Warming: Will cut down emissions of global warming pollutants by a 1/3 to 1/2.
  4. It will greatly reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
  5. Later model may cut down these emissions even further.

FAME India – Hybrid and Electric vehicles scheme

Union Government on 1 April 2015 launched Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric vehicles (FAME) – India Scheme

The scheme was launched as part of the National Mission for Electric Mobility to boost eco-friendly vehicles sales in the country

Key facts:

  1. Objective: To support the hybrid or electric vehicles market development and its manufacturing eco-system in the country in order to achieve self-sustenance in stipulated period
  2. The overall scheme is proposed to be implemented over a period next 6 years i.e. till 2020
  3. It envisages providing Rs 795 crore support till 2020 for the manufacturing and sale of electric and hybrid vehicles
  4. It also seeks to provide demand incentives to electric and hybrid vehicles from two-wheeler to buses
  5. Implementation: It will be implemented in phases
  6. The Phase-1 will be implemented over a two year period in FY15-16 and FY16-17
  7. Based on the outcome and experience from the Phase-1, it will be reviewed for implementation after 31 March 2017
  8. Then appropriate fund will be allocated for future.
  9. Four focus areas: Technology development, Pilot Projects, Demand Creation and Charging Infrastructure.
  10. In the first two years Rs 260 crore and Rs 535 crore will be spent on the focus areas
  11. The Department of Heavy Industries under the aegis of Union Ministry of Heavy Industries will be will be nodal department for the scheme

Challenges/Way Forward?

  • ADEQUATE CHARGING POINTS: The government will have to ensure that adequate charging points are available and for it , it can give tender to companies to facilitate the same.A proper road map as to how these charging points will charge money will also have to be developed.
  • MEETING THE DEMAND: The government would have to ensure that it meets the demand that is created by this mechanism.Hence, more electricity generating sources will have be developed.
  • POLLUTION FREE: The government will have to ensure that the mechanism for electricity generation is pollution free.For this to happen, the government can increase the tax on coal-based production.
  • COST: The high cost associated would this will have to be garnered.Issuing municipal bonds for this can be of great help.
    5.RISK FACTOR: The government will habe to ensure that it doesn’t put all its eggs in one basket as prior experiences of US has shown that overdependence and allotment of all funds for one business leads to the failure of the whole of it.


Q.) “An incremental, technology-neutral approach to the adoption of electric vehicles is the way forward for Automobile Sector in India” Comment.

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