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Indian polity plays a very crucial role in the Prelims exam. If you want to ensure the cutoff marks then you can not expect a single mistake in Indian polity questions. To ensure that you follow these few pointers. We have also included some examples to ensure that you understand the points
Read the Each keyword very carefully: Polity is a game of words, even a single change will change the answer.
Consider the following statements:
- According to the Constitution of India a person who is eligible to vote
can be made a minister in a State for six months even if he/she is not a member of the Legislature of that State
- According to the Representation of People Act, 1951, a person
convicted of a criminal offence and sentenced to imprisonment for five years is permanently disqualified from contesting an election
even after his release from prison
Which of the statements given above is are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
In above question, At first S1 seems correct but when we look carefully it says any eligible voter but the criteria is above 25 years. Similarly S2 says Permanently, but it is temporary
Read all the options very carefully: Even if you know that the first option is the correct answer, look for other options as well. There are chances that according to the question it is not the most appropriate one.
The Preamble to the Constitution of India, is
(a) part of the Constitution but has no legal effect
(b) not a part of the Constitution and has no legal effect either
(c) a part of the Constitution and has the same legal effect as any other part
(d) a part of the Constitution but has no legal effect independently of other parts.
In the above question A looks correct but when we read all options then D looks more appropriate.
Go through the PYQs properly: Understanding PYQs will not help in Polity but in the entire paper. For example take a question from 2017
Which one of the following is not a feature to Indian federalism?
(a) There is an independent judiciary in India.
(b) Powers have been clearly divided between the Centre and the States.
(c) The federating units have been given unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha.
(d) It is the result of an agreement among the federating units
Above question indicates that Independent Judiciary is a feature, Now look at 2021 question
Which one of the following in Indian polity is an essential
feature that indicates that it is federal in character?
(a) The independence of judiciary is safeguarded.
(b) The Union Legislature has elected representatives from
(c) The Union Cabinet can have elected representatives
from regional parties.
(d) The Fundamental Rights are enforceable by Courts of
Understand NCERTs carefully: Nowadays UPSC has a tendency to ask questions from NCERTs, especially from 11th ncert.
Avoid using elimination rules: UPSC expects you to remember Indian Polity therefore the scope is very narrow to use Tikdam rules.
Revision: Most of the questions in Polity are from very spefic chapers or source. They are 11th ncerts, Historical Background, Preamble, Fundamental Rights, DPSPs, Parliament, State Legislature, President, Governor, Supreme Court and High Courts. Make sure that you have the best command on the above topics.
Important Acts in News
- The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization (Amendment) Bill, 2021)
- The Act provides for the bifurcation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) into the Union Territory of J&K and Union Territory of Ladakh.
- The Act provides that Article 239A of the Constitution, which is applicable to the union territory of Puducherry, shall also apply to the union territory of J&K. Article 239A provides for the constitution of a union territory of Puducherry with: (i) a legislature, which may be elected, or partly nominated and partly elected, or (ii) a Council of Ministers.
- In addition to Article 239A, any other provision of the Constitution which refers to elected members of a legislative assembly of a state and is also applicable to the union territory of Puducherry, will apply to the union territory of J&K.
- The Act specifies that the members of the Indian Administrative Service, the Indian Police Service and the Indian Forest Service serving in the state of J&K would continue to serve in the two union territories, based on allocation decided by the central government.
- The Inland Vessels Bill, 2021
- The Bill seeks to introduce a uniform regulatory framework for inland vessel navigation across the country.
- The central government will prescribe the: (i) classification, (ii) standards of design, construction, and crew accommodation, and (iii) type and periodicity of surveys, for these vessels. Construction or modification of such vessels will require prior approval of a designated authority, as prescribed by the central government.
- To operate in inland waters, all such vessels must have a certificate of survey, and a certificate of registration. The certificate of survey will be granted by state governments, in a form as prescribed by the central government.
- The central government will prescribe the minimum number of people that vessels must have, for various roles.
- Vessels will discharge or dispose of sewage, as per the standards specified by the central government. The central government will notify the list of pollutants which will be prohibited for discharge or disposal. State governments will grant vessels a certificate of prevention of pollution.
- The Bill provides for a development fund.
- The Bill empowers state governments to delegate certain functions related to non-mechanically propelled inland vessels to their local governments.
- The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2021
- The Act empowers the central government to reserve any mine (other than coal, lignite, and atomic minerals) to be leased through an auction for a particular end-use.The Bill provides that no mine will be reserved for particular end-use.
- The Bill empowers the central government to specify a time period for completion of the auction process in consultation with the state government. If the state government is unable to complete the auction process within this period, the auctions may be conducted by the central government.
- The Act provides that the period of mining leases granted to government companies will be prescribed by the central government.
- The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill, 2021
- The Code provides a time-bound process for resolving the insolvency of corporate debtors (within 330 days) called the corporate insolvency resolution process (CIRP).
- The Bill introduces an alternate insolvency resolution process for micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs), called the pre-packaged insolvency resolution process (PIRP). Unlike CIRP, PIRP may be initiated only by debtors.
- Application for initiating PIRP may be filed in the event of a default of at least one lakh rupees.
- During PIRP, the debtor will be provided with a moratorium under which certain actions against the debtor will be prohibited. These include filing or continuation of suits, execution of court orders, or recovery of property.
CIRP: Under CIRP, a committee of creditors is constituted to decide on the insolvency resolution. The committee may consider a resolution plan which typically provides for the payoff of debt by merger, acquisition, or restructuring of the company. If a resolution plan is not approved by the committee of creditors within the specified time, the company is liquidated. During CIRP, the affairs of the company are managed by the resolution professional (RP), who is appointed to conduct CIRP.
- The Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Seventh Amendment) Bill, 2021
- The Bill amends the Constitution to allow states and union territories to prepare their own list of socially and educationally backward classes.
List of socially and educationally backward classes:
The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) was established under the National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993.
The 2021 Bill amends this to provide that the President may notify the list of socially and educationally backward classes only for purposes of the central government. This central list will be prepared and maintained by the central government. Further, the Bill enables states and union territories to prepare their own list of socially and educationally backward classes.
- The Election Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2021
- The bill provides that the electoral registration officer may require a person to furnish their Aadhaar number for establishing their identity.
- Persons will not be denied inclusion in the electoral roll or have their names deleted from the roll, if they are unable to furnish Aadhaar number due to sufficient cause as prescribed.
- The Bill provides four qualifying dates in a calendar year, which will be January 1, April 1, July 1, and October 1. Earlier it was only 1 i.e. January 1.
- The Central Vigilance Commission (Amendment) Bill, 2021
- It replaces the Central Vigilance Commission (Amendment) Ordinance, 2021. The Bill seeks to amend the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003. The 2003 Act provides for the constitution of a Central Vigilance Commission to conduct inquiries into offences alleged to have been committed under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
- Under the 2003 Act, the Director of Enforcement is appointed by the central government, on the recommendation of a Committee.This Committee is chaired by the Central Vigilance Commissioner, and includes the Secretaries from the Ministries of Home Affairs, Personnel, and the Revenue Department.
- The Bill adds that the tenure of the Director may be extended by up to one year at a time, till the completion of five years from the initial appointment. Such extensions may be granted in public interest, on the recommendation of the Committee.
- The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2020
- Under the Act, certain persons are prohibited to accept any foreign contribution. These include: election candidates, editor or publisher of a newspaper, judges, government servants, members of any legislature, and political parties, among others
- The Amendment prohibits the transfer of foreign contribution to any other person.
- The Act states that a person may accept foreign contribution if they have: (i) obtained a certificate of registration from central government, or (ii) not registered, but obtained prior permission from the government to accept foreign contribution
- Under the Act, a person who receives foreign contribution must use it only for the purpose for which the contribution is received.Further, they must not use more than 20% of the contribution for meeting administrative expenses.
- The Major Port Authorities Bill, 2020
- The Bill will apply to the major ports of Chennai, Cochin, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Mangalore, Mormugao, Paradip, V.O. Chidambaranar, and Vishakhapatnam.
- The Bill provides for the creation of a Board of Major Port Authority for each major port. These Boards will replace the existing Port Trusts.
- Under the 1963 Act, the Board has to seek prior sanction of the central government to raise any loan.
- The Bill provides that the Board may use its funds for providing social benefits(Corporate Social Responsibility)
- The Bill provides for the constitution of an Adjudicatory Board by the central government.