Minority Issues – SC, ST, Dalits, OBC, Reservations, etc.

127th Constitutional Amendment Bill


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Constitutional amendment and its types

Mains level: 127th Constitutional amendment and its features

The Government will bring the 127th Amendment Bill to Parliament to clarify “some provisions in the 102nd Constitutional amendment Bill” to restore the power of the states to identify backward classes — a demand made by a number of regional parties and even the ruling party’s own OBC leaders.

Try answering:

Q. Consider the following statements:

  1. An amendment to the Constitution of India can be initiated by an introduction of a bill in the Lok Sabha only.
  2. If such an amendment seeks to make changes in the federal character of the Constitution, the amendment also requires to be ratified by the legislature of all the States of India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (CSP 2013)

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2


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127th Constitutional Amendment Bill

  • The Constitutional 127th Amendment Bill will amend Articles 342 A — clauses 1 and 2 — and will introduce clause 342 A (3) specifically authorizing states to maintain their State List.
  • There will be a consequential amendment in Articles 366(26C) and 338B (9). States will then be able to directly notify OBC and SEBCs without having to refer to the NCBC.
  • There has been some confusion about what comprises a state and Central list, and this clause will clarify that.

Why need amendment?

  • The Centre had earlier moved a review petition in the Supreme Court challenging the court’s interpretation of the 102nd amendment of the Constitution in the Maratha reservation judgment.
  • The 102nd CA had scrapped the power of the states to identify and notify socially and educationally backward classes.
  • The move is politically significant as the govt is banking heavily on OBC votes in key states that go to the polls next year.

About the 102nd CAA

  • The 102nd  CAA, 2018 has given constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC).
  • With this, NCBC gets powers to examine the grievances in the implementation of the various welfare schemes meant for OBCs.
  • The status of the Central list of OBCs has been elevated by giving constitutional status to the list.
  • It has given powers to the Parliament to make changes in the Central OBC list.

Back2Basics: Constitutional Amendment

  • Amending the Constitution of India is the process of making changes to the nation’s fundamental law or supreme law.
  • The procedure of amendment in the constitution is laid down in Part XX (Article 368) of the Constitution of India.
  • There is a limitation imposed on the amending power of the constitution of India.
  • The most famous among them is the Basic structure doctrine as laid down by the Supreme Court in the case of Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973).


  • An amendment of the Constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament.
  • The Bill must then be passed in each House by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a special majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting.
  • There is no provision for a joint sitting in case of disagreement between the two Houses.
  • If the amendment seeks to make any change in any of the provisions mentioned in the provision to article 368, it must be ratified by the Legislatures of not less than one-half of the States.
  • Although there is no prescribed time limit for ratification, it must be completed before the amending Bill is presented to the President for his assent.


  1. Simple majority of the Parliament: Creation of new states, Delimitation of constituencies etc.
  2. Special majority of the Parliament: for Fundamental rights and DPSPs
  3. Special majority of the Parliament and the ratification of at least half of the state legislatures: Election of the President and its manner, Supreme Court and high courts etc.

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2 years ago

option d

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