Climate Change Negotiations – UNFCCC, COP, Other Conventions and Protocols

Bonn Climate Conference 2024: 3rd Glasgow dialogue flags need for loss & damage cooperation


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Glasgow Dialogue

Mains level: Key highlights of the Conference

Why in the News?

This week, the Third Glasgow Dialogue on Loss and Damage occurred during the 60th Session of the Subsidiary Bodies (SB60) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Bonn, Germany.

Key highlights of the Conference:

  • Dialogue on Loss and Damage (L&D): The conference focused on discussions around the mechanisms under the UNFCCC, including the Santiago Network on Loss and Damage (SNLD), the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM), and the recently operationalized Loss and Damage Fund (LDF).
The SNLD was established at COP25 in 2019 to catalyze technical assistance for developing countries in implementing approaches for averting, minimizing, and addressing loss and damage

The WIM was established at COP19 in 2013 to promote approaches for averting, minimizing, and addressing loss and damage associated with climate change impacts

The LDF was operationalized at COP27 in 2022 to provide financial support to developing countries for averting, minimizing, and addressing loss and damage

  • Progress in Mechanisms: The co-chairs of each mechanism highlighted the progress made in addressing L&D in the UNFCCC negotiations. This includes positive steps taken in forming the Board of the LDF and formalizing its institutional arrangements and additional rules.
  • Global South Concerns: Countries from the Global South, including the African Group of Negotiators (AGN), the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), and the Arab Group, emphasized the growing cases of L&D in developing nations. There were calls for better cooperation and coordination between countries and mechanisms to address L&D more effectively.
African Group of Negotiators (AGN): It is a coalition of African countries that work together to coordinate their positions and negotiate on various international issues, such as climate change, sustainable development, and human rights.

Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS): It is a coalition of small island developing states that work together to address common challenges and promote their interests in international forums.

Arab Group: It is a coalition of Arab states that work together to promote their collective interests and coordinate their positions on various international issues.

  • Need for Clarity and Coordination: There were calls for a clear relationship between the SNLD, WIM, and LDF, as they each continue to have separate discussions despite having the same goal of addressing L&D. Coordination between these mechanisms would address gaps and improve resource mobilization for developing nations.

About Article 6 and its structural mandate:

  • Article 6 of the UNFCCC deals with cooperative approaches for the implementation of climate action. It provides a framework for international cooperation in areas such as emissions trading, sustainable development, and the transfer of mitigation outcomes. 
  • The structural mandate of Article 6 aims to facilitate cooperation between countries to enhance climate action and achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement.
  • Article 6.2: Authorisation is the formal approval process where emission reductions (Internationally Transferred Mitigation Outcomes or ITMOs) are sanctioned by the host country for transfer to another country.
  • Article 6.4 of the Paris Agreement focuses on operationalising market mechanisms for emission reduction units (6.4ERs), addressing issues like authorisation, carbon removal activities, and the role of the supervisory body in developing market procedures.

Key Goals and Objectives:

  • Raised Ambition: International cooperation under Article 6 aims to raise ambition by enabling countries to achieve more ambitious emission reduction targets.
  • Supporting Sustainable Development: The cooperation mechanisms must support sustainable development, addressing not only climate change but also other sustainability issues.
  • Ensuring Environmental Integrity: The mechanisms must ensure environmental integrity by preventing emission reductions from being counted more than once and ensuring that countries do not circumvent their climate action efforts

Way Forward:

  • Clarity and Coordination: There is a need for clarity on the framework of L&D as a whole, with a defined relationship between its key mechanisms. This would ensure better coordination and cooperation in addressing L&D effectively.
  • Enhanced Technical Interventions: Countries emphasized the importance of technical interventions such as Early Warning Systems and timely provision of finance to improve responses to L&D. Implementing these interventions could minimize the impacts of extreme weather events and facilitate faster recovery.
  • Tailored Responses: Responses to L&D must be tailored to the unique contexts of each country, with individual vulnerability and needs assessments being a priority. This would ensure that assistance and support are provided where they are most needed.
  • Trigger-based Funding Mechanisms: Suggestions were made for trigger-based funding mechanisms or timeline-based provision of funds for countries facing devastating impacts and remaining most vulnerable. Such mechanisms would ensure timely and adequate support for those in need.

Mains PYQ:

Q Explain the purpose of the Green Grid Initiative launched at the World Leaders Summit of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November 2021. When was this idea first floated in the International Solar Alliance (ISA)? (UPSC IAS/2021)

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