From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : SC Bose and his legacy
Mains level : Freedom struggle
The Union Culture Ministry has announced that January 23, birth anniversary of Subhash Chandra Bose, would be celebrated as “Parakram Diwas” — the day of courage — every year.
Try this PYQ
Q.Highlight the difference in the approach of Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for freedom. (150 W)
Subhash Chandra Bose (1897-1945)
- Bose was an Indian revolutionary prominent in the independence movement against British rule of India.
- He also led an Indian national force from abroad against the Western powers during World War II.
- He was a contemporary of Mohandas K. Gandhi, at times an ally and at other times an adversary.
- He was highly influenced by a socialist ideology that acquired popularity as consequences of the Russian Revolution.
Forget not that the grossest crime is to compromise with injustice and wrong. Remember the eternal law: You must give if you want to get.
Association with INC
- In 1927, after being released from prison, Bose became general secretary of the Congress and worked with Jawaharlal Nehru for independence.
- In late December 1928, Bose organised the Annual Meeting of the Indian National Congress (INC) in Calcutta.
- Subsequently, Bose wanted to get elected as Congress President in a subsequent session of 1939 convened at Tripuri.
- However, his candidature was challenged by Mahatma Gandhi who wanted to prevent socialist orientation to the Indian National Movement.
- Gandhi proposed Pattabhi Sitaramaya for this candidature.
- In this election, Bose emerged victorious by a huge margin which was not acceptable to Mahatma Gandhi.
- Congress leader supported Mahatma Gandhi and forced Subhash Chandra Bose to step down from Presidentship.
- Under such collective pressure, Bose not only resigned from the Congress members. Thereafter he established a separate political party known as “Forward Bloc”.
Escape to Germany
- On the outbreak of WW-II, Bose advocated a campaign of mass civil disobedience to protest against Linlithgow’s decision to declare war on India’s behalf without consulting the Congress leadership.
- Having failed to persuade Gandhi of the necessity of this, he was house arrested from where he escaped to Germany.
- He then went to several countries of Europe and finally landed in a region of Singapore in “South East Asia”.
Azad Hind Fauj
- The SE Asia region was under the control of Japan where a large number of “Indian Prisoners of War” was confined.
- When Subhash Chandra Bose reached Singapore in1943 this army was led by a prominent revolutionary Ras Behari Bose whose cadre was known as “Indian National Army”.
- Subhash Chandra Bose reorganized and expanded this force in order to liberate India. This force was renamed as “Azad Hind Fauj” by him.
The Azad Hind Government
- The Provisional Government of Free India, or, more simply, Free India (Azad Hind), was an Indian provisional government established in occupied Singapore in 1943.
- C. Bose was the leader of Azad Hind Government (AHG) and also the Head of State of this Provisional Indian Government-in-exile.
- It was a part of the freedom movement, originating in the 1940s outside India with a purpose of allying with Axis powers to free India from British rule.
Its collapse and INA Trials
- INA under the leadership of Bose got defeated severely at Rangoon due to lack of support of Japanese.
- Bose was suggested to leave Burma to continue his struggle for Indian independence and returned to Singapore before the fall of Rangoon.
- The AHG govt in the islands collapsed when the island garrisons of Japanese and Indian troops were defeated by British troops and the islands themselves retaken.
- The Provisional Government of Free India ceased to exist with the deaths of the Axis, the INA, and Bose in 1945.
- It was followed by the Famous Trials at Red Fort.