Modern Indian History-Events and Personalities

Celebration of Parakram Diwas


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: SC Bose and his legacy

Mains level: Freedom struggle

The Union Culture Ministry has announced that January 23, birth anniversary of Subhash Chandra Bose, would be celebrated as “Parakram Diwas” — the day of courage — every year.

Try this PYQ

Q.Highlight the difference in the approach of Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for freedom. (150 W)

Subhash Chandra Bose (1897-1945)

  • Bose was an Indian revolutionary prominent in the independence movement against British rule of India.
  • He also led an Indian national force from abroad against the Western powers during World War II.
  • He was a contemporary of Mohandas K. Gandhi, at times an ally and at other times an adversary.
  • He was highly influenced by a socialist ideology that acquired popularity as consequences of the Russian Revolution.

Forget not that the grossest crime is to compromise with injustice and wrong. Remember the eternal law: You must give if you want to get.


Association with INC

  • In 1927, after being released from prison, Bose became general secretary of the Congress and worked with Jawaharlal Nehru for independence.
  • In late December 1928, Bose organised the Annual Meeting of the Indian National Congress (INC) in Calcutta.
  • Subsequently, Bose wanted to get elected as Congress President in a subsequent session of 1939 convened at Tripuri.
  • However, his candidature was challenged by Mahatma Gandhi who wanted to prevent socialist orientation to the Indian National Movement.
  • Gandhi proposed Pattabhi Sitaramaya for this candidature.
  • In this election, Bose emerged victorious by a huge margin which was not acceptable to Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Congress leader supported Mahatma Gandhi and forced Subhash Chandra Bose to step down from Presidentship.
  • Under such collective pressure, Bose not only resigned from the Congress members. Thereafter he established a separate political party known as “Forward Bloc”.

Escape to Germany

  • On the outbreak of WW-II, Bose advocated a campaign of mass civil disobedience to protest against Linlithgow’s decision to declare war on India’s behalf without consulting the Congress leadership.
  • Having failed to persuade Gandhi of the necessity of this, he was house arrested from where he escaped to Germany.
  • He then went to several countries of Europe and finally landed in a region of Singapore in “South East Asia”.

Azad Hind Fauj

  • The SE Asia region was under the control of Japan where a large number of “Indian Prisoners of War” was confined.
  • When Subhash Chandra Bose reached Singapore in1943 this army was led by a prominent revolutionary Ras Behari Bose whose cadre was known as “Indian National Army”.
  • Subhash Chandra Bose reorganized and expanded this force in order to liberate India. This force was renamed as “Azad Hind Fauj” by him.

The Azad Hind Government

  • The Provisional Government of Free India, or, more simply, Free India (Azad Hind), was an Indian provisional government established in occupied Singapore in 1943.
  • C. Bose was the leader of Azad Hind Government (AHG) and also the Head of State of this Provisional Indian Government-in-exile.
  • It was a part of the freedom movement, originating in the 1940s outside India with a purpose of allying with Axis powers to free India from British rule.

Its collapse and INA Trials

  • INA under the leadership of Bose got defeated severely at Rangoon due to lack of support of Japanese.
  • Bose was suggested to leave Burma to continue his struggle for Indian independence and returned to Singapore before the fall of Rangoon.
  • The AHG govt in the islands collapsed when the island garrisons of Japanese and Indian troops were defeated by British troops and the islands themselves retaken.
  • The Provisional Government of Free India ceased to exist with the deaths of the Axis, the INA, and Bose in 1945.
  • It was followed by the Famous Trials at Red Fort.

Also read:

In news: 1946 Royal Indian Navy Mutiny

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