Climate Change Negotiations – UNFCCC, COP, Other Conventions and Protocols

Five years since Paris Agreement, an opportunity to build back better


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Targets under the Paris Agreement

Mains level: Paper 3- 5 years of Paris Agreement and actions of EU and India

This article by the Ambassador of the European Union underscores the need for implementation and action on the commitments made in the Paris Agreement to deal with climate change.

EU’s commitment to implement Paris Agreement

  • In December 2019, the European Commission launched the European Green Deal — roadmap to achieve climate neutrality in the EU by 2050.
  •  “Next Generation EU” recovery package and our next long-term budget earmark more than half a trillion euros to address climate change.
  • Recently  EU leaders unanimously agreed on the 2030 target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% compared to 1990 levels.

Impact on low carbon technologies

  • These actions and commitments of the EU towards Paris Agreement will further bring down the costs of low carbon technologies.
  • The cost of solar photovoltaics has already declined by 82% between 2010 and 2019.
  • Achieving the 55% target will even help us to save €100 billion in the next decade and up to €3 trillion by 2050.

EU working with India on climate actions

  • No government can tackle climate change alone.
  •  India is a key player in this global endeavour.
  • The rapid development of solar and wind energy in India in the last few years is a good example of the action needed worldwide.
  • India has taken a number of very significant flagship initiatives such as the International Solar Alliance, the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure and the Leadership Group for Industry Transition.
  • India and Team Europe are engaged to make a success of the forthcoming international gatherings: COP 26 in Glasgow on climate change and COP 15 in Kunming on biodiversity.

Way forward

  • The international community should come forward with clear strategies for net-zero emissions and to enhance the global level of ambition for 2030.
  • Our global, regional, national, local and individual recovery plans are an opportunity to ‘build back better’.
  • We will also need to foster small individual actions to attain a big collective impact.


With climate neutrality as our goal, the world should mobilise its best scientists, business people, policymakers, academics, civil society actors and citizens to protect together something we all share beyond borders and species: our planet.

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