Wildlife Conservation Efforts

Highlights of State of the World’s Birds Report

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Highlights of State of the World’s Birds Report

Mains level : Not Much

The State of the World’s Birds, an annual review of environmental resources has revealed that the population of 48% of the 10,994 surviving species of birds is declining.

State of the World’s Birds

  • The report is published by the Manchester Metropolitan University.
  • It gives an overview of the changes in the knowledge of avian biodiversity and the extent to which it is imperilled.
  • The study draws from BirdLife International’s latest assessment of all birds for the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List.

What are the key findings of the study?

  • The study found that 5,245 or about 48% of the existing bird species worldwide are known or suspected to be undergoing population declines.
  • While 4,295 or 39% of the species have stable trends, about 7% or 778 species have increasing population trends.
  • It shows 1,481 or 13.5% species are currently threatened with global extinction.

Where the birds are threatened the most?

  • The more threatened bird species (86.4%) are found in tropical than in temperate latitudes (31.7%).
  • Such hotspots are concentrated in the tropical Andes, southeast Brazil, eastern Himalayas, eastern Madagascar, and Southeast Asian islands.

What is the importance of birds to ecosystems and culture?

  • Birds contribute toward many ecosystem services that either directly or indirectly benefit humanity.
  • These include provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services.
  • The functional role of birds within ecosystems as pollinators, seed-dispersers, ecosystem engineers, scavengers and predators.
  • They not only facilitate accrual and maintenance of biodiversity but also support human endeavours such as sustainable agriculture via pest control besides aiding other animals to multiply.
  • For instance, coral reef fish productivity has been shown to increase as seabird colonies recovered following rat eradication in the Chagos archipelago.
  • Wild birds and products derived from them are also economically important as food (meat, eggs).

What are the threats contributing to avian biodiversity loss?

  • The study lists eight factors, topped by land cover and land-use change.
  • The continued growth of human populations and of per capita rates of consumption lead directly to conversion and degradation of primary natural habitats.
  • Deforestation has been driven by afforestation with plantations (often of non-native species) plus land abandonment in parts of the global North, with net loss in the tropics.
  • The other factors are habitat fragmentation, degradation, hunting and trapping.

Try this PYQ from CSP 2020:

Q.With reference to India’s Biodiversity, Ceylon frogmouth, Coppersmith barbet, Gray-chinned minivet and White-throated redstart are

(a) Birds

(b) Primates

(c) Reptiles

(d) Amphibians

 

Post your answers here.
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manish singh
manish singh
11 days ago

A

Sanju Kumari
Sanju Kumari
10 days ago
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A

Kiran Kumar
Kiran Kumar
10 days ago
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A

Shruti S
Shruti S
10 days ago
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a

CHAIN BREAKER
CHAIN BREAKER
10 days ago
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a

Saumyadeep Shome
Saumyadeep Shome
9 days ago
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A