In news: Telangana Statehood Day


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Telangana, States Reorganization

Mains level: Read the attached story


Central Idea

  • With assembly elections just months away, political parties across the board are celebrating the 9th anniversary of Telangana’s statehood today (June 2).

Formation of Telangana

  • The article discusses the historical background and the struggle for statehood that led to the formation of Telangana, the newest state in India.
  • It provides a chronological account of the significant events and factors that shaped Telangana’s journey towards becoming an independent state.

Why was Telangana separated from Andhra Pradesh?

Telangana was separated from Andhra Pradesh primarily due to historical, cultural, and developmental reasons, as well as demands from the people of the region. Here are the key reasons behind the separation:

  • Historical and Cultural Differences: Telangana and Andhra Pradesh have distinct historical and cultural identities. Telangana had its own language, Telugu, but with a distinct dialect and cultural practices. The people of Telangana felt that their unique identity was not adequately recognized or represented within the larger Andhra Pradesh state.
  • Socio-economic Disparities: Telangana region, despite its rich natural resources, had been relatively underdeveloped compared to the coastal Andhra region. People in Telangana felt that their region’s development needs were neglected, resulting in socio-economic disparities and unequal distribution of resources and opportunities.
  • Demand for Local Control: The demand for separate statehood gained momentum due to the belief that local control and governance would be more effective in addressing the specific needs and aspirations of Telangana. The people of Telangana sought greater autonomy and decision-making power over their own affairs.
  • Political Representation: Some leaders and groups within Telangana felt marginalized in the political landscape of united Andhra Pradesh. They believed that a separate state would provide better opportunities for political representation and participation.
  • Water and Resource Sharing: Disputes over the sharing of water resources, particularly the Krishna and Godavari rivers, further strained the relationship between Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. The perceived inequitable distribution of water resources added to the demand for a separate state.

These factors, along with sustained movements and protests led by various political and social groups, culminated in the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh and the formation of the separate state of Telangana on June 2, 2014.

Here is a complete timeline of the formation of the modern Telangana State

PART I: Pre-Independence and Formation of Andhra Pradesh

  • Post-independence Hyderabad State (1948-1951): Hyderabad’s significance as a part of the Princely State and its dominance by the Urdu-speaking Muslim elite.
  • Brutalities under Nizam’s rule and the Razakars (1945-1948): The communist-supported rebellion and the violent response of the Nizam’s local militia, the Razakars, leading to atrocities on Telangana’s population.
  • Standstill Agreement and its violation (1947-1948): The signing of the Standstill Agreement with Hyderabad, the subsequent violation of its terms by the Nizam, and the intervention of India through “Operation Polo.”
  • Hyderabad’s status as a Part-B state (1951-1956): The inclusion of Hyderabad as a Part-B state with an elected chief minister after India’s independence and the end of Nizam’s rule.

PART II: Linguistic Reorganisation and Creation of AP

  • Potti Sriramalu’s demand for a separate Telugu state (1952): The fasting protest by Potti Sriramalu, leading to unrest and eventually the formation of Andhra State.
  • Formation of Andhra State out of Madras state (1953): The division of the Madras state and the creation of Andhra State, comprising the north and north-eastern regions, in response to the demand for a separate Telugu state.
  • Formation of the States Reorganisation Committee (1953-1955): The establishment of the committee to address the issue of linguistic reorganisation and its subsequent recommendations.
  • Status of Telangana region in linguistic reorganisation (1955-1956): The debate over the merging of Telangana with Andhra or having it as a separate state, conflicting with the SRC’s recommendations.
  • Merging of Andhra State and Telangana (1956): The decision to merge Andhra State and Telangana against the SRC’s recommendation, resulting in the formation of Andhra Pradesh with Hyderabad as its capital.

PART III: Struggle for Telangana and Creation of Telangana State

  • Pre-Independence protests for Mulki Rules (1952-1947): The protests demanding the enforcement of Mulki Rules, which ensured job reservations for Telangana domiciles, even before India’s independence.
  • Protests and birth of Telangana Praja Samiti in 1969: The widespread protests in 1969, leading to the establishment of the TPS and the call for a separate Telangana state.
  • Repeal of Mulki Rules Act in 1973: The introduction of the 32nd Amendment to the Constitution by Indira Gandhi, repealing the Mulki Rules Act and impacting the Telangana movement.
  • Revival of the Telangana movement by KCR in 2001: KCR’s resignation from the Telugu Desam Party and the formation of the Telangana Rashtra Samithi, rejuvenating the demand for a separate Telangana state.
  • KCR’s fast-unto-death and the promise of Telangana statehood (2009): KCR’s fast-unto-death in 2009 following the death of Andhra Pradesh’s Chief Minister, Y S Rajsekhara Reddy, leading to the Congress party’s promise of creating Telangana.
  • Formation of Telangana state in 2014: The culmination of the struggle with the formation of Telangana as a separate state in 2014, with Hyderabad serving as the capital for a period of ten years.

Back2Basics: States Reorganization in India



Background and Introduction The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 reformed India’s state boundaries based on linguistic lines.

It is the most extensive change in state boundaries after India’s independence.

The act came into effect along with the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956.

Pre-Independence Political Integration British India was divided into Provinces of British India and Indian States.

Princely states were encouraged to accede to either India or Pakistan after independence.

Bhutan remained independent, Hyderabad was annexed by India, and Kashmir became a subject of conflict between India and Pakistan.

Integration of Princely States Between 1947 and 1950, the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union.

Some states were merged into existing provinces, while others formed unions or remained separate states.

Government of India Act 1935 served as the constitutional law until the adoption of a new Constitution.

Classification of States and Territories The Constitution of India, effective from 1950, classified states and territories into Part A, Part B, Part C, and Part D categories.

Part A states were former governors’ provinces, Part B states were former princely states, and Part C states included chief commissioners’ provinces and some princely states.

Part D consisted of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Linguistic Movements and Demands The demand for linguistic states began before independence, with the first movement in Odisha in 1895.

Political movements for linguistic states gained momentum after independence.

Creation of Andhra Pradesh in 1953 marked a significant development in organizing states based on language.

States Reorganisation Commission Linguistic Provinces Commission was set up in 1948 but rejected language as a basis for dividing states.

States Reorganisation Commission was established in 1953 to reorganize Indian states.

Headed by Fazal Ali and had recommendations overseen by Govind Ballabh Pant.

Enactment and Changes States Reorganisation Act was enacted on 31 August 1956.

Constitution underwent an amendment, and the terminology of Part A and Part B states was changed to simply “states.”

Also introduced the classification of Union Territories.

Effects and Reorganization States Reorganisation Act of 1956 resulted in the reorganization of states and territories.

Took effect on 1 November 1956.

Had a significant impact on dividing India into states and Union Territories.

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