Electronic System Design and Manufacturing Sector – M-SIPS, National Policy on Electronics, etc.

Indian start-up joins Sodium Ion Battery Innovation


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Sodium-Ion Battery (NIB)

Mains level: Not Much

sodium ion battery

Central Idea

  • Coimbatore-based start-up AR4 Tech has joined hands with Singapore’s Sodion Energy to revolutionize the energy storage landscape by producing sodium-ion battery packs for both local and global markets.
  • These sodium-ion batteries will find applications in converting conventional petroleum-based vehicles, primarily two-wheelers, into electric vehicles.

What is Sodium Ion Battery (NIB)?

  • A NIB is a type of rechargeable battery that uses sodium ions as the charge carriers to store and release electrical energy.
  • Similar in principle to lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries offer an alternative energy storage solution with potential benefits such as cost-effectiveness and abundance of sodium resources.

Key characteristics  

  • Working Principle: Sodium-ion batteries operate on the same basic principle as lithium-ion batteries. During charging, sodium ions are moved from the positive electrode (cathode) to the negative electrode (anode), and during discharge, they move back to the cathode, generating electrical energy in the process.
  • Sodium Anode: In a sodium-ion battery, the anode typically consists of materials that can intercalate (absorb) sodium ions during charging. Graphite and other carbon-based materials are commonly used for the anode in sodium-ion batteries.
  • Cathode Materials: Various materials can be used as cathodes in sodium-ion batteries, such as transition metal oxides or polyanionic compounds. These cathode materials allow sodium ions to be stored and released, enabling the battery’s energy storage function.
  • Electrolyte: The electrolyte in a sodium-ion battery is responsible for facilitating the movement of sodium ions between the anode and cathode during charge and discharge cycles. Sodium-ion batteries typically use a solid electrolyte or a liquid electrolyte containing sodium salts.

Advantages offered

  • Abundance of Resources: Sodium is more abundant and widely available than lithium, which can potentially make sodium-ion batteries more cost-effective.
  • Environmental Impact: They may have a lower environmental impact compared to lithium-ion batteries due to the more widespread availability of sodium resources.


  • Energy Density: Sodium-ion batteries generally have lower energy density compared to lithium-ion batteries, which can limit their use in applications requiring high energy storage capacity.
  • Cycle Life: Ensuring a long cycle life (the number of charge and discharge cycles a battery can go through before losing capacity) remains a challenge for sodium-ion batteries.

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