Wildlife Conservation Efforts

Kerala seeks to amend the Wildlife Protection Act


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Wildlife (Protection) Act, of 1972

Mains level: Man-Animal Conflit and its mitigation



  • The Kerala Legislative Assembly unanimously passed a resolution urging amendments to the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 aiming to tackle the escalating human-animal conflict in the state.

What is Wildlife (Protection) Act, of 1972?

  • WPA provides for the protection of the country’s wild animals, birds and plant species, in order to ensure environmental and ecological security.
  • It provides for the protection of a listed species of animals, birds and plants, and also for the establishment of a network of ecologically-important protected areas in the country.
  • It provides for various types of protected areas such as Wildlife Sanctuaries, National Parks etc.

There are six schedules provided in the WPA for the protection of wildlife species which can be concisely summarized as under:

Schedule I
  • Species need rigorous protection
  • Harshest penalties for violation of the law are for species under this Schedule.
Schedule II
  • Animals under this list are accorded high protection.
  • Cannot be hunted except under threat to human life.
Schedule III & IV
  • Species that are not endangered.
  • Includes protected species but the penalty for any violation is less compared to the first two schedules.
Schedule V Contains animals which can be hunted.
Schedule VI Plants that are forbidden from cultivation.

Kerala’s Demands for Amendment

  • Section 11 Amendment: Kerala proposes amending Section 11(1)(A) to empower Chief Conservators of Forests (CCF) instead of Chief Wildlife Wardens (CWLW) to permit hunting of Schedule I mammals. This seeks to expedite decision-making at the local level in handling human-wildlife conflicts.
  • Declaration of Wild Boar as Vermin: Kerala urges the Centre to declare wild boars as vermin under Section 62, allowing controlled culling to mitigate threats to life and livelihoods.

Major Reason: Escalating Human-Animal Conflict

  • Rising Incidents: Kerala has witnessed a surge in human-animal conflicts, particularly involving elephants and wild boars, causing extensive damage to lives and crops.
  • Government Data: In 2022-23, there were 8,873 wild animal attacks, including 4,193 by elephants and 1,524 by wild boars. These incidents resulted in 98 deaths and significant crop loss.
  • Wild Boar Menace: Wild boars, in particular, are notorious for ravaging farmlands, with 20,957 incidents of crop damage recorded from 2017 to 2023.

Challenges and Implications

  • Urgent Action Needed: Kerala’s plea for amendments highlights the pressing need for effective measures to address the human-animal conflict.
  • Local Empowerment: Empowering local forest authorities can lead to quicker responses to wildlife threats, ensuring both human safety and wildlife conservation.
  • Balancing Conservation and Livelihoods: Striking a balance between conservation and livelihood concerns is crucial for sustainable coexistence between humans and wildlife.


  • Kerala’s proactive stance in advocating for amendments to the Wildlife Protection Act underscores its commitment to confronting the challenges posed by the human-animal conflict.
  • These proposed changes aim to protect both citizens and biodiversity, reflecting a holistic approach towards environmental and socio-economic well-being.

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