Genetically Modified (GM) crops – cotton, mustards, etc.

[pib] Glycemic Index in Rice


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Indigenious varities of rice mentioned

Mains level: Not Much

The Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has provided some useful information about some indigenous varieties of rice.

Try this PYQ from CSP 2018:

Q.With reference to the Genetically Modified mustard (GM mustard) developed in India, consider the following statements:

  1. GM mustard has the genes of a soil bacterium that give the plant the property of pest-resistance to a wide variety of pests.
  2. GM mustard has the genes that allow the plant cross-pollination and hybridization.
  3. GM mustard has been developed jointly by the IARI and Punjab Agricultural University.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Indigenous varieties of rice

  • Indigenous varieties of rice are being promoted through varieties of programmes.
  • 574 indigenous varieties of rice have been propagated and tested at more than 10,000 farmers’ fields.
  • Nutritional profiling of 300 selected rice varieties has been done for market linkage and better price to the farmers.
  • Farmers are also being trained on conservation, improvement and use of traditional/ indigenous varieties through participatory variety selection.
  • Further, for access to seeds of these indigenous varieties, community seed banks have been established.

Key varieties

  • Lalat and Improved Lalat (GI value: 54) as Low GI
  • Swarna, Sambha Mahsuri and Shaktiman (GI value <60) as intermediate GI have been identified

There is no certification for GI (Glycemic Index) in rice in India.

What is Glycemic Index (GI)?

  • GI is a number from 0 to 100 assigned to food, with pure glucose arbitrarily given the value of 100, which represents the relative rise in the blood glucose level two hours after consuming that food.
  • The GI of a specific food depends primarily on the quantity and type of carbohydrate it contains.
  • But it is also affected by the amount of entrapment of the carbohydrate molecules within the food, the fat and protein content of the food, the number of organic acids (or their salts) in the food, and whether it is cooked and, if so, how it is cooked.
  • A food is considered to have a low GI if it is 55 or less; high GI if 70 or more, and mid-range GI if 56 to 69.

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