Human Rights Issues

[pib] Sugamya Bharat App

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan

Mains level : Disable friendly infrastructure

Union Minister for Social justice and Empowerment has launched the “Sugamya Bharat App”.

Sugamya Bharat App

  • The Sugamya Bharat App is a simple to use Mobile App with an easy registration process, requiring only 3 mandatory fields, namely, Name, Mobile number and Email-id.
  • Registered users can raise issues related to accessibility being faced.
  • The App is made accessible for ease of use for persons with disabilities also with features such as font size adjustment, color contrasting option, text to speech, and having an integrated screen reader in Hindi and English.
  • It is available in 10 regional languages, namely, Hindi, English, Marathi, Tamil, Odiya, Kannada, Telugu, Gujarati, Punjabi, and Malayalam.
  • The App also has the provision of easy photo uploads with a geotagging option of the premise where accessibility intervention is required.

Its features

  • The app, a Crowdsourcing Mobile Application is a means for sensitizing and enhancing accessibility in the 3 pillars of the Accessible India Campaign i.e. built environment, transportation sector and ICT ecosystem in India.
  • The app provides for five main features, 4 of which are directly related to enhancing accessibility, while the fifth is a special feature meant only for Divyangjan for COVID related issues.

The accessibility-related features are:

  • Registration of complaints of inaccessibility across the 3 broad pillars of the Sugamya Bharat Abhiyaan;
  • Positive feedback of examples and best practices worth emulating being shared by people as jan-bhagidhari;
  • Departmental updates and guidelines and circulars related to accessibility.

Back2Basics: Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan

  • Accessible India Campaign or Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan is a program that is set to be launched to serve the differently-able community of the country.
  • The flagship program has been launched on 3 December 2015, the International Day of People with Disabilities.
  • The program comes with an index to measure the design of disabled-friendly buildings and human resource policies.
  • The initiative also in line with Article 9 of the (UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) which India is a signatory since 2007.
  • The scheme also comes under the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995 for equal Opportunities and protection of rights which provides non-discrimination in Transport to Persons with Disabilities.

Urban Transformation – Smart Cities, AMRUT, etc.

[pib] City Innovation Exchange (CiX)

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : City Innovation Exchange (CiX) 

Mains level : Urban transformation initiatives

The City Innovation Exchange (CiX) platform was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

City Innovation Exchange (CiX)

  • The CiX will connect cities to innovators across the national ecosystem to design innovative solutions for their pressing challenges.
  • The platform will ease the discovery, design & validation of solutions through a robust, transparent and user-centric process that will reduce barriers for innovators and cities to discover fitting solutions.
  • Built on the concept of ‘open innovation’, the platform will help in the flow of ideas ‘outside in and inside out, enhancing the skills and capacity required to deliver smart urban governance.
  • Through interaction with Academia and Businesses/Startups, the platform will benefit cities in the transfer of ideas from ‘labs’ to the real environment.
  • Similarly, by helping urban governments interact with citizens, the platform will ensure the adoption of tested solutions that will be impactful and sustainable.

Benefits of CiX

  • The CiX platform will be a significant addition to the growing innovation ecosystem of India and focuses on fostering innovative practices in cities.
  • CiX, through an ‘open innovation’ process, engages with innovators to design-test-deliver on solutions to pressing urban challenges.
  • This initiative is among the ongoing efforts to realize PM’s vision of New and AtmaNirbhar Bharat, by making cities more self-reliant and enabled to meet the needs of and provide services to their citizens.
  • The platform in due time will help our cities in adopting solutions that will enhance the quality of life for their residents and significantly improve the Ease of Doing Business.

Try this PYQ:

Q.The Constitution (Seventy-Third Amendment) Act, 1992, which aims at promoting the Panchayati Raj Institutions in the country, provides for which of the following?

  1. Constitution of District Planning Committees.
  2. State Election Commissions to conduct all panchayat elections.
  3. Establishment of State Finance Commissions.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) Only 1

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Direct Benefits Transfers

[pib] PM-KISAN Scheme Completes Two Years

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : PM-KISAN

Mains level : Cash support schemes for farmers

The PM-Kisan scheme, launched with an aim to ensure a life of dignity and prosperity for farmers has completed two years of successful implementation.

PM-KISAN

  • Under this programme, vulnerable landholding farmer families, having cultivable land upto 2 hectares, will be provided direct income support at the rate of Rs. 6,000 per year.
  • This income support will be transferred directly into the bank accounts of beneficiary farmers, in three equal instalments of Rs. 2,000 each.
  • This programme will be entirely funded by the Government of India.

Note: Aadhaar was made optional for availing the first instalment (December 2018 – March 2019). But now it is mandatory.

Exclusion categories

The following categories of beneficiaries of higher economic status shall not be eligible for benefit under the scheme.

  1. All Institutional Landholders
  2. Farmer families in which one or more of its members belong to the following categories
  • Former and present holders of constitutional posts
  • Former and present Ministers/ MP/MLAs/Mayors /Chairpersons of District Panchayats
  • All serving or retired officers and employees of Central/ State Government Ministries (Excluding Multi Tasking Staff /Class IV/Group D employees)
  • All superannuated/retired pensioners whose monthly pension is ₹10,000/-or more (Excluding Multi Tasking Staff / Class IV/Group D employees) of the above category
  • All Persons who paid Income Tax in the last assessment year
  • Professionals like Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Chartered Accountants, and Architects registered with Professional bodies and carrying out the profession by undertaking practices.

Do you know?

West Bengal is yet to implement the PM-KISAN scheme while the farmers have completed their registrations!

Agmark, Hallmark, ISI, BIS, BEE and Other Ratings

[pib] One Nation One Standard Mission

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : One Nation One Standard, BIS

Mains level : One Nation One Standard

It’s time to embark on Mission “One Nation One Standard” and make India the leader in setting global benchmarks in setting standards, highlighted the Food and Consumer Affairs Minister.

One Nation One Standard

  • The purpose of setting standards and enforcing them is not to bring back “inspection raj” but to ensure that quality products are made available to consumers.
  • The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the only national body that frames standards, has come out with more than 20,000 standards for various products and services so far.
  • Besides this, there are about 50-odd agencies that have framed about 400 standards in the country.
  • There are multiple standards in the country for a single product/service. The new mission is to converge such standards with the BIS.

Main objectives:

  • No one should feel the need to go abroad to get the quality certification.
  • Lab testing in India should be of world standards. Modern equipment and the latest technologies would be used there.

Why such a move?

  • Having uniform national standards will help in making it mandatory for more products.
  • The government proposes to set Indian standards in line with the global benchmarks, just like other countries enforce their standards on imported products.
  • The Centre, through this move, wants foreign goods coming into India to comply with Indian standards.

Try this PYQ:

Consider the following statements:

  1. The Standard Mark of the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is mandatory for automotive tyres and tubes.
  2. AGMARK is a quality Certification Mark issued by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2


Back2Basics: Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

  • BIS is the National Standards Body of India working under the aegis of the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution.
  • It is established by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 which came into effect on 23 December 1986.
  • The organisation was formerly the Indian Standards Institution (ISI), set up under the Resolution of the Department of Industries and Supplies in September 1946.
  • The ISI was registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  • A new Bureau of Indian standard (BIS) Act 2016 has been brought into force with effect from 12 October 2017.
  • The Act establishes the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) as the National Standards Body of India.

Microfinance Story of India

[pib] SFURTI Scheme

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SFURTI Scheme

Mains level : Reviving MSME Sector

Union Minister for MSME has inaugurated 50 artisan-based SFURTI clusters, spread over 18 States.

SFURTI is an off-track scheme compared to other HRD schemes with Hindi acronyms. Similar is the SPARSH scheme for philately.

SFURTI Scheme

  • Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries (SFURTI) is an initiative by the Ministry of MSME to promote Cluster development.
  • Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is the Nodal Agency for the promotion of Cluster development for Khadi.
  • Under the Scheme, the MSME Ministry supports various interventions including the setting up of infrastructure through Common Facility Centers (CFCs), procurement of new machinery, design intervention, improved packaging and marketing etc.

Types of clusters

  • SFURTI clusters are of two types i.e., Regular Cluster (500 artisans) with Government assistance of up to Rs.2.5 crore and Major Cluster (more than 500 artisans) with Government assistance up to Rs.5 crore.
  • The scheme focuses on strengthening the cluster governance systems with the active participation of the stakeholders so that they are able to gauge the emerging challenges and opportunities and respond to them.

History- Important places, persons in news

[pib] Who was Sant Ravidas?

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Sant Ravidas

Mains level : Bhakti Saints and their contribution

The President of India recently addressed the ‘Shri Guru Ravidas Vishva Mahapeeth Rashtriya Adhiveshan-2021’ in New Delhi.

Try this PYQ from CSP 2019:

Q.Consider the following statements:

1.Saint Nimbarka was a contemporary of Akbar.

2.Saint Kabir was greatly influenced by Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Who was Sant Ravidas?

  • Ravidas was an Indian mystic poet-saint of the Bhakti movement and founder of the Ravidassia religion during the 15th to 16th century CE.
  • Venerated as a guru (teacher) in the region of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and mainly Punjab and Haryana. He was a poet-saint, social reformer and spiritual figure.
  • The life details of Ravidas are uncertain and contested. Scholars believe he was born in 1450 CE, in the cobbler caste.
  • Ravidas’s devotional Verses were included in the Sikh scriptures known as Guru Granth Sahib.
  • The Panch Vani text of the Dadupanthi tradition within Hinduism also includes numerous poems of Ravidas.
  • He taught the removal of social divisions of caste and gender and promoted unity in the pursuit of personal spiritual freedoms.

Why his preaching is important?

  • Philosophy and values of Sant Ravidas like social justice, equality and fraternity have been imbued in our constitutional values.
  • He had envisaged a society that is based on equality and free from any kind of discrimination.
  • He gave it the name ‘Be-gampura’ (a city near Lahore) where there is no place for any kind of grief or fear.
  • Such an ideal city would be bereft of fear, vulnerability or scarcity. Rule of law based on the right ideas like equality and welfare of all would be the principle for governance.

[pib] Draft Blue Economy Policy of India

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Blue Economy

Mains level : Blue Economy and its contribution to GDP

The Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) has rolled out the Draft Blue Economy policy for India in the public domain inviting suggestions and inputs from various stakeholders.

Blue Economy Policy

  • India’s draft blue economy policy is envisaged as a crucial framework towards unlocking country’s potential for economic growth and welfare.
  • The draft policy outlines the vision and strategy that can be adopted by the govt to utilize the plethora of oceanic resources available in the country.

Objectives:

The policy aims to-

  • Enhance the contribution of the blue economy to India’s GDP
  • Improve the lives of coastal communities
  • Preserve marine biodiversity and
  • Maintain the national security of marine areas and resources

What comprises India’s blue economy?

  • India’s blue economy is understood as a subset of the national economy.
  • It comprises an entire ocean resources system and human-made economic infrastructure in marine, maritime, and onshore coastal zones within the country’s legal jurisdiction.
  • It aids the production of goods and services that have clear linkages with economic growth, environmental sustainability, and national security.
  • The blue economy is a vast socio-economic opportunity for coastal nations like India to utilize ocean resources for societal benefit responsibly.

Need for such policy

  • With a coastline of nearly 7.5 thousand kilometres, India has a unique maritime position.
  • Nine of its 29 states are coastal, and the nation’s geography includes 1,382 islands.
  • There are nearly 199 ports, including 12 major ports that handle approximately 1,400 million tons of cargo each year.
  • Moreover, India’s Exclusive Economic Zone of over 2 million square kilometres has a bounty of living and non-living resources with significant recoverable resources such as crude oil and natural gas.
  • Also, the coastal economy sustains over 4 million fisherfolk and coastal communities.

Key areas

The policy recognizes the following seven thematic areas.

  1. National accounting framework for the blue economy and ocean governance.
  2. Coastal marine spatial planning and tourism.
  3. Marine fisheries, aquaculture, and fish processing.
  4. Manufacturing, emerging industries, trade, technology, services, and skill development.
  5. Logistics, infrastructure and shipping, including trans-shipments.
  6. Coastal and deep-sea mining and offshore energy.
  7. Security, strategic dimensions, and international engagement.

North-East India – Security and Developmental Issues

[pib] Mahabahu-Brahmaputra

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Mahabahu-Brahmaputra

Mains level : Infrastructure in NE

PM will launch the ‘Mahabahu-Brahmaputra’, lay the foundation stone of Dhubri Phulbari Bridge and perform Bhumi Pujan for construction of Majuli Bridge Assam.

Click here too read all North-East related news.

Mahabahu-Brahmaputra

  • The program is aimed at providing seamless connectivity to the Eastern parts of India and includes various development activities for the people living around River Brahmaputra and River Barak.
  • It will consist of the Ro-Pax vessel operations between Neamati-Majuli Island, North Guwahati-South Guwahati and Dhubri-Hatsingimari.
  • The Ro-Pax services will help in reducing the travel time by providing connectivity between banks and thus reducing the distance to be travelled by road.
  • PANI (Portal for Asset and Navigation Information) will act as a one-stop solution for providing information about river navigation and infrastructure.

Dhubri Phulbari Bridge

  • PMwill lay the foundation stone for the four-lane bridge over the Brahmaputra between Dhubri (on North Bank) and Phulbari (on South Bank).
  • The proposed Bridge will be located on NH-127B, originating from Srirampur on NH-27 (East-West Corridor), and terminating at Nongstoin on NH-106 in the State of Meghalaya.
  • It will connect Dhubri in Assam to Phulbari, Tura, Rongram and Rongjeng in Meghalaya.
  • It will reduce the distance of 205 Km to be travelled by Road to 19 Km, which is the total length of the bridge.

Majuli Bridge

  • PM will perform Bhumi Pujan for the two-lane Bridge on the Brahmaputra between Majuli (North Bank) and Jorhat (South Bank).
  • The bridge will be located on NH-715K and will connect Neematighat (on Jorhat side) and Kamalabari (on Majuli side).
  • The Construction of the bridge has been a long demand of the people of Majuli who for generations have been dependent on the ferry services to connect with the mainland of Assam.

Roads, Highways, Cargo, Air-Cargo and Logistics infrastructure – Bharatmala, LEEP, SetuBharatam, etc.

[pib] FASTag declared mandatory

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Fastag

Mains level : Fastag and its benefits for speedy transport

Ministry of Road Transport & Highways has decided that all lanes in the fee plazas on National Highways shall be declared as “FASTag lane of the fee plaza”.

Fastag went unnoticed this year. The RFID technology deployed in this holds an intuition for its relevance in CS prelims and many forthcoming exams.

What is ‘FASTag’?

  • FASTags are stickers that are affixed to the windscreen of vehicles and use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to enable digital, contactless payment of tolls without having to stop at toll gates.
  • The tags are linked to bank accounts and other payment methods.
  • As a car crosses a toll plaza, the amount is automatically deducted, and a notification is sent to the registered mobile phone number.

How does it work?

  • The device employs Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for payments directly from the prepaid or savings account linked to it.
  • It is affixed on the windscreen, so the vehicle can drive through plazas without stopping.
  • RFID technology is similar to that used in transport access-control systems, like Metro smart card.
  • If the tag is linked to a prepaid account like a wallet or a debit/credit card, then owners need to recharge/top up the tag.
  • If it is linked to a savings account, then money will get deducted automatically after the balance goes below a pre-defined threshold.
  • Once a vehicle crosses the toll, the owner will get an SMS alert on the deduction. In that, it is like a prepaid e-wallet.

Must read:

[Burning Issue] Implementation of FASTags

Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.

[pib] National Creche Scheme

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Creche scheme

Mains level : Maternity benefits act

The Union Minister of Women and Child Development have given information about the National Creche Scheme to the Lok Sabha.

Try this PYQ:

Q.Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017?

  1. Pregnant women are entitled to three months pre-delivery and three months post-delivery paid leave.
  2. Enterprises with creches must allow the mother a minimum of six crèche visits daily.
  3. Women with two children get reduced entitlements.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

National Creche Scheme

  • The Ministry of WCD implements the NCS for the children of working mothers as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme through States/ UTs with effect from 01.01.2017.
  • It aims to provide daycare facilities to children (age group of 6 months to 6 years) of working mothers.

The Scheme provides an integrated package of the following services:

  • Daycare facilities including sleeping facilities.
  • Early stimulation for children below 3 years and pre-school education for 3 to 6 years old children
  • Supplementary nutrition (to be locally sourced)
  • Growth monitoring
  • Health check-up and immunization

History- Important places, persons in news

[pib] Swami Dayanand Saraswati

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Dayanand Saraswati

Mains level : Not Much

Information and Broadcasting Minister paid his tributes to Swami Dayanand Saraswati on his birth anniversary.

Dayanand Saraswati (1824-1883)

  • Swami Dayanand Saraswati was a philosopher, social leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, a reform movement of the Vedic dharma.
  • He was the first to give the call for Swaraj as “India for Indians” in 1876, a call later taken up by Lokmanya Tilak.
  • Denouncing the idolatry and ritualistic worship, he worked towards reviving Vedic ideologies.
  • Subsequently, the philosopher and then President, S. Radhakrishnan called him one of the “makers of Modern India”, as did Sri Aurobindo.

Try this PYQ:

Q.Which among the following event happened earliest?

(a) Swami Dayanand established Arya Samaj

(b) Dinabandhu Mitra wrote Neeldarpan

(c) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote Anandmath

(d) Satyendranath Tagore became the first India to succeed in the Indian Civil Services Examination

His influence

  • Those who were influenced by and followed him included Madam Cama, Shyamji Krishna Varma, Kishan Singh, Bhagat Singh, VD Savarkar, Bhai Parmanand, Lala Hardayal, Madan Lal Dhingra, Ram Prasad Bismil, MG Ranade, Ashfaq Ullah Khan, , Lala Lajpat Rai etc.

Philosophy

  • He was ascetic from boyhood and a scholar.
  • He believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas.
  • He advocated the doctrine of Karma and Reincarnation.
  • He emphasized the Vedic ideals of Brahmacharya, including celibacy and devotion to God.

His contribution

  • Among Dayananda’s contributions were his promoting of the equal rights for women, such as the right to education and reading of Indian scriptures.
  • He wrote his commentary on the Vedas from Vedic Sanskrit in Sanskrit as well as in Hindi.

Child Rights – POSCO, Child Labour Laws, NAPC, etc.

[pib] Child Beggars and their protection

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Various provisions of the Juvenile Justice Act

Mains level : Child rights and their protection

The Union Minister of Women and Child Development has given important information regarding the protection of child beggars in India under various acts and ministries.

Q.What are the various legislatures aimed at protecting Child Beggars in India? Discuss their efficacy in the prevention of child begging as well as abuse.

Protection of Child Beggars

(A) JJ Act, 2015

  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 (JJ Act) is the primary law for children in the country.
  • The Section 2 (14) (ii) of the Act, 2015, considers a child being in force or is found begging, or living on the street as a “child in need of care and protection”.
  • As per Section 76 of JJ Act, whoever employs or uses any child for the purpose of begging or causes any child to beg shall be punishable with imprisonment.
  • The Act provides a security net of service delivery structures along with measures for institutional and non-institutional care, to ensure the comprehensive well being of children in distress situations.
  • The primary responsibility of execution of the Act rests with the States/UTs.

(B) Child Protection Services (CPS)

  • The Ministry implements a centrally sponsored scheme CPS under the umbrella Integrated Child Development Services scheme.
  • It supports the children in difficult circumstances including child beggars and destitute children.
  • Under the scheme, institutional care is provided through Child Care Institutions (CCIs), as a rehabilitative measure.
  • The programmes and activities in CCIs inter-alia include age-appropriate education, access to vocational training, recreation, health care, counselling etc.
  • The scheme supports 24×7 emergency outreach/ helpline service for children in distress conditions.
  • The service is accessible through a dedicated toll-free number, 1098 from anywhere in India.

(C) Rehabilitation measures

  • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, has undertaken a pilot project for Comprehensive Rehabilitation of Persons engaged in the act of begging.
  • It is currently held in ten (10) cities; namely Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Lucknow, Patna, Nagpur and Indore.
  • The initiative aims for identification, rehabilitation, counselling, skill development of beggars.
  • It includes education of children engaged in begging/children of persons engaged in the begging.

The children of today are assets of tomorrow. Yet education, which is a fundamental right to every child in our country, is still a dream for many children in India, especially the ones who are poor, downtrodden and in dire need.

[pib] Seaweeds Mission

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Seaweed Mission

Mains level : Seaweed economy

TIFAC has unveiled a Seaweed Mission for commercial farming of seaweeds and its processing for value addition.

Note the species of edible seaweeds mentioned in the newscard.

Seaweed Mission

 

The Mission envisages the following activities:

  • establishing model demonstration farms over one hectare for the cultivation of economically important seaweeds in nearshore and onshore along the Indian coast
  • Kappaphycus all over Indian coast
  • Gracilaria dura in Gujarat
  • Gracilariaverrucosa in Chilika Lake (Odisha)
  • Ulva Linza or Ulva prolife rain Chilika Lake (Odisha)
  • Ulva Lactuca or Ulva fasciata or Ulva indica all over India coast

Proposed Sites: Gujarat / Tamil Nadu / Andhra Pradesh / Odisha / Karnataka

Seaweed production in India

  • Out of the global seaweed production of ~ 32 million tons fresh weight valued around 12 billion US dollars. China produces ~57 %, Indonesia ~28% followed by South Korea.
  • India is having a mere share of ~0.01-0.02%.
  • Despite several advantages, commercial seaweeds cultivation has not been taken place in the country at an appropriate scale, as being practised in South-East Asian countries.
  • By an estimate, if cultivation is done in ≈10 million hectares or 5% of the EEZ area of India, it can provide employment to ~ 50 million people.
  • Seaweed cultivation also enhances ocean productivity, abates algal blooms and sequesters millions of tons CO2.

 

Labour, Jobs and Employment – Harmonization of labour laws, gender gap, unemployment, etc.

[pib] SAKSHAM Portal

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SAKSHAM portal

Mains level : MSMS sector and its job potential

The Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) has launched SAKSHAM, a dynamic job portal for mapping the skills of Shramiks.

The name SAKSHAM closely leans towards HRD, Employment and Entrepreneurship developments.  Make a note of it. It can create confusion while revision.

SAKSHAM

  • SAKSHAM is an acronym for Shramik Shakti Manch.
  • The portal with the demand and supply data uses an algorithm and AI tools, for geospatial information on demand and availability of Shramiks, and also provides analysis on skill training programmes of Shramiks.
  • It would directly connect Shramiks with MSMEs and facilitate placement of blue-collar jobs.
  • The pilot portal originally initiated with two districts is now being launched as an all India portal.

Key features

  • A dynamic job portal – an opportunity for Shramiks and MSMEs
  • Facilitate the creation of 10 lakh blue-collar jobs
  • Direct connect between Shramiks and MSMEs, no middleman in between
  • Minimise migration of Shramiks – job opportunity in proximate MSMEs

Monsoon Updates

[pib] National Monsoon Mission

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : National Monsoon Mission

Mains level : Determinants of Indian Monsoon

Under the National Monsoon Mission (NMM), Ministry of Earth Sciences has developed the state-of-the-art weather and climate prediction models, which are now in operational use.

Tap to read about the mechanism of Indian Monsoon System at:

The Southwest Monsoon Season (Jun – Sep) | Part 1

National Monsoon Mission (NMM)

  • Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) had launched NMM in 2012 with a vision to develop a state-of-the-art dynamical prediction system for monsoon rainfall on different time scales.
  • The responsibility of execution and coordination of this mission is vested to the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune.
  • Climate Forecast System (CFS) of USA has been identified as the basic modelling system for the above purpose, as it is one of the best among the currently available coupled models.

Targets of NMM

  • Development of a seamless prediction system using monsoon mission model, on different time scales, like Seasonal (for whole Monsoon season), extended-range (upto 4 weeks), short-range prediction (up-to 5days).
  • Initiate and coordinate the working partnership between Indian and foreign institutes to develop a system for prediction of extremes and climate applications
  • Develop and implement the system for climate applications having social impacts (such as agriculture, flood forecast, extreme events forecast, wind energy, etc.
  • Advanced data assimilation system for preparing high-quality data for model predictions.

Achievements of NMM during the last 3 years

  • Setting up of an advanced prediction system for Seasonal prediction; Extended range prediction and Very high-resolution Short-range prediction.
  • Commissioning of a Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) for short and medium-range prediction at 12km.
  • The Cyclone track and intensity prediction has also shown a steady improvement over the last three years.
  • The operationalization of Monsoon Mission dynamical model (MMCFS) to prepare operational seasonal forecast of monsoon rainfall and temperatures during the hot and cold weather seasons over India.
  • Development of an algorithm to monitor and predict the Monsoon Intra-seasonal Oscillations (MISO) and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the extended range.
  • Development of an index to predict the genesis and evolution of tropical cyclones and other cyclonic disturbances over the north Indian Ocean.

Air Pollution

[pib] Scheme for Management of Crop Residues

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Air pollution

Mains level : Alternatives solutions for stubble burning

The Scheme on ‘Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for In-Situ Management of Crop Residue in the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi’ has been extended for the year 2021-22.

We can cite the example of this scheme for crop residue management as an effective solution against stubble burning.

Management of Crop Residues

  • In pursuance this, a central sector scheme (100% funded by centre) was launched in 2018 Budget to support the efforts of the governments of Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and the NCT of Delhi to address air pollution.
  • It aimed to subsidize the machinery required for in-situ management of crop residue.

Various objectives of the scheme:

  • Protecting the environment from air pollution and preventing loss of nutrients and soil micro-organisms caused by burning of crop residue;
  • Promoting in-situ management of crop residue by retention and incorporation into the soil through the use of appropriate mechanization inputs and
  • Creating awareness among stakeholders for effective utilization and management of crop residue

Outcomes of the scheme

  • The residue burning events in 2020 in Punjab, Haryana and UP together have reduced by -30% as compared to 2016.
  • In Punjab the reduction is -22.7%, Haryana – 63.8% and UP – 52.01%.

Indian Navy Updates

[pib] Malabar Naval Exercises

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Malabar Exercises

Mains level : Not Much

The 24th edition of Malabar maritime exercise, hosted by Indian Navy in 2020, witnessed the participation by Indian Navy, United States Navy, Japan Maritime Self Defence Force and Royal Australian Navy.

Such news is nothing but the repetitive chunk that occurs every year with few or no new developments. Still, they are significant for the sake of information as Australia has joined it after several apprehensions.

 Question can be expected in CAPF, CDS or AFCAT exams.

About Ex. Malabar

  • Exercise Malabar is a trilateral naval exercise involving the US, Japan and India as permanent partners.
  • This year Australia has joined as a permanent partner.
  • Originally begun in 1992 as a bilateral exercise between India and the United States, Japan became a permanent partner in 2015.
  • Past non-permanent participants are Australia and Singapore.
  • The annual Malabar series began in 1992 and includes diverse activities, ranging from fighter combat operations from aircraft carriers through Maritime Interdiction Operations Exercises.

Significance of Australia’s inclusion

  • Earlier, India had concerns that it would give the appearance of a “quadrilateral military alliance” aimed at China.
  • Now both look forward to the cooperation in the ‘Indo-Pacific’ and the strengthening of defence ties.
  • This has led to a convergence of mutual interest in many areas for a better understanding of regional and global issues.
  • Both are expected to conclude the long-pending Mutual Logistics Support Agreement (MLSA) as part of measures to elevate the strategic partnership.

Digital India Initiatives

[pib] MCA21 Version 3.0

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : MCA

Mains level : Digital India

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) will launch data analytics-driven MCA21 Version 3.0.

What is MCA 21?

  • MCA21 is an e-Governance initiative of Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) that enables easy and secure access of the MCA services to the corporate entities, professionals and citizens of India.
  • It is the first Mission Mode e-Governance project of GoI.

Try this PYQ:

Q.Which one of the following is not a feature of Limited Liability Partnership firm?

(a) Partners should be less than 20

(b) Partnership and management need not be separate

(c) Internal governance may be decided by mutual agreement among partners

(d) It is a corporate body with perpetual succession

MCA21 3.0

  • MCA21 V3 is a technology-driven forward-looking project, envisioned to strengthen enforcement, promote Ease of Doing Business, enhance the user experience, and facilitate seamless integration and data exchange among Regulators.
  • The project will have Micro-services architecture with high scalability and capabilities for advanced analytics.
  • It will have additional modules for e-Adjudication, e-Consultation and Compliance Management.
  • Aligned with global best practices and aided by emerging technologies such as AI and ML, MCA21 V3 is envisioned to transform the corporate regulatory environment in India.

Components of MCA21 V3

  • E-Scrutiny: MCA is in process of setting up a Central Scrutiny Cell which will scrutinise certain Straight Through Process (STP) Forms filed by the corporates on the MCA21 registry and flag the companies for more in-depth scrutiny.
  • E-adjudication: E-adjudication module will provide a platform for conducting online hearings with stakeholders and end to end adjudication electronically.
  • E-Consultation: To automate and enhance the current process of public consultation on proposed amendments and draft rules etc., e-consultation module of MCA21 v3 will provide an online platform.
  • Compliance Management System (CMS): CMS will assist MCA in identifying non-compliant companies/LLPs, issuing e-notices to the said defaulting companies/LLPs etc.

Festivals, Dances, Theatre, Literature, Art in News

[pib] Monpa Handmade Paper of Tawang

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Monpa Handmade Paper

Mains level : Not Much

PC: East Mojo

The sale of the 1000-years old heritage Monpa handmade paper or “Mon Shugu” is quickly catching pace after a special mention by PM in his Mann ki Baat.

Monpa Handmade Paper

  • Monpa paper is made from the bark of tree Shugu Sheng grown locally in Tawang and is identified by its distinctive translucent fibrous texture.
  • The paper is weightless but its natural fibres add great tensile strength to this paper making it apt for various artworks.
  • It has been used for writing Buddhist scriptures, manuscripts and for making prayer flags.
  • Writing on this paper is also known to be tamper-proof.

Note: This paper is yet to be awarded the Geographical Indication (GI) tag.

Revitalized by KVIC

  • Khadi and Village Industries Commission, which revived this ancient art at Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh on 25th December 2020.
  • It has made Monpa Handmade paper available online through its e-portal.
  • The revival of this art assumes significance as Monpa Handmade paper was once produced in every household in Tawang and the paper was exported to many countries like Tibet, Bhutan, Myanmar and Japan among others.
  • However, with the new technologies coming in, the handmade paper industry almost disappeared in the last 100 years.

Intellectual Property Rights in India

[pib] KAPILA for patent awareness

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : KAPILA program

Mains level : Patenting solutions in India

The Government has launched a campaign namely KAPILA for Intellectual Property Literacy and creating patent awareness, informed Union Ministry for Education to the Parliament.

Remember one thing, ‘KAPILA’ Program is related to IP awareness. It sounds much like an animal husbandry related initiative.

KAPILA Initiative

  • KAPILA is an acronym for Kalam Program for IP (Intellectual Property) Literacy and Awareness.
  • Under this campaign, students pursuing education in higher educational institutions will get information about the correct system of the application process for patenting their invention and they will be aware of their rights.
  • The program will facilitate the colleges and institutions to encourage more and more students to file patents.

Why in news?

  • As many as 46,556 users have registered for the Union Government’s Intellectual Property Literary project.
  • This marks the success of the campaign.