From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Green Hydrogen, BRICS
Mains level : NA
India is all set to host a two-day summit on Green Hydrogen initiatives involving the BRICS nations.
What is Green Hydrogen?
- Hydrogen, when produced by electrolysis using renewable energy is known as Green Hydrogen which has no carbon footprint.
- This gives hydrogen the edge over other fuels to unlock various avenues of green usage.
- However, challenges lie in terms of technology, efficiency, financial viability, and scaling up which the summit will aim to address.
Answer this PYQ in the comment box:
Q.With reference to ‘fuel cells’ in which hydrogen-rich fuel and oxygen are used to generate electricity, consider the following statements:
- If pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, the fuel cell emits heat and water as by products.
- Fuel cells can be used for powering buildings and not for small devices like laptop computers.
- Fuel cells produce electricity in the form of Alternating Current (AC).
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Applications of green hydrogen
- Green hydrogen has innumerable applications.
- Green Chemicals like ammonia and methanol can directly be utilized in existing applications like fertilizers, mobility, power, chemicals, shipping among others.
- Green Hydrogen blending up to 10 percent may be adopted in CGD networks to gain widespread acceptance.
- Further scaling up with greening of hard to abate sectors like steel and cement through hydrogen is to be explored.
- Many countries have brought out their strategies and defined targets and roadmaps based on their resources and strengths.
Back2Basics: BRICS Countries
- BRICS is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
- To be clear, BRICS was not invented by any of its members.
- In 2001, Goldman Sachs’ Jim O’Neill authored a paper called “Building Better Global Economic BRICs”, pointing out that future GDP growth in the world would come from China, India, Russia and Brazil.
- Significantly, the paper didn’t recommend a separate grouping for them, but made the case that the G-7 grouping, made up of the world’s most industrialized, and essentially Western countries, should include them.
- O’Neill also suggested that the G-7 group needed revamping after the introduction of a common currency for Europe, the euro, in 1999.
- In 2003, Goldman Sachs wrote another paper, “Dreaming with BRICs: Path to 2050”, predicting that the global map would significantly change due to these four emerging economies.
- In 2006, leaders of the BRIC countries met on the margins of a G-8 (now called G-7) summit in St. Petersburg, Russia, and BRIC was formalized that year.