Primary and Secondary Education – RTE, Education Policy, SEQI, RMSA, Committee Reports, etc.

Plight of Single-Teacher Schools: A Call for Urgent Action


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Education reforms and schemes

Mains level: Prevalence of single-teacher schools in India, challenges and way forward

Single-Teacher Schools

Central Idea

  • The presence of single-teacher schools in India, particularly in Jharkhand, continues to persist despite the Right to Education Act mandating a minimum of two teachers in every school. The prevalence of such schools poses significant challenges, hampering the quality of education and depriving children of their right to a proper education. The alarming situation of single-teacher schools, calls attention to recent findings, and emphasizes the need for urgent action to address this issue.

Single-Teacher Schools

Plight of Single-Teacher Schools in India

  • Even after 14 years since the implementation of the Right to Education Act, the proportion of single-teacher schools in India remains high at 14.7%.
  • In Jharkhand alone, nearly one-third of primary schools fall under the single-teacher category, significantly impacting the quality of education.
  • While Jharkhand is a poor performer, a few States had a similar or even higher proportion of single-teacher schools such as Andhra Pradesh (34%), Telangana (30%) and Karnataka (29%).
  • In nine of India’s 21 major States, the share of children studying in single-teacher schools was well above 10%, rising to 25% in Jharkhand.
  • A recent report titled Gloom in the Classroom sheds light on the severity of the situation in Jharkhand.
Did you know?

·       The Right to Education Act states that every school must have at least two teachers.

Reasons attributed to the presence of Single-Teacher Schools in certain states

  • Low Population Density and Scattered Settlements: In states with low population density and scattered settlements, such as Himachal Pradesh, it becomes challenging to establish multiple schools in close proximity. Limited resources and logistical difficulties make it economically unviable to have multiple teachers in such areas. As a result, single-teacher schools are often the only feasible option to provide education to children in remote locations.
  • Low Fertility Rates: States with low fertility rates, such as Himachal Pradesh and Kerala, may have a smaller number of students in schools. In these cases, single-teacher schools serve as a more efficient and cost-effective arrangement to cater to the relatively smaller student population. With fewer students, consolidating them into larger schools may not be practical or necessary.
  • Viability of Mini-Schools: In some states, single-teacher schools are a result of the viability and historical existence of mini-schools. Mini-schools were established in sparsely populated areas before the Right to Education Act came into force. Some states, like Kerala, have successfully managed to merge mini-schools, while others continue to have single-teacher schools as separate entities.
  • Staffing Challenges and Budget Constraints: State governments facing staffing challenges and budget constraints may opt for under-staffing schools in underprivileged areas, leading to the prevalence of single-teacher schools. Limited resources and difficulties in recruiting and retaining teachers, especially in remote or economically disadvantaged regions, contribute to the staffing issues.
  • Resistance to Remote Postings: Remote areas often lack basic amenities and facilities, making it challenging for teachers to adjust to such environments. Reluctance to accept postings in remote locations can lead to a shortage of teachers, resulting in single-teacher schools as a temporary solution.

Measures to tackle the challenges associated with single-teacher schools

  • Infrastructure and Resources: Adequate investment in infrastructure, including the establishment of additional classrooms, is crucial to accommodate more teachers and reduce the burden on existing staff. Providing schools with sufficient teaching resources, such as textbooks, learning materials, and technological tools, can enhance the teaching-learning process.
  • Recruitment and Retention: State governments must prioritize the recruitment of qualified teachers, ensuring a sufficient number of professionals in underprivileged areas. Encouraging and incentivizing teachers to accept postings in remote areas can help overcome the resistance to such assignments.
  • Policy Reforms: The Right to Education Act needs to be rigorously implemented, emphasizing the requirement for a minimum of two teachers in each school. State governments should allocate adequate funds to address staffing needs and enforce compliance with the act. Policy reforms should focus on promoting equity and inclusivity, targeting marginalized communities and ensuring access to quality education for all children.
  • Community Engagement: Building awareness among parents and communities about the importance of education and the impact of single-teacher schools is crucial. Encouraging community participation in school management committees and fostering collaboration between schools, parents, and local organizations can drive collective efforts to improve the educational environment.

Way forward: Revitalizing the Education Movement

  • It is imperative to revive the momentum for the right to education that once echoed across the nation.
  • A renewed movement is necessary to advocate for quality education, raise awareness about the persisting challenges, and hold authorities accountable for ensuring children’s right to education.
  • The recent protests in Jharkhand, which highlighted the unmet demand for quality education, serve as a reminder of the urgent need to address the plight of single-teacher schools.


  • The prevalence of single-teacher schools in Jharkhand and several other states indicates a systemic failure in fulfilling the right to education. Immediate action is required to improve infrastructure, recruit qualified teachers, implement policy reforms, and foster community engagement. By prioritizing education and addressing the challenges associated with single-teacher schools, we can ensure that every child has access to quality education and the opportunity to thrive.

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