Judicial Reforms

Issues related to Judicial appointment in India


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Article 124(2) and Article 217

Mains level: Issues with collegium system


Recommendations of some judges for appointment by the collegium raises the issue of changes in the collegium system.

Background of the collegium system

  • During the 1970s, the political leaning of a candidate had become a major consideration in the matter of appointment of judges.
  • Therefore, it was felt that the role of the state in the appointment of judges in terms of Article 124 (2) and 217 needed to be reconsidered.
  • But then, in 1982 in S P Gupta’s case, the Supreme Court bench of five judges gave its approval to the primacy of the state in the matter of appointment of judges.
  • However, that judgment was overturned subsequently by a bench of nine judges.
  • Primacy of CJI:  It held that the provisions for consultation with the Chief Justice of India, and the Chief Justices of the high courts in Articles 124 (2) and 217 of the Constitution were introduced because of the realisation that the Chief Justice is best equipped to know and assess the worth of a candidate, and his/her suitability for appointment as a superior judge.
  • Initiation of proposal by CJI: It also held that the initiation of the proposal for appointment of a judge to the SC must be made by the CJI after wider consultation with senior judges, and likewise in the case of high courts.
  • Confirmation of CJI: It was also held that no appointment of any judge to the SC or any high court can be made unless it conforms with the opinion of the CJI.
  • Thus, what is known as the “collegium system” was born.
  • Striking down of NJAC: In 2014, the government tried to make changes to the collegium system by introducing Article 124 (A) by a constitutional amendment, and by enacting National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014.
  • The SC has struck down both the amendment and the Act.

Has the collegium system succeeded?

  • Nepotism: There have been cases where the nearest relative of Supreme Court judges has been appointed as a high court judge, ignoring merit.
  • Ignoring the merit: Judges far lower in the combined All India Seniority of High Court judges were appointed to SC, and the reason assigned was that those selected were found more meritorious.


The collegium system is still the best, but it needs to weed out what is wrong in its actual working. It is hoped that the system will make course corrections in deserving cases.

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