From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Samba Cultivation
Mains level : NA
Around four lakh more acres have been brought under the Crop Insurance Scheme for the Samba Cultivation season of 2021-22 in Tamil Nadu.
What is Samba Cultivation?
- It is a Tamil name for paddy cultivation season.
- Other paddy seasons in Tamil Nadu include:
- Kuruvai: June-July
- Samba: August
- Late Samba / Thaladi: September- October
- Navarai: December- January
Back2Basics: Major crop seasons
(1) Kharif Crop
- Kharif crops, monsoon crops, or autumn crops are cultivated and harvested in the monsoon season.
- The farmers sow seeds at the beginning of the monsoon season and harvest them at the end of the season. i.e., between September and October.
- Kharif crops need a lot of water and hot weather for proper growth.
- Examples: Rice, Maize, Millet, Soybean, Arhar, Cotton. etc.
(2) Rabi Crop
- Rabi means spring in Arabic. Crops grown in the winter season [October to December] and harvested in the spring season [Aril-May] are called Rabi crops.
- These crops require a warm climate for germination and maturation of seeds and need a cold environment for their growth.
- Rain in winter spoils the Rabi crop but is good for the Kharif crop.
- Examples: Wheat, Gram, Barley, Peas, Oats, Chickpea, Linseed, Mustard, etc.
(3) Zaid Crop
- Zaid crops are grown between Kharif and Rabi Seasons, i.e., between March to June.
- They require warm, dry weather as a vital growth period and longer day length for flowering.
- Zaid crop is significant for farmers as it gives fast cash to the farmers and is also known as gap-filler between two chief crops, Kharif and Rabi.
- Examples: Cucumber, Pumpkin, Bitter gourd, Watermelon, Muskmelon, Sugarcane, Groundnut, Pulses, etc.