[Prelims Spotlight] Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), Swell Waves, RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands

Here are 2 Back2Basics collections from today’s news items

B2B #1: From news- India to push for local manufacturing of APIs, reduce dependence on China

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs)

  1. All drugs are made up of two core components: the API, which is the central ingredient, and the excipients, the substances other than the drug that helps deliver the medication to your system
  2. The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) is the part of any drug that produces its effects
  3. Excipients are chemically inactive substances, such as lactose or mineral oil
  4. The quality of APIs has a significant effect on the efficacy and safety of medications

B2B #2: From news- Swell waves forecast along India’s coasts

Swell Waves

  1. ‘Swell waves’ are massive ripples that form on the sea due to winds coming from as far away as Madagascar
  2. Swells are collections of waves produced by storm winds raging hundreds of miles out to sea, rather than the product of local winds along beaches
  3. They are often referred to as surface gravity waves
  4. Swell continues to move under winds and waves that have long since changed direction, it can even head in the opposite direction as the wind and waves
  5. They might appear to be tsunami-like waves but have completely different characteristics
  6. They can have heights between 2 m and 3 m and periods between 17-22 seconds

As a part of revision for Prelims 2018, Here’s a Factoid to brush up your concepts

Name : RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands

Brief Intro : The Convention was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and came into force in 1975 after UNESCO, the Convention’s depositary received the instruments of accession from the countries. – The RAMSAR Secretariat is based at the headquarters of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in Gland, Switzerland. – World Wetlands Day is celebrated on February 2nd.

Objective :  An intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.

Type : Conventions

Category : E&B

Year : 1971

Importance (wr. Prelims) : Medium

Place : Ramasar

Key Terms/ Institutions spinoffs : The Montreux Record – a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character are of concern. It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.

India specific trivia : India currently has 26 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites)

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