Mains Paper 2: IR | Bilateral, regional & global groupings & agreements involving India &/or affecting India’s interests
From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:
Prelims level: Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), MTCR, Australia Group
Mains level: Importance of joining NSG and other export control regimes by India
- P5 countries have recently concluded their meetings to discuss issues related to nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation and peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
China maintains Status-quo
- China has once again refused to dilute its stand on India’s entry into the elite Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).
- It asserted that New Delhi must sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty to gain entry as there is no precedent for the inclusion of non-NPT countries.
- China has been opposing India’s entry into the 48-member NSG on the ground that India is not a signatory to the NPT.
- The other P5 members, including the US and Russia backed its case based on New Delhi’s non-proliferation record.
- China along with P5 has decided to uphold the NPT mechanism.
Pakistan: the elephant in the room
- China has sought to club India and Pakistan together, on the basis of both being non-signatories of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
- It has asked the NSG countries to adopt a “criteria-based approach” — which essentially means that either both can get into the group or none.
- But most of the NSG countries, including the US, France and UK, make a clear distinction between India and Pakistan’s nuclear non-proliferation track record.
Why NSG for India?
- The NSG is the top club of countries which controls access to technology and guards against proliferation. Its membership is important for India to access cutting-edge high technology.
- Pakistan has violated all norms of nuclear non-proliferation and had links with the North Korean nuclear programme.
- The P5+1 refers to the UN Security Council’s five permanent members (the P5); namely China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States; plus Germany.
- It is a group of six world powers which, in 2006, joined together in diplomatic efforts with Iran with regard to its nuclear program.