I am giving a broad sketch on how to approach these 2 very crucial topics for Prelims. Take it with a pinch of salt and feel free to ask me specific queries (restricted to CSE Prelims).
The market is full of fear psychosis and there are so many books/ study materials But I will try to keep it simple. Advance readers should feel free to put in the comments on the right and I will pick and answer a few.
How to study Geography:
- First complete all the basic 4 NCERT books. Read line by line. You face difficulty in studying world physical geography NCERT book.
- There is no need to make short notes for this but underline in ncert book only with some blue pen so that you can easily do revision. Remember these books should be revised atleast 3-4 times before you go to exam.
- Goh cheng leong clearly explain all physical geography concepts. This will be helpful for both prelims and mains. All landforms formations, ocean currents , climatic regions, important physical characteristics formation all will be covered very nicely.
- Social and economic geography you need to first go through NCERTs but they are not enough keeping in mind of present trend of UPSC paper. So pick up an atlas and check all important roads, industrial corridors, ports, cropping pattern, soil pattern (This year international year for soils by FAO so a question can be expected), all rivers and its tributaries, industries.
- In Indian economic survey also you will have some data related to economic geography. While reading that kindly make note of them also.
- Around 15 questions will be from geography. UPSC can ask either concepts, memory based questions. See that you wont do concept based questions wrong which keeps you in safe zone.
- Most important phase after studying is writing tests. Kindly write as many tests as possible from all coaching center available and note down all concepts in a book which you can poor and cover them once tests are done. This will give you lot of confidence before exam.
How to study Ecology:
Aside from the pointers mentioned in the infograph, a few more –
- Many questions will be on sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves, endemic species and endangered species. These can only be answered if u know them and that is sheer luck according to me. So better go through as many national parks in wiki, Along with that of you come through any species try to look at its image, this helps you in remembering that species and where is it found.
- In species related questions mainly focus on India specific
- Questions based on concept cannot go wrong. So be carefull about the concepts. You need revise N number of times.
- Same as geography, write as many number of tests as possible and note down all concepts in which you are doing wrong. So attempt at least 500 questions on ecology before going to exam. This will cover most of the topics.
Have more questions on these two subjects? Put on the comments.