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We have provided a detailed question-wise analysis UPSC 2020 GS Paper 2. But before we start, here are some of our observations about the paper:

  1. Compared to 2019, the paper seems to be lengthy and more analytical. It required clarity of thoughts and an analytical mind to interpret questions.
    • How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples to validate your answer.
    • The strength sustenance of local institutions in India has shifted from their formative phase of ‘Functions, Functionaries and Funds’ to the contemporary stage of ‘Functionality’. Highlight the critical challenges faced by local institutions in terms of their functionality in recent times. 
  2. Some questions though appear straight forward but require a broader perspective and dimensionality.
    • Which steps are required for constitutionalization of a commission? Do you think imparting constitutionality to the National Commission for Women would ensure greater gender justice and empowerment in India? Give reasons. 
    • Judicial legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of a large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities.
  3. Very specific questions, where students might find it difficult to attempt because of fewer data and facts:
    • ‘Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries’. Comment with examples.
    • The judicial systems in India and the UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices.

The weightage:

  • Polity and Constitution- 11 questions – Moderate to tough
  • Governance- 2 questions – Straightforward 
  • Social Justice- 4 questions – Easy to Moderate
  • International Relations- 3 questions – Straightforward

Our remarks

Overall the questions appeared to be very long but could be answered with ease if the students have-had followed the current affairs thoroughly. The static questions were also on the line previous year questions, so a basic understanding of topics would have made the paper manageable.

 Now let us see how aligned was our Samachar Manthan and Mains test series with UPSC Mains GS paper 2

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Question-wise analysis of UPSC 2020 GS Paper 2


Q1. “There is a need for simplification of procedure for disqualification of persons found guilty of corrupt practices under the Representation of peoples Act”. Comment (Answer in 150 words)

Test series Question

Q.) On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the representation of people act, 1951? Also, mention the remedies available to such a person against his disqualification?


If we read the question carefully, the statement suggests a solution to politically corrupt practises under RPA. 

Now the question at hand has projected “simplification of procedure” as a solution, we should focus our approach on zeroing on suitable error/problem identification with the context in mind. 

And this should be followed with the justification/correctness of the solution mentioned in the problem. 


  • Start the answer by mentioning the Constitutional aspects related to Disqualifications of persons due to corrupt political practices
  • Point out the abusive loopholes and how these are not acting as a deterrent to stop corruption
  • Quote, examples like horse-trading, money and muscle power used during several supreme courts directed floor tests in the event of hung assemblies. 
  • Conclude answer by providing suggestions like 
    • Election Commission of India updating the list of corrupt practices and taking prompt corrective actions 
    • Fast-tracking the setting up of Special courts, 
    • Amending IPC and the RP Act ensuring proper disincentives are meted-out to those breaking the law with impunity. 

Q2. “Recent amendments to the Right to Information Act will have a profound impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission”. Discuss (Answer in 150 words)

Test series Question

Q1. Right to Information Act considered as one of the milestones in Indian democracy. In the context of real representation that RTI provided to the public authorities, examine, how far the recent amendments breach the actual contention of RTI Act?

Q2. The Right to Information (RTI) Act, called the sunshine legislation, certainly deserves an in-depth study and assessment for accelerating the flow of information to the public. Critically analyse the context of recent amendments made in the RTI Act. (15)

Autonomy and independence are the main pillars of the Right to Information Act any breach in these would defeat the very purpose of this otherwise honest attempt at legislation.  

Positioning GOI as the trustee and repository of the public information, the act had bestowed it with great responsibility. Hence understanding the relevance of RTI would be of great importance here. 


  • Introduce by talking about the relevance of RTI in bringing transparency and access to information about the system.
  • Critically discuss the features of the amended RTI Act:
    • Interference of the executive. 
    • Determination of salary
    • Deductions in salary
    • Term of Information Commissioners
  • What could be done to empower the Information Commission?
  • Conclude by successful examples of RTI and how it will enhance the confidence of people in Democratic setup.

Q3. How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples to validate your answer. (Answer in 150 words)

Test series 

Q. Explain the difference between Competitive and Cooperative federalism. In the Indian context, what have been the hindrances in achieving competitive federalism. What should be the solution? 

 This question has tinkered with the oft-repeated comments made by our PM, in the context of NITI Ayog meetings, Disruptions in Rajya Sabha in addition to various forums for interstate and centre-state cooperation. As a developing country, there are many areas of convergence for states. 

As an example, handling of Nipah virus by the Central and Kerala health ministries were exemplary and helped us focus on the benefits of cooperation and co-learning within the federation.


  • Introduction: what kind of federation does India have? 
  • Cooperation: GST, Model laws made by the parliament from the state list, Niti Ayog, giving states the freedom to decide on development projects like Sister cities, the SDG India Index and collaboration between states for Aspirational Districts Programme (ADP) show how competitive-federalism complements cooperative-federalism.
  • Competition: Interstate water sharing issues, ease of doing business, environmental issues – like deciding the ecologically sensitive areas and so-on.
  • Confrontation: Farm laws, Abrogation of Article 370 of the Constitution, CAA, NIA Act 
  • Conclusion: Conclusion must include mention of points like Quasi Federal nature of India, vesting of powers to the centre only during extra-ordinary times with a successful mix of power-share, securing the nation’s interest.

Q4. The judicial systems in India and the UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices. (Answer in 150 words)

Test series

This topic was part of the third week of December discussions in our Samachar Manthan lecture

Being fact-dependent question one is supposed to follow the recent judicial developments in both the countries in the light of recent developments. 


  • Start by introducing the UK judicial system in short.
  • Straightly mention the area of convergence and divergence separately.
  • Judiciary is independent and separate from the Government. 
  • It will facilitate the rule of law and will ensure checks and balances in the country. This doctrine is not followed in the United Kingdom.
  • Lord Chancellor who is the member of the House of Lords acts as the head of Judiciary.
  • The questionable factor is that in the absence of a written constitution, how can it deal with judicial independence. 
  • As the Parliament is considered authoritative and supreme, the constitutional principles are limited in scope
  • Conclude by telling the effectiveness of both the systems.

Q5. “Once a speaker, Always a speaker’! Do you think the practise should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India? (Answer in 150 words)

Test series Question

Q.) Discuss the controversies surrounding the office of the speaker in India. Suggest measures make the office of speaker impartial and independent. Should it be modelled on the lines of the office of British speaker? (15)

Following the Westminster model of parliamentary procedure, the Indian constitution chose the Speaker as the presiding officer and officer of highest authority in Lok Sabha having immense administrative and discretionary powers, which leads to the above question.

Indias first Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru had said that in a parliamentary democracy, the Speaker represents the dignity and the freedom of the House and because the House represents the country, the speaker in a way becomes the symbol of the country’s freedom and liberty.


  • Introduction: describe the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha in short.
  • Issue:  Recently, the Speaker’s role has become a reason for conflict between the opposition and ruling parties for alleged partisanship. 
  • Role of the Speaker: Explain how Speaker plays a crucial role in issues such as money bill, maintaining the decorum in assembly, passing of critical motions like censure motion and no-confidence motion etc 
  • Problems with the current system: Explain how the current system of appointing the Speaker from the ruling party without any procedure is hampering its role and leads to the subjective interpretation of issues rather than objectivity needed in a parliamentary democracy.
  • In conclusion, suggestions should be made, about how this post can be made more impartial along-with the benefits of doing so.

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Q6. In order to enhance the prospects of social development, sound and adequate health care policies are needed particularly in the fields of geriatric and maternal health care. Discuss. (Answer in 150 words)

Test series question

Q. Discuss how marriage age and women’s health are linked with each other? Discuss the policy options that India should pursue to improve women’s health in India.

Q. The share of the elderly in the population is expected to increase to 20 percent of the population by 2050. Thus to ensure a life of dignity, social security and safety, enabling them to actively participate in economic development and the process of nation-building is an absolute necessity. Discuss (15 marks)

Given the interconnectedness of older people with mental health issues, it becomes even more important, for the policies to be responsive to the growing elderly and mentally sensitive population. 

Health policies made either by the centre or the states can have their efficacy be proven only after studying the impact it has created on the target disease and population. 

Data from a recent epidemiological study indicated an average of 20.5% mental health morbidity in older adults. Accordingly, it was found that, at present, 17.13 million older adults (total population, 83.58 million) are suffering from mental health problems in India. We may start our answer with such govt backed data.


  • Introduce by giving some data from the healthcare sector at present and its consequences.
  • Discuss why extra focus is required in Geriatric and Maternal healthcare
    • Bad health condition of mothers- affect child growth in the long run- contributing less to economic development 
    • About 90% of the elderly were from the unorganized sector, i.e., they have no regular source of income.
    • Elderly people suffer from dual medical problems, i.e., both communicable as well as non–communicable diseases. 
    • This is further compounded by the impairment of special sensory functions like vision and hearing.
  • Discuss various healthcare policies related to these two sectors that can be done
  • You can also mention some successful examples of states like KERALA as a concluding point.

Q7. “Institutional quality is a crucial driver of economic performance”. In this context suggest reforms in the Civil Service for strengthening democracy. (Answer in 150 words)

Test series Questions

Q) Despite being the pivot of Indian democracy, the civil services have performed rather poorly when it comes to administering the routine. Discuss. (10)

Although, the role of the state has been relegated to the background, restricting its interests to being a facilitator or regulator of growth parameters, yet its role in enabling a suitable environment, important for economic development and competition within cannot be overemphasised. 

And in this context, the main administrative pillars, Central and State civil services and their reforms become critical in ensuring transparency and thereby building trust and social capital again very important for robust economic performance. 


  • Introduce by explaining the statement given. Give some data to authenticate your point.
  • Discuss the lacunas, requiring reforms like red-tapism, arm-chair attitude, “chalta hai” tendency, disconnect between civil servants and citizen, partisanship and so on.
  • Suggest reforms by quoting recommendations from ARC.
  • Conclude by giving some innovative solutions required in the civil services. You can also mention Mission Karmayogi.

Q8. “The emergence of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Digital Revolution) has initiated e-Governance as an integral part of the government”. Discuss. (Answer in 150 words)

Test series question

Q. Digitising India could accelerate its progress towards development but there are certain factors which must be addressed before India could reap the benefits of digitising. Examine such factors and suggest the ways to deal with the issues in digitising the country. (10)

Given the amount of churning that had happened over the last couple of years in the field of fourth industrial revolution especially with the meet at world economic, it was expected that UPSC would not be far from asking a question on this very relevant issue. 

The fourth industrial revolution is also about performance, quality and productivity as much as it is about the digital revolution and various positive externalities in governance/policies. Fact and data-driven one should follow the below mentioned approaches. 


  • Introduce by mentioning a linkage between 4th IR and its effect on increasing e-governance reach to all.
  • Discuss the pillars of 4th IR and how it has strengthened the e-governance in the country.
    • Use of blockchain in healthcare, supply chains, education etc.
    • Bringing transparency, affordability and accessibility
    • Use of drones- in agriculture, disaster management etc
  • Conclude by mentioning government initiatives using technology for the benefit of improving citizen services. 

Q9. Critically examine the role of WHO in providing global health security during the COVID-19 pandemic. (Answer in 150 words)

Test series Question

Q) The global institutional architecture of the 1940s cannot help humanity face the challenges of the 2020s. Discuss. (10)

Q) The WHO has been facing the credibility crisis for its response to the Covid-19. In such a difficult time for the agency, India has to lead the executive board of WHA. In light of this, suggest the policy approach that India should adopt at WHA. (250 words) (15)

After receiving severe global criticism for its alleged inefficiencies in containing the spread of COVID19 virus, the roles, responsibilities and capabilities of WHO, in response to grave public emergencies need to be re-assessed. 

Also, the importance of a global asset in the field of medical research and coordination, cannot be ignored. Further removing the administrative and diplomatic impediments in its study, R&D and dissemination of universally critical data. 


  • Introduction in the answer must mention the instances of alleged mismanagement during the time of pandemic and USA’s conflict with the organisation. 
  • Give the efficient and well-managed role being played by WHO during the whole Pandemic. 
  • Also, point out the limitations and lacunas associated with the organisation. 
  •  Conclude by suggesting how to improve the role of WHO in the future years and also mention how effective it remained earlier. 

Q. 10 ‘Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries’. Comment with examples. (Answer in 150 words)

Our touch points.

Given the amount of effort invested by Prime Minister Modi and the Ministry of external affairs in establishing the connection with rich, influential and literate Indian diaspora, it becomes very important that their contributions as a strong, socio-economic and political entity outside the borders of India are credited. 

For example, information nuggets like-

  1. 1% of the US population is Indian diaspora, 
  2. that contributes to creating the second most influential lobby in US policy-making after Israel, 
  3. such a presentation helps in curating the answer. 


  • Introduce by defining the diaspora of India along with data.
  • Decisive roles played by the Indian diaspora 
    • In elections 
    • In trade and commerce
    • Holding strong positions
    • Howdy Modi event
    • Indian diaspora is instrumental in public healthcare delivery in the EU.
  • Conclude by stating the impact of diaspora on strengthening relations with these countries.  

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Q11. Indian constitution exhibits centralising tendencies to maintain unity and integrity of the nation. Elucidate in the perspective of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897; The Disaster Management Act, 2005 and recently passed Farm Acts. (Answer in 250 words)

Test series question

Q. The Centre has more powers to raise the resources and states have more responsibilities. Examine how this dichotomy came under serious scrutiny in the context of Covid-19 pandemic. (10 marks)

 Despite “public health” being a state subject, the central government is the key actor in designing health policies and programmes. This has largely been due to greater spending ability and availability of better technical resources. 

For instance, to advise the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the government is assisted by the National Centre for Disease Control, National Health System Resources Centre and the Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR).

And this was equally applicable in the case of recent farm laws, that were passed by the Parliament as reformative agro-economic policies, enabling the farmers to sell their produce in the open market under the Prime- Ministers ambitious “Doubling Farmers Income by 2022” mission. 


  • You can introduce by stating about the 7th Schedule of the Constitution- dealing with federalism.
  • Wrt to each of these Acts, explain how the centre in some cases is overreaching the state subjects.
  • Mention the Quasi Federal nature of Indian Government set up.
  • Suggest the way forward and the need for such tendencies.
  • Conclude by giving the positive impact of such interference.

Q.12 Judicial Legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of a large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities. (Answer in 250 words)

Test series Question

Q. Can the increasing number of PILs (Public Interest Litigation) be construed due to the lack of proper Grievance Redressal Mechanism for the citizens within the executive domain? Discuss (15 marks)

Q. How far do you agree that the recent judgements pronounced by the supreme court of India borders on Judicial overreach. Elaborate with Examples

Q. The judiciary can play an important role in carrying forward the mission of deepening democracy and protecting social freedoms in India. Do you agree? Critically Comment.

As the question asks to “justify” the “filling of public interest petitions” it becomes important to understand the spaces created for judicial intervention in addition to appreciating judicial responsiveness. 

Judicial legislation is considered antithetical, following the dictum of separation of power, present and supported by the Indian constitution, but the favourable impact of a sizable number of judicial decrees or guidelines to executive authorities in response to several public interest petitions need to be appreciated like Vishakha guidelines for the safety of women at workplace. 

The Supreme Court has aptly responded to its constitutional responsibility under article 142 in directing the public authorities to find solutions in important social issues devoid of functional legislation. 


  • Introduction: Briefly explain the separation of powers and the provisions of the Indian constitution related to it.
  • Need: why is the separation of power necessary? Also, cite examples from recent events that you think were in the domain of executive action but became a case of Judicial overreach.
  • Reason: Why do you think there has been a rise in the number of PILs and is it because the people are not satisfied with the inaction of the legislative on matters of public importance.
  • Conclusion:  in the interest of democratic governance, all the 3 organs of the state should discharge their obligations freely and independently, entrusted with intervention only where required in the larger interest of the citizens of India.

Q13. The strength sustenance of local institutions in India has shifted from their formative phase of ‘Functions, Functionaries and Funds’ to the contemporary stage of ‘Functionality’. Highlight the critical challenges faced by local institutions in terms of their functionality in recent times. (Answer in 250 words)

Test series Question

Q). “Panchayati raj institutions (PRIs) are simultaneously a remarkable success and a staggering failure”. Critically analyze. (10 marks)


  • Introduction: Explain how after their formation until recently, the local bodies were focused on the basic needs of an institution like funding, devolution of functions, and appointing of functionaries.
  • Functional problems faced: problems like political interference, the reluctance of state politicians to devolve many powers to the district level or below, structural deficiencies, lack of separate bureaucratic cadre etc.
  • The conclusion must mention the need for states to realise the importance of these bodies and the devolution of powers to build their capabilities.

Q14. Rajya Sabha has been transformed from a ‘useless Stepney tyre’ to the most useful supporting organ in the past few decades. Highlight the factors as well as the areas in which this transformation could be visible. (Answer in 250 words)

Test series Question

Q). How far do you agree with the view that Rajya Sabha is the safety valve of Indian Federalism? Given the above, critically examine the performance of Rajya Sabha since independence? (15 marks)

Q) How far do you agree with the view that Rajya Sabha has done nothing exceptional in the last 70 years except stalling work and therefore it should be abolished? (10 Marks)

 Earlier, what was seen as a weakness of Rajya Sabha i.e. its dilatory nature, has turned out to be its strength in recent times, especially in the current parliamentary format of numerically strong government at Centre and in Lok Sabha.

Credit must be given to the constitutional provisions supporting the cause of political, administrative and economic decentralisation with the help of constitutional institutions like finance commission, election commission and various other bodies.


  • The introduction must mention the importance of Rajya Sabha, its function and how in recent times, it has enhanced.
  • Factors responsible for the change: the rise of regional parties, requirement of informed opinion on issues, coalition governments etc.
  • Change visible: Citing examples from recent times, show how it has played a role in passing important legislation and opposing controversial ones. How it has played a role in ensuring government accountability etc.
  • Conclusion: focus on its role as a watchdog and that it must assert itself as a House of correction. Rajya sabha coming out of its image as a house of disruptions.

Q15. Which steps are required for constitutionalization of a commission? Do you think imparting constitutionality to the National Commission for Women would ensure greater gender justice and empowerment in India? Give reasons. (Answer in 250 words)

Test series

Q). Seeing the patriarchal nature of society the Indian Parliament came up with the legislation in the form of National Commission for Women to work for the betterment of the females. In such a context, critically analyse the effectiveness of NCW at present. Also, suggest measures to make it work effectively.

Constitutionalisation of several commissions has been mooted as a solution to better accountability vis-a-vis the term of references for their creation. 

But in hindsight, it must also be recognised that commissions like the national commission for women, national commission for scheduled caste and tribes have at times been called toothless or only have remained as advisory bodies. 

It must be appreciated, that the constitutional version of commissions increases the Parliamentary oversight in the realm of financial, administrative and policy-related initiatives.


  • Introduction: explain constitutionalization and give its benefits.
  • Other constitutional bodies: Compare the working of various constitutional bodies and talk about their ineffectiveness and how these bodies just play an advisory role and lack any implementation of its recommendations.
  • Benefits of constitutionality: list benefits of being a constitutional body, like their reports, are mandatorily discussed in parliament, they have powers of civil courts and they can directly interact with the media without any hindrances. 
  • Conclusion: Suggest measures to turn NCW into an effective body and role it plays in the empowerment of women and how it serves the need of the time.

Q16. “The incidence and intensity of poverty are more important in determining poverty based on income alone”. In this context analyze the latest United Nations Multidimensional Poverty Index Report. (Answer in 250 words)

 Test series Question

Q). Multidimensional Poverty Index is a measure to assess acute poverty in multiple dimensions. In this respect, state how poverty is leading to a loss in Human development and thus making the population a liability than an asset. (15 marks)

Here in this question, the limitation of income-based methods for identifying poverty and its impact needs the highlight. 

Proper conceptual clarity concerning the multidimensional poverty index is also significant in addition to the report highlights vis-a-vis India. 

Conclusively, the policy interventions done by the Government of India, in the form of direct benefit transfer (DBT) or the benefits of targeted BUPA, may be highlighted.


  • Introduce by explaining the statement in the current context.
  • Mention the limitations of measuring poverty based on income only.
  • The depth of poverty cannot be determined.
  • Even if the vertical measurement be done, the horizontal level of poverty requires further splitting        
  • Mention the missing points in the current measurement parameters.
  • Conclude by giving suggestions on improvement in parameters relevant to the Indian context. 

Q.17 “Micro-Finance as an anti-poverty vaccine, is aimed at asset creation and income security of the rural poor in India”. Evaluate the role of Self-Help Groups in achieving the twin objectives along with empowering women in rural India. (Answer in 250 words)

Test Questions

Q). In the context of SHGs in India, explain how it can provide benefits amidst the ongoing pandemic. Also, suggest measures to make them more effective and empowered. (10 marks)

This question is oft-repeated and has almost acquired the status of being cliched. 

The importance of microfinance-institutions and its effect as an anti-poverty vaccine, the importance of self-help groups and women at the centre of this entire empowerment cycle has become a textbook method or template for invigorating development at the grass-root levels in underdeveloped areas. 

In this context, the contributions of Mohammad Younis, from Bangladesh, creating the Gramin bank from scratch could also be highlighted.


  • Introduce by mentioning figures on how microfinance has helped asset creation and income security in rural areas.
  • You can include a few examples too to substantiate your point.
  • Then go on to the main body where the role of SHGs in achieving both the objectives along with women empowerment has to be evaluated.
  • While evaluating, mention both the positives and the negatives.
  • Talk about the concentration of SHGs in southern India.
  • Also, talk about how politicisation, caste system etc have derailed women empowerment.
  • Try to give examples all through the answer.
  • Conclude by talking about how the government is giving an increased focus on SHGs as an anti-poverty vehicle. Include schemes such as National Rural Livelihood Mission.


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Q18. National Education Policy 2020 conforms with the Sustainable Development Goal-4 (2030). It intends to restructure and reorient the education system in India. Critically examine the statement. (Answer in 250 words)

Test series Question

Q. “The New Education Policy is an old wine in a new glass”. Do you agree with this view? Examine. (15 marks)

This question mentions the areas in national education policy 2020 vis-a-vis Sustainable Development Goal-4. Also, one should be able to recall the conflict, when shortly after releasing the policy, the government clarified that no one will be forced to study any particular language and that the medium of instruction, would not be shifted from English to any regional language.

As the NEP 2020 was replacing NEP 1986, it was long overdue and several critical areas were now under consideration to be changed in the larger context of history, language and society.

Facts remain, Cabinet Secretary T. S. R. Subramanian started the consultation process for the New Education Policy. Based on the committee report, in June 2017, the draft NEP was submitted in 2019 by a panel led by former Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chief Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan.


  • Introduce by giving a context to the government bringing in NEP. The Kasturirangan committee recommendations and the subsequent urge to improve the education outcomes in the country as mentioned in SDG 4 can be pointed out.
  • Discuss the provisions mentioning how it intends to restructure and reorient the education system in India.
  • Then go on to the issues with NEP.
  • Talk how the issues still linger on right from the first education commission- the Kothari Commission.
  • Conclude by making suggestions on how an improved education scenario can be a gamechanger for India in different fields.

Q19. ‘Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD)’ is the transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times – Discuss. (Answer in 250 words)

Test series

Q. A revival and re-invigoration of the Quad are called for to maintain peace and tranquillity in the Indo-pacific region. Examine. (10)


Given the changing global order and shift of economic and technological dominance from west to east the relevance of quadrilateral security dialogue (QUAD) and its transformation into a trade bloc from a military alliance created as a hedge against belligerent China needs a mention.

This has been one of the most important highlights of the current government, especially after the Chinese involvement across Indian borders post the 2017 Doklam crisis and failed outcomes of Mallapuram visits. 

Concerning other partner countries of the QUAD, the negative sentiments generated by the Chinese COVID conspiracy, its interventionist approach and non-cooperative stance at the WHO, must be emphasised. 


  • Introduce by detailing what Quad is.
  • Then go to discuss how Quad is transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance.
  • Include elements such as the Blue Dot Network, post-COVID supply chains, Quad to Quad+ to fight the Chinese dominance in trade.
  • Also, include elements such as the increasing emphasis on securing the Sea Lanes of Communication for trade.
  • Inclusion of increasing trade deals among member countries can also be a point of discussion.
  • Conclude by mentioning, the positive implications of the trade-related transformation in addition to supporting the cause of a military alliance. 

Q20. What is the significance of Indo-US defence deals over Indo-Russian defence deals? Discuss with reference to stability in the Indo-Pacific region. (Answer in 250 words)

Test series question

Q). India is witnessing increased variety in her bilateral/multilateral defence partnerships. Despite this, Russia remains an important ally. Analyse. (15 marks)

Concerning both the defence deals it remains a constant understanding that India is a net importer of defence technologies and equipment. 

In the increasingly multipolar world with varied interest, India needs to align its strategies keeping its immediate challenges at the forefront.

Defence deals with Russia are significant because of its trusted age-old friendly relations continuing since Soviet era whereas, the defence deals with America come after studying a lot of caveats and mutual convergences. 

It remains to be seen in the long run how India positions itself concerning defence deals with both these two countries, though in the short-term a trend of increasing reliance on US technology and convergence with the US military interests can be underscored. 

Some highlights could also be made of the positives and negatives of Indo Russian military cooperation. 

Brahmos could be cited as a positive accomplishment whereas the step-back from fifth-generation fighter aircraft could be counted as one of the negatives. 


  • Introduce by giving the context of the deals that India is forging with both the countries.
  • Discuss how Indo-US deals are more beneficial than Indo-Russian deals in the context of Indo-Pacific.
  • You need to discuss why India needs to be more closely aligned with the US than Russia in the context of Indo-Pacific.
  • You can include elements like Quad, Belt and Road Initiative, the military bases of China, the Pakistan factor, the Russia-China-Pakistan alignment etc.
  • Conclude by making a mention of how India can take Indo-US relations forward.

Why Similar questions! Is it a fluke? 

At the risk of sounding boastful over the quality of our question papers, we want to highlight that there is no subjectivity involved in the process of question making. It’s a combination of research done by our content team over a distinctively wide horizon. 

We follow an evidence-based approach of question making where we closely analyse the UPSC’s line of thoughts, and how it seeks to balance, different themes every year thereby creating a pattern within the questions, which is reflective of the mindsets required for successful recommendation. 

Based on our study and analysis, we frame questions meeting twin expectations- one, of our aspirants and second, is our satisfaction. 

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Caretaker @civilsdaily

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💥Mentorship New Batch Launch
💥Mentorship New Batch Launch